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Clove


What is it?

Clove is an herb. People use the oils, dried flower buds, leaves, and stems to make medicine.

Clove is used for upset stomach and as an expectorant. Expectorants make it easier to cough up phlegm. Clove oil is used for diarrhea, hernia, and bad breath. Clove and clove oil are used for intestinal gas, nausea, and vomiting.

Clove is applied directly to the gums (used topically) for toothache, for pain control during dental work, and for a complication of tooth extraction called “dry socket.” It is also applied to the skin as a counterirritant for pain and for mouth and throat inflammation. In combination with other ingredients, clove is also applied to the skin as part of a multi-ingredient product used to keep men from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation).

In foods and beverages, clove is used as a flavoring.

In manufacturing, clove is used in toothpaste, soaps, cosmetics, perfumes, and cigarettes. Clove cigarettes, also called kreteks, generally contain 60% to 80% tobacco and 20% to 40% ground clove. Eugenol, one of the chemicals in clove, acts like menthol to reduce the harshness of tobacco smoke.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for CLOVE are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Premature ejaculation when applied directly to the skin of the penis in combination with other medicines. The cream that was studied (SS Cream) contained clove flower plus Panax ginseng root, Angelica root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, Asiasari root, Cinnamon bark, and Toad venom.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Toothache. Clove oil and eugenol, one of the chemicals it contains, have long been used topically for toothache, but the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has reclassified eugenol, downgrading its effectiveness rating. The FDA now believes there isn’t enough evidence to rate eugenol as effective for toothache pain.
  • “Dry socket” following tooth extraction.
  • Vomiting.
  • Upset stomach.
  • Nausea.
  • Gas (flatulence).
  • Diarrhea.
  • Hernia.
  • Pain and swelling (inflammation) of the mouth and throat.
  • Cough.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of clove for these uses.

How does it work?

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Clove oil contains a chemical that may decrease pain.

Are there safety concerns?

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Clove seems safe for most people when taken in food amounts, but not enough is known about the safety of taking clove by mouth in larger medicinal amounts. Children should not take clove oil by mouth. It can cause serious health problems.

Clove oil seems to be safe when applied to the skin. However, frequent and repeated application of clove oil in the mouth or on the gums can sometimes cause damage to the gums, tooth pulp, skin, and mucous membranes.

Inhaling smoke from clove cigarettes is unsafe and can cause side effects such as breathing problems and lung infections.

Dried clove can also cause mouth sensitivity and irritation, as well as damage to dental tissues.

Clove oil is unsafe to inject into the veins. It can cause severe breathing problems and lung damage.

Special precautions & warnings:

Children: In children, clove oil is UNSAFE to take by mouth. It can cause severe side effects such as seizures, liver damage, and fluid imbalances.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Clove seems to be safe when taken by mouth in food amounts. But pregnant or breast-feeding women should not take clove in medicinal doses. Not enough is known about the safety of using these larger amounts.

Bleeding disorders: Clove oil contains a chemical called eugenol that seems to slow blood clotting. There is a concern that taking clove oil might cause bleeding in people with bleeding disorders.

Surgery: Clove seems to be able to slow blood clotting, so there is a concern that it might cause bleeding during or after surgery. Stop using clove at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

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Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Clove might slow blood clotting. Taking clove oil along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Clove contains eugenol. Eugenol is the part of clove that might slow blood clotting. Eugenol is very fragrant and gives allspice and clove their distinctive smell.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

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Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Clove might slow blood clotting. Using it along with other herbs or supplements that also slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bruising and bleeding. Some of these herbs include angelica, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, red clover, turmeric, willow, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

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There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

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The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
  • In men, to keep from reaching orgasm too early (premature ejaculation): A multi-ingredient cream preparation containing clove flower plus Panax ginseng root, Angelica root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, Asiasari root, Cinnamon bark, and Toad venom (SS Cream) applied to the glans penis one hour before intercourse and washed off immediately before intercourse.

Other names

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Bourgeon Floral de Clou de Girofle, Bouton Floral de Clou de Girofle, Caryophylli Flos, Caryophyllum, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Clavo de Olor, Clous de Girolfe, Clove Flower, Clove Flowerbud, Clove Leaf, Clove Oil, Clove Stem, Cloves, Cloves Bud, Ding Xiang, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, Feuille de Clou de Girofle, Fleur de Clou de Girofle, Flores Caryophylli, Flores Caryophyllum, Gewurznelken Nagelein, Girofle, Giroflier, Huile de Clou de Girofle, Kreteks, Lavang, Lavanga, Oil of Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, Tige de Clou de Girofle.

Methodology

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To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

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To see all references for the Clove page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/251.html.

  1. Kirsch CM, Yenokida GG, Jensen WA, et al. Non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema due to the intravenous administration of clove oil. Thorax 1990;45:235-6.
  2. Prasad RC, Herzog B, Boone B, et al. An extract of Syzygium aromaticum represses genes encoding hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;96:295-301.
  3. Malson JL, Lee EM, Murty R, et al. Clove cigarette smoking: biochemical, physiological, and subjective effects. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2003;74:739-45.
  4. Chen SJ, Wang MH, Chen IJ. Antiplatelet and calcium inhibitory properties of eugenol and sodium eugenol acetate. Gen Pharmacol 1996;27:629-33.
  5. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62.
  6. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
  7. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:3.0.1.1.13&idno=21
  8. Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61.
  9. Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LK. Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod 1992;55:999-1003.
  10. Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler's Herbs of Choice: The Therapeutic Use of Phytomedicinals. New York, NY: The Haworth Herbal Press, 1999.
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  3. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
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Last reviewed - 02/15/2012




Page last updated: 12 March 2014