Skip navigation


What is it?

Garlic is an herb. It is best known as a flavoring for food. But over the years, garlic has been used as a medicine to prevent or treat a wide range of diseases and conditions. The fresh clove or supplements made from the clove are used for medicine.

Garlic is used for many conditions related to the heart and blood system. These conditions include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, coronary heart disease, heart attack, and “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis). Some of these uses are supported by science. Garlic actually may be effective in slowing the development of atherosclerosis and seems to be able to modestly reduce blood pressure.

Some people use garlic to prevent colon cancer, rectal cancer, stomach cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. It is also used to treat prostate cancer and bladder cancer.

Garlic has been tried for treating an enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia; BPH), diabetes, osteoarthritis, hayfever (allergic rhinitis), traveler's diarrhea, high blood pressure late in pregnancy (pre-eclampsia), cold and flu. It is also used for building the immune system, preventing tick bites, and preventing and treating bacterial and fungal infections.

Other uses include treatment of fever, coughs, headache, stomach ache, sinus congestion, gout, rheumatism, hemorrhoids, asthma, bronchitis, shortness of breath, low blood pressure, low blood sugar, high blood sugar, and snakebites. It is also used for fighting stress and fatigue, and maintaining healthy liver function.

Some people apply garlic oil to their skin to treat fungal infections, warts, and corns. There is some evidence supporting the topical use of garlic for fungal infections like ringworm, jock itch, and athlete’s foot; but the effectiveness of garlic against warts and corns is still uncertain.

There is a lot of variation among garlic products sold for medicinal purposes. The amount of allicin, the active ingredient and the source of garlic’s distinctive odor, depends on the method of preparation. Allicin is unstable, and changes into a different chemical rather quickly. Some manufacturers take advantage of this by aging garlic to make it odorless. Unfortunately, this also reduces the amount of allicin and compromises the effectiveness of the product. Some odorless garlic preparations and products may contain very little, if any, allicin. Methods that involve crushing the fresh clove release more allicin. Some products have a coating (enteric coating) to protect them against attack by stomach acids.

