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Funding Support - 2010

An important aspect of scientific publication is the indication of funding support. The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH®), which is used by the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) to describe the contents of journal articles for MEDLINE®, includes publication types to cover financial support of the research that resulted in the published paper when that support is mentioned in the article:

Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

These publication types are searchable in PubMed®. The table below gives the number of PubMed citations retrieved as of March 16, 2010. Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; and Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't have been used since 1975. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural and Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural have been used since June 2005. Research Support, American Recovery & Reinvestment Act has been used since 2010. It is important to remember that these publication types may be present on any citation regardless of its publication date as long as it was completely processed during or after 1975, 2005, and 2010 respectively.

Funding Support
(The PubMed search tags are: [dp] date of publication, [pt] publication type, and [gr] grant number.)
Search Total* 2009** [dp] 2008 [dp] 2007 [dp] 2006 [dp] 2005 [dp]
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S. [pt] OR nih[gr] 1,786,021 93,960 98,646 94,020 89,424 80,405
Number (and percent) of PHS Support in PubMed Central 319,822
Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act[pt] 8 4 0 0 0 0
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural[pt] 380,435 84,686 87,306 85,743 82,701 62,198
Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural[pt] 17,334 4,716 4,890 4,421 3,809 857
NIH Support (see strategy below) 1,502,392 91,707 96,101 91,655 87,406 76,370
Number (and percent) of NIH Support in PubMed Central 283,428
Percent of "Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.[pt] OR nih[gr]" coming entirely or in-part from NIH 84% 98% 97% 97% 98% 95%
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.[pt] 529,446 29,943 31,243 30,308 28,778 26,200
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't[pt] OR howard hughes[gr] OR united kingdom[gr] OR canada[gr] OR italy[gr] OR ireland[gr] OR austria[gr] 4,101,165 312,599 314,174 290,393 268,812 244,112

*Includes some citations having 2010 as date of publication.
**More recent dates of publication are not complete due to publication cycles and processing times.

In general, the counts in the above chart do not include citations to articles unless the research was also supported by a grant that was mentioned in the article or reported by other means to provide evidence of compliance with policies such as the NIH Public Access Policy.

In 1981, NLM began to carry the actual grant number for PHS grants, just as it appears in the original article, in the MEDLINE citation. No attempt is made to standardize the format of the grant numbers, except for the prefix portion where the correct format contains the number '0' (zero) and not the letter 'O', e.g.: R01 and not RO1. A computer algorithm scans the grant number to isolate the 2-letter grant code and then adds the agency/institute acronym to the citation. The data are only as dependable as the original source and some mislabeling of the supporting institution may occur as a result of the machine parsing, but the numbers are a good indication of the literature acknowledging research support that is being indexed for MEDLINE.

NIH Support is data obtained with the following strategy:

NIH[gr] OR Research Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act[pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural[pt] OR Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural[pt]

For comparison purposes, the overall citation counts in PubMed as of March 16, 2010 were:

Citation Status Total Citations
MEDLINE 17,949,107
PubMed-not-MEDLINE 384,785
In process 324,977
Publisher supplied 524,861
All PubMed 19,591,207

Interested in more details about searching PubMed for research support publication types and grant numbers?

See the following NLM Technical Bulletin Articles and NLM Web pages:

Canadian Institutes of Health Research: A New Granting Organization for MEDLINE®/PubMed®

Grant Numbers in 2009 PubMed® — Display and Search Changes

Additional Grant Number Information from the United Kingdom

New Research Support MeSH® Headings Introduced mid-Year to 2005 MeSH®

NIH Grant Numbers in PubMed® Citations

Wellcome Trust Grant Numbers Added to MEDLINE®/PubMed® Citations

MeSH® Category V Terms: Change in Treatment from MeSH Heading to Publication Type During Year-End-Processing for Both MEDLINE® and NLM Catalog

Grant Number Information Found in the GR Field in MEDLINE®/PubMed®

More Changes to Grant Number Information

Funding Support - 2009
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