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     ALTBIB - Alternatives to Animal Testing

ALTBIB - Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing.

ALTBIB Fact Sheet

ALTBIB - Resources for Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing

The National Library of Medicine (NLM) ALTBIB portal provides access to PubMed®/MEDLINE® citations relevant to alternatives to the use of live vertebrates in biomedical research and testing. Many citations provide access to free full text.

Topic area searches include:

General Topics on Alternatives to Animal Testing

Biologics and Vaccines





Hepatic/Renal Toxicity



Ocular Toxicity

Pharmacokinetic/Mechanistic Studies


Pulmonary Toxicity

Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR)

Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

Skin Toxicity

Welfare (Animal)

Topics and subtopics are aligned with current approaches. For example, information is provided on in silico, in vitro, and improved (refined) animal testing methods and on the testing strategies incorporating these methods and other approaches.

ALTBIB provides access to animal alternatives news sources, such as the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). The portal has an extensive collection of links to key organizations providing information on alternatives to animal testing. ALTBIB also offers access to ICCVAM’s “International Acceptance of Alternative Methods, 1998-2012” and “U.S. and International Milestones in Alternative Test Method Development and Evaluations.”

In addition to the topic area PubMed searches, the ALTBIB portal includes a searchable bibliographic collection on alternatives to animal testing. This collection provides citations from published articles, books, book chapters, and technical reports published from 1980 to 2000. The bibliography features citations concerning methods, tests, assays, and procedures that may prove useful in establishing alternatives to the use of intact vertebrates. The ALTBIB bibliographic collection has not been updated since 2001, when the preformulated searches of PubMed were substituted for collecting a formal bibliography.

Animal Alternatives News

News from...

  • ICCVAM/NIEHS: Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods
  • Altweb News: Johns Hopkins University
  • US EPA: Computational Exposure Science publication

Additional Resources

Evaluation/Acceptance of Test Methods

Last Reviewed: June 15, 2020