While garlic is a common flavoring in food, some scientists have suggested that it might have a role as a food additive to prevent food poisoning. There is some evidence that fresh garlic, but not aged garlic, can kill certain bacteria such as E. coli, antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enteritidis in the laboratory.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GARLIC are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). As people age, their arteries tend to lose their ability to stretch and flex. Garlic seems to reduce this effect.
  • Colon cancer, rectal cancer. Research suggests that eating garlic can reduce the risk of developing colon or rectal cancer. Research suggests that taking high doses of aged garlic extract daily for 12 months reduces the risk of developing new tumors. However, other garlic supplements do not seem to offer the same benefit.
  • Stomach cancer. Some evidence suggests that eating more garlic can decrease the risk of developing stomach cancer. However, taking a specific aged garlic extract (Kyolic, Wakunaga Pharmaceutical Co.) for about 7 years does not seem to reduce the risk.
  • High blood pressure. Some research shows that garlic can reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure by as much as 7% or 8%. It also seems to lower blood pressure in people with normal blood pressure. Most studies have used a specific garlic powder product (Kwai, from Lichtwer Pharma).
  • Tick bites. People who consume high amounts of garlic over about a 5-month period seem to have a reduced the number of tick bites.
  • Ringworm. Applying a gel containing 0.6% ajoene, a chemical in garlic, seems to be as effective as antifungal medication for treating ringworm.
  • Jock itch. Applying a gel containing 0.6% ajoene, a chemical in garlic, seems to be as effective as antifungal medication for treating jock itch.
  • Athlete’s foot. Applying a gel containing 1% ajoene, a chemical in garlic, seems to be effective for treating athlete’s foot. A garlic gel with 1% ajoene seems to be about as effective for athlete’s foot as the medicine Lamisil.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Breast cancer. Taking garlic does not seem to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer.
  • Cystic fibrosis. Research suggests that taking garlic oil macerate daily for 8 weeks does not improve lung function, symptoms, or the need for antibiotics in children with cystic fibrosis and lung infection.
  • Diabetes. Some research suggests that taking a specific garlic product (Allicor) along with antidiabetes medication for 4-24 weeks can reduce blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglycerides in people with diabetes. However, analyses of research suggest that garlic does not seem to have any effect on blood sugar or cholesterol in people with or without diabetes.
  • Inherited high cholesterol. In children with high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol, taking garlic powdered extract by mouth does not seem to improve cholesterol levels or blood pressure.
  • Infections caused by helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) bacteria. Taking garlic by mouth for H. pylori infection used to look promising due to laboratory evidence showing potential activity against H. pylori. However, when garlic cloves, powder, or oil is used in humans, it does not seem to help treat people infected with H. pylori.
  • High cholesterol. Research on the effects of garlic on cholesterol and triglyceride levels is inconsistent. However, if only the high quality studies are considered, reviewers conclude that garlic does not significantly lower cholesterol or triglyceride levels.
  • Lung cancer. Taking garlic by mouth does not seem to reduce the risk of developing lung cancer.
  • Mosquito repellent. Taking garlic by mouth does not seem to repel mosquitos.
  • Leg pain caused by poor blood circulation in the legs (peripheral arterial disease or PAD). Taking garlic for 12 weeks does not seem to reduce leg pain when walking due to poor circulation in the legs.
  • High blood pressure in pregnancy (pre-eclampsia). Some early evidence suggests that taking a specific garlic extract (Garlet) daily during the third trimester of pregnancy does not reduce the risk of developing high blood pressure in women who are at high risk or pregnant for the first time.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Hair loss (alopecia areata). Early evidence suggests that applying a garlic 5% gel, along with a topical steroid, for 3 months increases hair growth in people with hair loss.
  • Chest pain (angina). Early research suggests that administering garlic intravenously (by IV) for 10 days reduces chest pain compared to intravenous nitroglycerin.
  • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). There is some early evidence that taking garlic by mouth might be helpful for improving urinary flow, decreasing urinary frequency, and other symptoms associated with BPH.
  • Common cold. Early research suggests garlic might reduce the frequency and number of colds when taken for prevention.
  • Clogged arteries (coronary heart disease). Early research suggests that taking a specific garlic product (Allicor) for 12 months reduces the risk of sudden death and heart attack in people at risk for developing clogged arteries. Other early research suggests that taking a supplement containing aged garlic might prevent additional clogging of the arteries.
  • Corns. Early studies suggest that applying certain garlic extracts to corns on the feet twice daily improves corns. One particular garlic extract that dissolves in fat has an effect after 10-20 days of treatment, but a water soluble extract can take up to two months to show improvement.
  • Cancer in the esophagus. Early research on the use of garlic for preventing cancer in the esophagus is inconsistent. Some evidence suggests that eating raw garlic does not prevent the development of cancer in the esophagus. However, other research suggests that consuming garlic weekly does decrease the risk of developing cancer in the esophagus
  • Muscle soreness after exercise. Early evidence suggests that takinga allicin, a chemical in garlic, daily for 14 days can reduce muscle soreness after exercise in athletes.
  • Exercise performance. Early evidence suggests that taking a single 900 mg dose of garlic before exercise can increase endurance in young athletes.
  • Lumpy breast tissue (fibrocystic breast disease). Early research suggests that taking a specific combination product (Karinat) containing garlic, beta-carotene, vitamin E, and vitamin C twice daily for 6 months reduces the severity of breast pain, premenstrual syndrome, and lumpy breast tissue in people with fibrocystic breast disease.
  • Stomach inflammation (gastritis). Early research suggests that taking a specific combination product containing garlic (Karinat) twice daily for 6 months improves digestion, stops the growth of certain bacteria (H. pylori), and reduces the risk of stomach cancer in people with stomach inflammation. However, the effects of garlic alone has not been determined.
  • Hepatitis. Early research suggests that taking garlic oil together with diphenyl-dimethyl-dicarboxyale improves liver function in people with hepatitis. However, the effects of garlic alone are not clear.
  • Shortness of breath and low oxygen levels associated with liver disease (hepatopulmonary syndrome). Early research suggests that garlic oil might improve oxygen levels in people with hepatopulmonary syndrome.
  • Lead poisoning. Research suggests that taking garlic three times daily for 4 weeks can reduce blood lead concentrations in people with lead poisoning. However, it does not seem to be more effective than D-penicillamine.
  • Cancer of certain bone marrow cells (multiple myeloma). Early evidence suggests that taking garlic might decrease the risk of developing cancer of the plasma cells in the bone marrow.
  • Thrush (oral candidiasis). Early research suggests that applying garlic paste to affected areas in the mouth can increase the healing rate in people with oral thrush. Other early research suggests that using a garlic mouthwash three times daily for 4 weeks improves redness.
  • Prostate cancer. Men in China who eat about a clove of garlic daily seem to have a 50% lower risk of developing prostate cancer. However, research in Iranian men suggests that eating garlic has no effect on prostate cancer risk. Whether this research applies to men in Western countries is not known. Some early research suggests that taking garlic supplements might reduce the risk of developing prostate cancer or reduce symptoms associated with prostate cancer.
  • Hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissue (scleroderma). Research suggests that taking garlic daily for 7 days does not benefit people with scleroderma.
  • Warts. Early evidence suggests that applying a specific fat soluble garlic extract to warts on the hands twice daily removes warts within 1-2 weeks. Also, a water-soluble garlic extract seems to provide modest improvement, but only after 30-40 days of treatment.
More evidence is needed to rate garlic for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Garlic produces a chemical called allicin. This is what seems to make garlic work for certain conditions. Allicin also makes garlic smell. Some products are made “odorless” by aging the garlic, but this process can also make the garlic less effective. It’s a good idea to look for supplements that are coated (enteric coating) so they will dissolve in the intestine and not in the stomach.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Garlic is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth. Garlic has been used safely in research for up to 7 years. When taken by mouth, garlic can cause bad breath, a burning sensation in the mouth or stomach, heartburn, gas, nausea, vomiting, body odor, and diarrhea. These side effects are often worse with raw garlic. Garlic may also increase the risk of bleeding. There have been reports of bleeding after surgery in people who have taken garlic. Asthma has been reported in people working with garlic, and other allergic reactions are possible.

