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Notes

1. See, for example, Vivian Nutton, "Humoralism," in W.F. Bynum and Roy Porter, eds., Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, Vol. I (London: Routledge, 1993), pp. 281-291 and Lawrence I. Conrad, et. al., The Western Medical Tradition (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995).

2. W.H.S. Jones, E.T. Withington and Paul Potter, eds. & trans., Hippocrates, Works, 6 vols. (London: Loeb Classical Library/Heinemann, 1923-88), Vol. II, p 177.

3. Hippocrates, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 283.

4. Hippocrates, op. cit., Vol. II, p. 167.

5. See, for example, Heinrich von Staden, Herophilus: The Art of Medicine in Early Alexandria (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).

6. Stanley Jackson, "Galen--On Mental Disorders," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 5 (1969): 366.

7. L.J. Rather, "The 'Six Things Non-Natural,'" Clio Medica, 3 (1968): 337-347; Saul Jarcho, "Galen's Six Non-Naturals," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 44 (1970): 372-377.

8. Ariel Bar-Sela, Hebbel E. Hoff and Elias Farus, "Moses Maimonides' Two Treatises on the Regimen of Health," Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, ns, 54 (1964), Part 4: 25.

9. Robert Burton, The Anatomy of Melancholy (1621), ed. A.R. Shilleto (London: George Bell and Sons, 1893), vol. I, p. 288.

10. L.J. Rather, "Thomas Fienus' (1567-1631) Dialectical Investigation of the Imagination as Cause and Cure of Bodily Disease," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 41 (1967): 356.

11. Erwin H. Ackerknecht, "The History of Psychosomatic Medicine," Psychological Medicine, 12 (1982): 17-24.

12. Russell C. Maulitz, Morbid Appearances: The Anatomy of Pathology in the Early Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987).

13. Joel Stanley Reiser, Medicine and the Reign of Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978).

14. Leland J. Rather, Mind and Body in Eighteenth Century Medicine (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1965).

15. William Cullen, First Lines of the Practice of Physic (Edinburgh: C. Elliot & T. Cadell, 1784), Vol. 4, p. 149.

16. Sander L. Gilman et. al., Hysteria Beyond Freud (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993) and Mark S. Micale, Approaching Hysteria (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).

17. Francois M. Mai and Harold Merskey, "Briquet's Treatise on Hysteria," Archives of General Psychiatry, 37 (1980): 1401-1405; Mai and Merskey, "Briquet's Concept of Hysteria: An Historical Perspective," Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 26 (1981): 57-63.

18. Christopher G. Goetz, Michel Bonduelle, Toby Gelfand, Charcot: Constructing Neurology (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995).

19. Quoted ibid., p. 197.

20. Kenneth Levin, Freud's Early Psychology of the Neuroses (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1978), p. 46.

21. Martin Stone, "Shellshock and the Psychologists," in W.F. Bynum, Roy Porter and Michael Shepherd, eds., The Anatomy of Madness (London: Tavistock, 1985), Vol. II, pp. 242-271 and Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness and English Culture, 1830-1980 (New York: Penguin Books, 1985), pp. 167-194.

22. Harold I. Kaplan and Helen S. Kaplan, "An Historical Survey of Psychosomatic Medicine," Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 124 (1956): 546-568 and John C. Burnham, Jelliffe: American Psychoanalyst and Physician (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983).

23. Martin Grotjahn, "Georg Groddeck and His Teaching About Man's Innate Need for Symbolization," Psychoanalytic Review, 32 (1945): 9-24.

24. Theodore M. Brown, "Alan Gregg and the Rockefeller Foundation's Support of Franz Alexander's Psychosomatic Research," Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 61 (1987): 155-182.

25. Benjamin V. White, Stanley Cobb: A Builder of the Modern Neurosciences (Boston: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, 1984), pp. 212, 245-246.

26. Gerald N. Grob, From Asylum to Community: Mental Health Policy in Modern America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991), p. 17 and Nathan G. Hale, The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 187-202, 282.

27. Gail Thain Parker, Mind Cure in New England (Hanover NH: University Press of New England, 1973) and Robert C. Fuller, Alternative Medicine and American Religious Life (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989).

28. William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (New York: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1902), p. 94.

29. Ibid., p. 122.

30. Quoted in Rennie B. Schoepflin, Lives on Trial: Christian Science Healers in the Progressive Era (University of Wisconsin Doctoral Dissertation: Madison, 1995), p. 210.

31. Donald Meyer, The Positive Thinkers (New York: Pantheon Books, 1980), p. 168.

32. Ernest Kurtz, Not-God: A History of Alcoholics Anonymous (Center City, MN: Hazelden, 1979).

33. Meyer, op. cit., pp. 177-194, 259-289.

34. See, for example, Norman Cousins, Anatomy of an Illness (New York: W.W. Norton, 1979) and Head First: The Biology of Hope (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1989).

35. James Harvey Young, The Toadstool Millionaires: A Social History of Patent Medicines in America Before Federal Regulation (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961) and The Medical Messiahs: A Social History of Health Quackery in Twentieth-Century America (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1967).

36. Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York: Basic Books, 1982), pp. 127-134.

37. Daniel Hack Tuke, Illustrations of the Influence of the Mind Upon the Body in Health and Disease, Second American Edition (Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea's Son & Co., 1884), p. 439.

38. O.H. Perry Pepper, "A Note on the Placebo," American Journal of Pharmacy, 117 (1945): 409-412 and Arthur K. Shapiro, AThe Placebo Effect in the History of Medical Treatment, American Journal of Psychiatry, 116 (1959): 298-304.

39. Lewellys F. Barker, "Psychotherapeutics," Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 23 (1908): 478.

40. C. Macfie Campbell, "Psychiatry and the Practice of Medicine," Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, 190 (1924): 1058.

41. W.R. Houston, "The Doctor Himself as a Therapeutic Agent," Annals of Internal Medicine, 11 (1938): 1418.

42. See, for example, Thomas Findley, "The Placebo and the Physician," Medical Clinics of North America, 37 (1953): 1821-1826 and Louis Lasagna, et. al., "A Study of the Placebo Response," American Journal of Medicine, 16 (1954): 770-779.

43. Louis Lasagna, "Placebos," Scientific American, 193 (August, 1955): 68-71.

44. Henry Byerly, "Explaining and Exploiting Placebo Effects," Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 19 (1976): 423-436.

45. Priscilla Grevert and Avram Goldstein, "Placebo Analgesia, Naloxone, and the Role of Endogenous Opioids," in Leonard White, Bernard Tursky, and Gary E. Schwartz, eds., Placebo: Theory, Research, and Mechanisms (New York: Guilford Press, 1985), pp. 332-350.

46. Chase P. Kimball, "Conceptual Developments in Psychosomatic Medicine: 1939-1969," Annals of Internal Medicine, 73 (1970): 307-316; Z.J. Lipowski, "Psychosomatic Medicine in a Changing Society: Some Current Trends in Theory and Research," Comprehensive Psychiatry, 14 (1973): 203-215; Z.J. Lipowski, "Psychosomatic Medicine in the Seventies: An Overview," American Journal of Psychiatry, 134 (1977): 233-244.

47. Nathan G. Hale, The Rise and Crisis of Psychoanalysis in the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 322.

48. . Ibid., pp. 312; 323-324; 326-327; 449, n. 43; 451-453, n. 3-8; 13-16. See also Robert Aronowitz and Howard M. Spiro, "The Rise and Fall of the Psychosomatic Hypothesis in Ulcerative Colitis," Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology, 10 (1988): 298-305.

49. Eliot Slater, "Diagnosis of 'Hysteria,'" British Medical Journal, 1 (1965): 1399.

50. Bela Mittelmann and Harold G. Wolff, "Emotions and Gastroduodenal Function," Psychosomatic Medicine, 4 (1942): 5B61 and Harold G. Wolff, "Protective Reaction Patterns and Disease," Annals of Internal Medicine, 27 (1947): 944-969.

51. Harold G. Wolff, Stress and Disease (Springfield IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1953).

52. Montreal: Acta, Inc., Medical Publishers, 1950. See also Hans Selye, "The Evolution of the Stress Concept," American Scientist, 61 (1973): 692-699.

53. Quoted in John W. Mason, "A Historical View of the Stress Field," Part I, Journal of Human Stress, 1 (March, 1975): 10.

54. S. Szabo, "The Creative and Productive Life of Hans Selye: A Review of His Major Scientific Discoveries," Experientia, 41 (1985): 564B567 and Y. Tache, "A Tribute to the Pioneering Contributions of Hans Selye: An Appraisal Through His Books," Experientia, 41 (1985): 567-568.

55. John W. Mason, "A Historical View of the Stress Field," Part II, Journal of Human Stress 1 (June, 1975): 22-36.

56. Arthur H. Schmale, "Relationship of Separation and Depression to Disease," Psychosomatic Medicine, ns., 20 (1958): 259-277; George L. Engel, "A Life Setting Conducive to Illness," Annals of Internal Medicine, 69 (1968): 293-300; George L. Engel and Arthur H. Schmale, "Conservation-Withdrawal: A Primary Regulatory Process for Organismic Homeostasis," in Physiology, Emotion & Psychosomatic Illness, Ciba Foundation Symposium 8, ns (Amsterdam: Elsevier-Excerpta Medica, 1972), pp. 57-85.

57. William A. Greene, Jr., "Psychological Factors and Reticuloendothelial Disease," Psychosomatic Medicine, 16 (1954): 220-230 and George L. Engel, "Biologic and Psychologic Features of the Ulcerative Colitis Patient," Gastroenterology, 40 (1961): 313-317.

58. George L. Engel, Franz Reichsman, and Harry L. Segal, "A Study of an Infant With a Gastric Fistula," Psychosomatic Medicine, 18 (1956): 374-398 and George L. Engel and Franz Reichsman, "Spontaneous and Experimentally Induced Depressions in an Infant With a Gastric Fistula," Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 4 (1956): 428-452.

59. A.H. Schmale, "Giving Up as a Final Common Pathway to Changes in Health," in Z. J. Lipowski, ed., Psychosocial Aspects of Physical Illness (Basel: Karger, 1972), pp. 20-40.

60. George L. Engel, "The Need for a New Medical Model: A Challenge for Biomedicine," Science, 196 (1977): 129-135 and George L. Engel, "The Clinical Application of the Biopsychosocial Model," American Journal of Psychiatry, 137 (1980): 535-543.

61. Z.J. Lipowski, "Psychosomatic Medicine: An Overview," Modern Trends in Psychosomatic Medicine, 3 (1976): 1-20.

62. Cobb and Rose, JAMA, 224 (1973): 489-492; Barbara Snell Dohrenwend and Bruce P. Dohrenwend, eds., Stressful Life Events: Their Nature and Effects (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1974); John Cassel, "The Contribution of the Social Environment to Host Resistance," American Journal of Epidemiology, 104 (1976): 107-123; C. David Jenkins, "Recent Evidence Supporting Psychologic and Social Risk Factors for Coronary Disease," New England Journal of Medicine, 294 (1976): 1033-1038.

63. Evelyn L. Goldberg and George W. Comstock, "Life Events and Subsequent Illness," American Journal of Epidemiology, 104 (1976): 146-158; Sidney Cobb, "Social Support as a Moderator of Life Stress," Psychosomatic Medicine, 38 (1976): 300-314; Judith G. Rabkin and Elmer L. Struening, "Life Events, Stress, and Illness," Science, 194 (1976): 1013-1020.

64. Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman, Type A Behavior and Your Heart (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974), Chapts. 16 & 17.

65. Herbert Benson, The Relaxation Response (New York: Morrow, 1975).

66. See, for example, Lee Birk, ed., Biofeedback: Behavioral Medicine (New York: Grune and Stratton, 1973).

67. Francis O. Schmitt, "The Neurosciences Research Program: A Brief History," in Fred Samson and George Adelman, eds., The Neurosciences: Paths of Discovery II (Boston: Birkhauser, 1992), p. 15, points out that the Society for Neuroscience, which was founded in 1970 with an initial membership of 200, had grown to 13,500 members by 1989.

68. George Adelman, ed., Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Boston: Birkhauser, 1987), pp. 798-799 and 1001-1004.

69. James W. Papez, "A Proposed Mechanism of Emotion," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 38 (1937): 725-743, esp. 743.

70. Paul D. MacLean, "Psychosomatic Disease and the 'Visceral Brain,'" Psychosomatic Medicine, 11 (1949): 338-353, esp. 351.

71. Paul D. MacLean and Jose M.R. Delgado, "Electrical and Chemical Stimulation of Frontotemporal Portion of Limbic System in the Waking Animal," Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology,
5 (1953): 91-100 and Paul D. MacLean, "Chemical and Electrical Stimulation of Hippocampus in Unrestrained Animals," Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 78 (1957): 113-142.

72. Antonio R. Damasio and G.W. Van Hoesen, "Emotional Disturbances Associated with Focal Lesions of the Limbic Frontal Lobe," in Kenneth Heilman and Paul Satz, eds., Neuropsychology of Human Emotion (New York: Guilford Press, 1983), pp. 85-110.

73. Norman Geschwind, "Specializations of the Human Brain," Scientific American, 241 (September, 1979): 192.

74. R.W. Doty, in Guido Gainotti and Carlo Caltargirone, eds., Emotions and the Dual Brain (Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989), pp. 56-82.

75. Joseph E. LeDoux, "Emotion, Memory and the Brain," Scientific American, 270 (June, 1994): 50-57.

76. See, for example, John C. Mazziotta and Michael E. Phelps, "Metabolic Evidence of Lateralized Cerebral Function Demonstrated by Positron Emission Tomography in Patients With Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Normal Individuals," in D. Frank Benson and Eran Zaidel, eds., The Dual Brain (New York: Guilford Press, 1985), pp. 181B192 and Frank B. Wood et. al., ACerebral Laterality in Functional Neuroimaging,@ in Frederick L. Kitterle, ed., Cerebral Laterality: Theory and Research (Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991), pp. 103-115.

77. Nancy C. Andreasen, ed., Brain Imaging: Applications in Psychiatry (Washington: American Psychiatric Press, 1989).

78. Jeffrey R. Binder and Stephen M. Rao, "Human Brain Mapping with Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging," in Andrew Kertesz, ed., Localization and Neuroimaging in Neuropsychology (San Diego: Academic Press, 1994), pp. 185B212 and John A. Sanders and William W. Orrison, "Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging," in William W. Orrison, et. al., Functional Brain Imaging (St. Louis: Mosby, 1995), pp. 239-326.

79. Marcus E. Raichle, "Visualizing the Mind," Scientific American, 270 (April, 1994): 58-64.

80. For a lively account of neurochemistry in the 1970s, see Charles F. Levinthal, Messengers of Paradise: Opiates and the Brain (New York: Anchor/Doubleday, 1988), esp. pp. 70-109.

81. Solomon H. Snyder, "Drugs, Neurotransmitters, and the Brain," in Pietro Corsi, ed., The Enchanted Loom: Chapters in the History of Neuroscience (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), p. 299.

82. Solomon H. Snyder, "Opiate Receptors and Internal Opiates," Scientific American, 236 (March, 1977): 44-56; cf. Leslie L. Iversen, "The Chemistry of the Brain," Scientific American, 241 (September, 1979): 146-148.

83. For a brief historical overview, see Ruth Lloyd, Explorations in Psychoneuroimmunology (Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton, 1987), Chapt. 1. For a collection of the critical papers that helped shape the discipline, see Steven Locke et. al., eds., Foundations of Psychoneuroimmunology (New York: Aldine, 1985). The seminal book that contained major review articles by the leading figures and that most dramatically launched the field was Robert Ader, ed., Psychoneuroimmunology (New York: Academic Press, 1981).

84. Robert Ader, Nicholas Cohen, David L. Felten, "Editorial: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity," Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 1 (1987): 5.

85. Bryan M. Gebhardt and J. Edwin Blalock, "Neuroendocrine Regulation of Immunity," in Ivan M. Roitt and Peter J. Delves, eds., Encyclopedia of Immunology (London: Academic Press, 1992), pp. 1145-1149.

86. Bill Moyers, Healing and the Mind (New York: Doubleday, 1993) pp. 213-237.

87. Edited by Istvan Berczi and Judith Szelenyi, Hans Selye Symposia on Neuroendoerinology and Stress (New York: Plenum Press, 1994).

88. Ibid., p. vii.

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