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Guide to Collections Relating to the History of Artificial Internal Organs


Canada Science and Technology Museum


1867 St. Laurent Blvd., PO Box 9724, Station T


(613) 990-2804

Fax Number

(613) 990-3636


Contact Person

Randall Brooks, PhD, Curator, Physical Sciences and Space


Access and Services

By special appointment only; Monday to Friday, 8:30-12 p.m. and 1-4 p.m. (closed weekends and holidays).


In accordance with the mandate to study the "Transformation of Canada," the collection of the Canada Science and Technology Museum encompasses a broad cross-section of Canadian scientific and technological heritage. National in scope, this unique collection consists of artifacts, photographs, technical drawings, trade literature, and rare books, all of which are complemented and supported by library holdings of monographs and serials. To develop the collection through research and acquisition, the Museum has concentrated curatorial expertise in the areas of communications, industrial technology, natural resources, transportation, renewable resources, and scientific instrumentation. The collection is accessioned, stored and preserved by dedicated teams of collection management and conservation professionals. To foster and disseminate knowledge concerning the collection beyond the exhibit floor, the Museum conducts research and produces a variety of publications concerning the collection and its scientific, technological, political, and socio-economic significance to Canada.



Physical Sciences and Space Collection, 17th century to present day

Collection ID


Approximately 4,000 artifacts, including supporting documentation such as manuals, trade literature and photos.

Biographical Note

The "national collection" is the natural depository for scientific apparatus developed by many government departments and we actively seek out such equipment. Located in the geographic area with the second-highest number of scientific and technical personnel in Canada and the center of government research, this job is made somewhat easier. Many artifacts in the collection originated from Canadian government departments especially in: Astronomy - Dominion Observatory and National Research Council; Exploration and Surveying - Natural Resources Canada; Meteorology - Meteorological Service of Canada; Physics and Chemistry - National Research Council; Space - Canadian Space Agency; Metrology - National Research Council and Measurement Canada.

Collection Description

The CSTM collection includes significant artifacts mostly acquired from the National Research Council of Canada. Beginning circa 1950, research was conducted on heart stimulation, defibrillation and pacemakers by Dr. Jack Hopps of the Instruments Section of the Division of Radio and Electrical Engineering. This work was done in collaboration with Dr. J.C. Callaghan and Dr. Wilfred Bigelow of the Toronto General Hospital. This was followed by work through the 1960s on implantable pacemakers using solid-state devices and small implantable batteries. The preserved pacemakers were used in trials employing dogs. Collection items relating to the history of artificial organs include:

  • Iron lung, Drinker-Collins;
  • Artificial kidney machine, Sweden Freezer, ca 1960;
  • Heart stimulator, electrical, NRC, 1950-52;
  • Cardiac pacemaker parts, NRC, 1965-70;
  • Cardiac and electrode pacemaker, non-implantable, square, NRC, 1965-70;
  • Cardiac pacemaker, non-implantable, round, NRC, 1965-70;
  • Cardiac pacemaker, implantable, round, NRC, 1965-70;
  • Cardiac pacemaker, implantable, oblong, NRC, 1965-70;
  • Heart stimulator & defibrillator, open chest, NRC, 1950-55;
  • Prosthesis, lower leg, Unk, ca. 1926;
  • Prosthesis, lower leg, Bock, Otto Orthopedic Industry, 1970s;
  • Pneumothorax apparatus, Dr. Norman Bethune, Pilling, George P. & Son Co., before 1939;
  • Pneumothorax apparatus, Dr. J.J. Singer's/B, Phillips-Drucker Co., after 1923;
  • Pneumothorax apparatus, Sklar, J.Mfg. Co.

Finding Aid

Inventory list available from curator.



Related Material

Photos of objects available