Garlic is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin. Gels, pastes and mouthwashes containing garlic have been used for up to 3 months. However, when applied to the skin, garlic might cause damage to the skin that is similar to a burn.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Garlic is LIKELY SAFE to use during pregnancy when taken in the amounts normally found in food. Garlic is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in medicinal amounts during pregnancy and when breast-feeding. There is not enough reliable information about the safety of using garlic on the skin if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side, and avoid use.

Children: Garlic is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth and appropriately for a short-term in children. However, garlic is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in large doses. Some sources suggest that high doses of garlic could be dangerous or even fatal to children; however, the reason for this warning is not known. There are no case reports available of significant adverse events or mortality in children associated with taking garlic by mouth. When applied to the skin, garlic might cause damage to the skin that is similar to a burn.

Bleeding disorder: Garlic, especially fresh garlic, might increase bleeding.

Stomach or digestion problems: Garlic can irritate the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Use with caution if you have stomach or digestion problems.

Low blood pressure: Garlic can lower blood pressure. In theory, taking garlic might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.

Surgery: Garlic might prolong bleeding. Stop taking garlic at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top


Do not take this combination.

Isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid)
Garlic might reduce how much isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH) the body absorbs. This might decrease how well isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH) works. Don't take garlic if you take isoniazid (Nydrazid, INH).

Medications used for HIV/AIDS (Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs))
The body breaks down medications used for HIV/AIDS to get rid of them. Garlic can increase how fast the body breaks down some medications for HIV/AIDS. Taking garlic along with some medications used for HIV/AIDS might decrease their effectiveness.

Some of these medications used for HIV/AIDS include nevirapine (Viramune), delavirdine (Rescriptor), and efavirenz (Sustiva).

Saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase)
The body breaks down saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) to get rid of it. Garlic might increase how quickly the body breaks down saquinavir. Taking garlic along with saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase) might decrease the effectiveness of saquinavir (Fortovase, Invirase).


Be cautious with this combination.

Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
Some birth control pills contain estrogen. The body breaks down the estrogen in birth control pills to get rid of it. Garlic might increase the breakdown of estrogen. Taking garlic along with birth control pills might decrease the effectiveness of birth control pills. If you take birth control pills along with garlic, use an additional form of birth control such as a condom.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
The affect of garlic preparations on cyclosporine may vary. Some garlic preparations containing allicin might decrease the effectiveness of cyclosporine. However, other garlic preparations containing alliin and alliinase may not. Until more is known about this possible interaction, don't take garlic if you are taking cyclosporine.

