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     ALTBIB - Alternatives to Animal Testing

ALTBIB Search Help

Introduction |  Entering a Search QuerySynonym Searching


The Scientific Community, concerned about animal welfare, is sensitive to concerns regarding how and why animals are used in biomedical research and testing to evaluate the toxicological potential of various substances. Although alternatives to methods based on the use of animals may not satisfy all requirements and needs of the biomedical research and toxicologic testing communities, alternatives to the use of vertebrates are being developed and evaluated. Research on such methodologies is aimed at refining procedures to reduce pain and discomfort; reduce the number of animals required to provide scientifically valuable results; and to replace live vertebrates when an alternative methodology can be verified and validated by the scientific community.

The purpose of these bibliographies on "animal alternatives" is to provide a survey of the literature in a format which facilitates easy scanning. This bibliography includes citations from published articles, books, book chapters, and technical reports. Citations to items in non-English languages are indicated with [ ] around the title. The language is also indicated. Citations with abstracts or annotations relating to the method are organized under subject categories. This publication features citations which deal with methods, tests, assays or procedures which may prove useful in establishing alternatives to the use of intact vertebrates. Citations are selected and compiled through searching various computerized on-line bibliographic databases of the National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health.

In the query box, enter one or more terms (e.g., FETAX) which describe your search topic. These may be any combination of words, chemical names, and numbers, including Chemical Abstracts Services (CAS) Registry Numbers (RN). Common "stop words" such as "a," "an," "for," "the," and "it," although you may enter them, will not be searched.

Examples of search terms:

  • acetone
  • vinyl chloride
  • 50-00-0
  • brain
  • dna adducts
  • skin tumors
  • biomarkers
  • aflatoxin b1

The term(s) entered will be searched for in all ALTBIB fields.

The search will be initiated when you click the Search button. To erase your search term(s) and start over with a blank query box, click on the Clear button.

The Search Screen
ALTBIB Search Screen

Synonym Searching

If your query consists of chemicals, ALTBIB will, by default expand your search by adding synonyms and CAS Registry Numbers. Thus, if you enter "perchloroethylene," the system will add the CAS RN 127-18-4 and synonyms such as "tetrachloroethylene" and "tetrachloroethene." You have the option to turn off this feature by putting double quotes around the chemical name. This will result in a search only for the exact word(s) you entered. In the example above, the system would then look only for the word "perchloroethylene."

Search terms entered in the query box will be matched against a translation table derived from the National Library of Medicine's MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) controlled vocabulary. This table includes MeSH terms, "see" cross references (i.e. entry terms), subheadings, and other equivalent or lexical variant terms identified in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). If your search term is found in the translation table, your search will be automatically augmented with terms associated with it. For example, if you enter "LLNA," ALTBIB will also search for the MeSH heading "Local Lymph Node Assay." You can view the full search strategy, including any mapped terms, by clicking on the "Details" button.

Last Reviewed: December 10, 2019