ExhibitionBoundary Crossing / 1931
1. Perfusion pump assembly, 1938
Perfusion pump assembly from The Culture of Organs, 1938
Authors: Alexis Carrel (1873–1944) and Charles A. Lindbergh (1902–1974)
Photographers: Louis Schmidt (ca. 1866–1939) and Joseph B. Haulenbeek
Courtesy National Library of Medicine
By 1935, using a perfusion pump, Alexis Carrel and Charles Lindbergh had sustained a variety of animal organs—hearts, kidneys, ovaries, spleens—in the germ-free Pyrex glass pump, but they did not use human tissues.