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Garlic oil might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking garlic oil along with some medications that are changed by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking garlic oil, talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications that are changed by the liver include acetaminophen, chlorzoxazone (Parafon Forte), ethanol, theophylline, and drugs used for anesthesia during surgery such as enflurane (Ethrane), halothane (Fluothane), isoflurane (Forane), and methoxyflurane (Penthrane).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Garlic might increase how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking garlic along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can decrease the effectiveness of some medications. Before taking garlic, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Medications that might be affected include certain heart medications called calcium channel blockers (diltiazem, nicardipine, verapamil), cancer drugs (etoposide, paclitaxel, vinblastine, vincristine, vindesine), fungus-fighting drugs (ketoconazole, itraconazole), glucocorticoids, alfentanil (Alfenta), cisapride (Propulsid), fentanyl (Sublimaze), lidocaine (Xylocaine), losartan (Cozaar), midazolam (Versed), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Garlic might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking garlic along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. Do not take too much garlic if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Garlic might slow blood clotting. Taking garlic along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Garlic might increase the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Taking garlic along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Fish oil (containing eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA))
Fish oil can slow blood clotting. Garlic can also slow clotting. Taken together, garlic and fish oil may increase the risk of bleeding in some people.

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Garlic might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using garlic with other herbs that can slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These other herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, ginger, ginkgo, red clover, turmeric, vitamin E, willow, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For high blood pressure:
    • Garlic extract 600-1200 mg divided and given three times daily.
    • Standardized garlic powder extract containing 1.3% alliin content has been studied for this use.
    • Aged garlic extract 600 mg to 7.2 grams per day has also been used. Aged garlic typically contains only 0.03% alliin.
    • Fresh garlic 4 grams (approximately one clove) once daily has also been used. Fresh garlic typically contains 1% alliin.
  • For prevention of colon, rectal, and stomach cancer: fresh or cooked garlic 3.5-29 grams weekly.
  • For fungal skin infections (ringworm, jock itch, athlete’s foot): garlic ingredient ajoene as a 0.4% cream, 0.6% gel, and 1% gel applied twice daily for one week.

Other names

Return to top
Aged Garlic Extract, Ail, Ajo, Allii Sativi Bulbus, Allium, Allium sativum, Camphor of the Poor, Clove Garlic, Da Suan, Garlic Clove, Garlic Oil, Lasun, Lasuna, Nectar of the Gods, Poor Man’s Treacle, Rason, Rust Treacle, Stinking Rose.


Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (//


Return to top
To see all references for the Garlic page, please go to

  1. Ranstam J. Garlic as a tick repellent. JAMA 2001;285:41-42.
  2. Jepson RG, Kleijnen J, and Leng GC. Garlic for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (Cochrane Review). The Cochrane Library 2001;2
  3. Holden C. Fighting parasites with garlic. Science 1997;278:581.
  4. Ernst E. Can allium vegetables prevent cancer? Phytomedicine 1997;4:79-83.
  5. Tsai PB, Harnack LJ, Anderson KE, and et al. Dietary intake of garlic and other Allium vegetables and breast cancer risk in a prospective study of postmenopausal women. 2008;6
  6. Gao YT, McLaughlin JK, and Gridley G. Risk factors for esophageal cancer in Shanghai, China. Role of diet and nutrients. Int J Cancer 1994;58:197-202.
  7. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA, Ascherio A, and Willett WC. Intake of fat, meat, and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Res 1994;54:2390-2397.
  8. Hansson LE, Nyren O, and Bergstrom R. Diet and risk of gastric cancer: a population-based case-control study in Sweden. Int J Cancer 1993;55:181-189.
  9. Lian Z, Jun-Ling M, and Wei-Dong L. A randomized multi-intervention trial to inhibit gastric cancer in Shandong (progress report). Chinese Journal of Clinical Oncology 1998;25:338-340.
  10. Gail M, You WC, Chang YS, and et al. Factorial trial of three interventions to reduce the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in Shandong, China: Design issues and initial data. Controlled Clin Trials 1998;19:352-369.
  1. Maleszka R, Lutomski J, Swiatlowska-Gorna B, and Rzepecka B. Study on extending of the activity spectrum of a garlic preparation against candidiasis. 1991;37:85-88.
  2. Davis LE, Shen J, and Royer RE. In vitro synergism of concentrated allium sativum extract and amphotericin B against cryptococcus neoformans. Planta Med 1994;60:546-549.
  3. Kandziora J. The blood pressure lowering and lipid lowering effect of a garlic preparation in combination with a diuretic. Arzliche Forschung 1988;3:1-8.
  4. Huynh F, Fowkes C, and Tejani A. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Hypertension Group [Group Record] 2009;
  5. Nouri M, Pipelzadeh MH, and Badiei A. A comparative study on the effectiveness of garlic with clofibrate in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. Journal of Medical Sciences 2008;85-89.
  6. Jeyaraj S, Shivaji G, and Jeyaraj SD. Effect of a combined supplementation of fish oil (MEGA-3) with garlic pearls on the serum lipid profile, blood pressure and body mass index of hypercholesterolemic subjects. Heart 2000;83(suppl 2):A4.
  7. Lau BH, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R, and et al. Effect of odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids. Nutrition Research 1987;7:139-149.
  8. Buhshan S, Sharma SP, Singh SP, and et al. Effect of garlic on normal blood cholesterol level. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1979;23:211-214.
  9. Rahmani M, Tabari AK, Niaki MRK, and et al. Effect of dried garlic supplementation on blood lipids in mild and moderate hypercholesterolemic patients. Arch Iran Med 1999;2:19-23.
  10. Parastoui K, Ravanshad Sh Mostafavi H Setoudeh Maram E. Effects of garlic tablet on blood sugar, plasma lipids and blood pressure in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia. J Med plants 2006;5(Supplement):9-16.
  11. Santos OSDA and Grunwald J. Effect of garlic powder tablets on blood lipids and blood pressure-a six month placebo controlled, double blind study. Br J Clin Res 1993;4:37-44.
  12. Egen-Schwind C, Eckard R, Jekat FW, and et al. Pharmacokinetics of vinyldithiins, transformation products of allicin. Planta Med 1992;58:8-13.
  13. Ku DD, Abdel-Razek TT, Dai J, and et al. Mechanisms of garlic induced pulmonary vasorelaxation: role of allicin. Circulation 1997;96(8S):6-I.
  14. Dirsch VM, Kiemer AK, Wagner H, and et al. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Atherosclerosis 1998;139:333-339.
  15. Oshiba S, Sawai H, Tamada T, and et al. [Inhibitory effect of orally administered inclusion complex of garlic oil on platelet aggregation in man]. Igaku no Ayuma 1990;155:199-200.
  16. Jamaluddin MP, Krishnan LK, and Thomas A. Ajoene inhibition of platelet aggregation: possible mediation by a hemoprotein. Biochem Biophys Res Communicat 1988;153:479-486.
  17. Srivastava KC, Bordia A, and Verma SK. Garlic (Allium sativum) for disease prevention. S Afr J Sci 1995;91:68-77.
  18. Lau BH, Tadi PP, and Tosk JM. Allium sativum (garlic) and cancer prevention. Nutrit Res 1990;10:937-948.
  19. Siegers CP, Steffen B, Robke A, and et al. The effects of garlic preparation against human tumour cell proliferation. Phytomedicine 1999;6:7-11.
  20. Bradley R, Endres J, Hockenberry D, and et al. Investigation of garlic-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines [poster presentation]. International Scientific Conference on Complementary, Alternative and Integrative Medicine Research, Boston, MA, 2002.
  21. Tong XF and Cheng HS. Mechanism of antioxidation, inhibiting carcinogenesis and modification of LDL of aged garlic extract. Pharmaceutical Care and Research (Yaoxue Fuwu Yu Yanjiu) (CHINA) 2002;2:122-124.
  22. Durak Ì, Öztürk HS, Olcay E, and et al. Effects of garlic extract supplementation on blood lipid and antioxidant parameters and atherosclerotic plaque formation process in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Herbal Pharmacother 2002;2:19-32.
  23. Kiesewetter H. Long-term effect of garlic powder tablets on the development of plaque formation in the carotid branches of both femoral arteries - a preliminary report. Eur J Clin Res 1996;8:34-35.
  24. Orekhov A and Tertov V. In vitro effect of garlic powder extract on lipid content in normal and atherosclerotic human aortic cells. Lipids 1997;32:1055-1060.
  25. Ide N, Nelson AB, and Lau BHS. Aged garlic extract and its constituents inhibit Cu2+ -induced oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Planta Med 1997;63:263-264.
  26. Gebhardt R and Beck H. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 1996;31:1269-1276.
  27. Gebhardt R, Beck H, and Wagner K. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by allicin and ajoene in rat hepatocytes and HepG2 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1994;1213:57-62.
  28. Qureshi AA, Crenshaw TD, and Abuirmeileh N. Influence of minor plant constituents on porcine hepatic lipid metabolism. Atherosclerosis 1987;64:109-115.
  29. Qureshi A, Abuirmeileh N, Din Z, and et al. Inhibition of cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis in liver enzymes and chicken hepatocytes by polar fractions of garlic. Lipids 1983;18:343-348.
  30. Chi M, Koh ET, and Stewart TJ. Effects of garlic on lipid metabolism in rats fed cholesterol or lard. J Nutrit 1982;112:241-248.
  31. Chi MS. Effects of garlic products on lipid metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats . Proc Soc Exper Biol Med 1982;171:174-178.
  32. Yardly A. A preliminary study investigating the effect of the application of some essential oils on the in vitro proliferation of Dermatophilus congolensis. International Journal of Aromatherapy (INT J AROMATHERAPY) 2004;14:129-135.
  33. Al-Naghdy SA, Abdel-Rahman MO, and Heiba HI. Evidence for some prostaglandins in Allium sativum extracts. Phytother Res 1988;2:196-197.
  34. Reuter HD and Sendl A. Allium sativum and Allium ursinum: chemistry, pharmacology and medicinal applications. In: Wagner H and Farnsworth NR. Economic and Medicinal Research. London: Academic Press Ltd;1994.
  35. Sundaresan S and Subramanian P. Evaluation of chemopreventive potential of garlic extract on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2002;40:548-551.
  36. Koch HP, Jager W, Brauner A, and et al. Selenium in garlic and in garlic preparations: garlic as a source of the biologically important trace element. Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung (Germany) 1988;128:993-995.
  37. Subramanian P, Sundaresan S, and Manivasagam T. Influence of garlic extract on temporal characteristics of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants in tumor-bearing rats. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2005;43:209-218.
  38. Mirunalini S, Ramachandran CR, and Nagini S. Chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic oil. Journal of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants (USA) 2003;10:89-101.
  39. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF Hubbard MA. Clinical assessment of potential cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interactions. AAPS Ann Mtg & Expo Indianapolis 2000;3460.
  40. Sharma VD, Sethi MS, Kumar A, and et al. Antibacterial property of Allium sativum Linn: in vivo & in vitro studies. Indian J Exper Biol 1977;15:466-468.
  41. Rao R, Rao S, Natarajan S, and et al. Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by garlic extract. Nature 1946; :441.
  42. Hughes BG and Lawson LD. Antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium ampeloprasum L. (Elephant garlic), and Allium cepa L. (Onion), garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytother Res 1991;5:154-158.
  43. Rozenfeld V, Sisca TS, Callahan AK, and et al. Double blind, randomized, placebo controlled trial of aged garlic extract in patients stabilized on warfarin therapy [abstract]. ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting 2000;35:P-26E.
  44. Sunter WH. Warfarin and garlic. Pharm J 1991;246:722.
  45. Gravas S, Tzortzis V Rountas C Melekos MD. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and garlic consumption: a lesson to learn. Urol Res. 2010;38:61-63.
  46. Morbidoni L, Arterburn, JM, and Young V et al. Garlic: Its history and adverse effects. J Herbal Pharmacother 2001;1:63-83.
  47. Kurzen M and Bayerl C. [Immediate-type hypersensitivity to garlic]. Aktuelle Dermatol 1997;23:145-147.
  48. Cavallito CJ and Bailey JH. Allicin, the antibacterail principle of Allium sativum. 1. Isolation, physical properties and antibacterial action. J Am Chem Soc 1944;66:1950-1954.
  49. Soltani PR. Preecampisia [sic] is an important complication of pregnancy which can result in morbidity and mortality in mother, fetus and the neonate. Journal of Medical Council of Islamic Republic of Iran (J MED COUNC ISLAMIC REPUB IRAN) 2005;23:319.
  50. Jung F, Jung EM, Mrowietz C, and et al. [The effects of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation. A cross-over test with healthy test persons]. Med Welt 1991;42:28-30.
  51. Durak I, Yilmaz E Devrim E Perk H Kacmaz. Consumption of aqueous garlic extract leads to significant improvement in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer . Nutr Res 2003;23:199-204.
  52. Ince DI, Sonmez GT, and Ince ML. Effects garlic on aerobic performance. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences 2000;30:557-561.
  53. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, and von Bergmann K. Effect of garlic on serum lipids. JAMA 1998;280:1568.
  54. Lawson LD. Garlic powder for hyperlipidemia: analysis of recent negative results. Q Rev Natural Med 1998;187-189.
  55. Lawson LD, Ransom DK, Hughes BG, and et all. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products. Thrombosis Res 1992;65:141-156.
  56. Jappe U, Bonnekoh B, