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Education: Other Resources



  • American Medical Association. Employment & Use of Physician’s Assistants: A Guide for Physicians. Monroe, WI: Deptartment of Health Manpower, Division of Educational Policy and Development, American Medical Association, 1978.
  • Association of Physician Assistant Programs. Physician Assistants for the Future: An In-Depth Study of PA Education and Practice in the Year 2000. Alexandria, VA: The Association of Physician Assistant Programs, 1989.
  • Brock, Douglas, Timothy Evans, Drew Garcia, Vanessa Bester, and F.J. Gianola. “Veterans as Physician Assistants.” Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 28, no. 11 (November 2015): 45–51.
  • Cafferty, Patrick J. and Linford J. Stillson, eds. Appleton & Lange’s Review for the Physician Assistant. Norwalk, CT: Appleteon & Lange, 1991.
  • Carter, Reginald D., and Henry B. Perry, eds. Alternatives in Health Care Delivery: Emerging Roles of Physician Assistants. St. Louis, MO: Warren H. Green, Inc., 1984.
  • Cockerham, William C., and Brian P. Hinote. “PAs in a Changing Society: A Sociologic Perspective.” Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 28, no. 8 (August 2015): 18–20.
  • Colver, Judith E., J. Dennis Blessing, and Jason Hinojos. “Military Physician Assistants: Their Background And Education.” The Journal of Physician Assistant Education 18, no.3 (2007): 40–45.
  • Davis, Ann et al. “Access and Innovation in a Time of Rapid Change: Physician Assistant Scope of Practice.” Annals of Health Law 24, no. 1 (Winter 2015): 286–336.
  • Dies, Natalie et al. “Physician Assistants Reduce Resident Workload and Improve Care in an Academic Surgical Setting.” Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 29, no. 2 (February 2016): 41–46.
  • Dunker, A., E. Krofah, and F. Isasi. The Role of Physician Assistants in Health Care Delivery. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices, September 22, 2014.
  • Greenwood, Judith Goodwin, Role of Physician Assistants in Primary [Care]. Westport, CT: Technomic Pub. Co., 1981.
  • Hooker, Rederick S. and James F. Cawley. Physician Assistants in American Medicine. St. Louis, MO: Churchill Livingstone, 2003.
  • Kossoy, Edward and Abraham Ohry. The Feldshers: Medical, Sociological, and Historical Aspects of Practitioners of Medicine with below University Level Education. Jerusalem, Isreal: Magnes Press, 1992.
  • Larson, Eric H et al. “Dimensions of Retention: A National Study of the Locational Histories of Physician Assistants.” Journal of Rural Health 15, no. 4 (1999): 391–402.
  • Marzucco, Joseph, Roderick S. Hooker, and Ruth M. Ballweg. “A History of the Alaska Physician Assistant, 1970–1980.” Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants 26, no. 12 (December 2013): 45–51.
  • National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants, Inc. (July 2021) Statistical Profile of Recently Certified Physician Assistants: An Annual Report of the National Commission on the Certification of Physician Assistants. Accessed on February 8, 2022.
  • Pomeranz, Harry, Jennifer R. Bailey, and Carolyn Bradley-Guidry. “Primary Care and Diversity in the Physician Assistant Profession.” The Journal of Physician Assistant Education 25, no. 4 (2014): 47–51.
  • Piemme, Thomas E. et al. The Physician Assistant: An Illustrated History. Gilbert, AZ: Acacia Publishing Inc, 2013.
  • Sacks, Terry J. Opportunities in Physician Assistant Careers. Lincolnwood, IL: VGM Career Horizons, 1995.
  • Sadler, Alfred M. Jr., Blair Sadler, and Ann A. Bliss. The Physician’s Assistant: Today and Tomorrow. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing Co., 1975. Available online at
  • Schafft, Gretchen Engle and James F. Cawley. The Physician Assistant in a Changing Health Care Environment. Rockville, MD: Aspen Publishers, 1987.
  • Stange, Kevin M. “How does provider supply and regulation influence health care market?: Evidence from Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants.” Journal of Health Economics 33, no. 1 (2014): 1–27.
  • Wiler, Jennifer L., and Adit A. Ginde. “State Laws Governing Physician Assistant Practice in the United States and the Impact on Emergency Medicine.” The Journal of Emergency Medicine 48, no. 2 (February 2015): 49–58.


American Academy of Physician Assistants

  • American Academy of Physician Assistants is the national professional society for physician assistants, founded in 1968. The Academy’s website provides educational and career resources in addition to news, research, and events of interest to physician assistants.
  • What is a PA? answers the question by providing a brief definition of a physician assistant in text, and in English and Spanish videos. There are several other questions that lead to information about physician assistants’ education, certification, and roles as health care providers.
  • Become a PA presents the process of becoming a physician assistant in a five-step outline. This page also features a video in which several physician assistants describe why they love their profession.
  • Student Academy (SAAAPA), the segment of the AAPA for PAs in training, offers paraprofessional opportunities and resources for students in physician assistants programs. Members can connect with other students with similar professional interests in SAAAPA’s various societies, or take on a leadership role within SAAAPA’s Board of Directors and governing bodies.
  • Physician Assistant Foundation is the philanthropic arm of the American Academy of Physician Assistants. The Foundation operates grant and scholarship programs that help physician assistant practitioners and students make an impact both locally and worldwide.

Accreditation Review Commission on Education for the Physician Assistant

The Association of Postgraduate Physician Assistant Programs

  • The Association of Postgraduate Physician Assistant Programs is an organization formed by and for postgraduate physician assistant programs. The website offers a list of postgraduate programs and program details, such as contact information, an overview, an outline of admissions process, and more.

National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants

  • National Commission on Certification of Physician Assistants is a not-for-profit organization that provide certification of physician assistants in the United States. The website offers information and resources about obtaining and maintain PA certification and specialty certificates. In addition, the “For the Public” area provides an overview of how a certified physician assistant in provides health care to patients.
  • Certified PAs Do That! features an interactive vignette in which several certified PAs summarize what they do in addition to treating general medical issues. The vignette includes the PA’s education and certifications.

Physician Assistant Education Association

Physician Assistant History Society

  • Physician Assistant History Society is dedicated to identifying and collecting appropriate materials for the preservation of the history and legacy of the physician assistant profession. The Society works to bring to life the profession’s history and illustrate how physician assistants continue to make a difference.
  • Collections and Exhibits highlights selected items from the Physician Assistant History Society’s two primary collections, located in Georgia and North Carolina. Also, there are several “online exhibits” that are drawn from the Society’s collection of archive, library, and museum holdings, including posters, physical exhibits, and meeting presentations.
  • Biographies offers over 120 profiles of physician assistants and individuals who have contributed to the establishment, growth, and development of the physician assistant profession. Each biography outlines unique, pioneering, or exemplary work as a journey into the profession.
  • Oral Histories provides a link to the Society’s oral history collection of audio and video interviews in the online collections database. In addition, there are links to several selected audio and video clips, offering a summary description and transcripts of each clip.
  • Research Library & References features a searchable online catalog of the print holdings at the Physician Assistant History Society’s Research Library. The web page also includes a selective bibliography and references as additional resources for readers.

Occupational Outlook Handbook, Bureau of Labor Statistics

  • Physician Assistants outlines the employment outlook for the physician assistant profession, one of many occupations included in the US Bureau of Labor Statistics Occupational Outlook Handbook. This “Physician Assistants” site provides information about the earning potential of physician assistants, what they do, what kind of work environment they experience, and what the projected job outlook is.

Data Briefs, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

PubMed Central, National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine

Last Updated: 14 December 2023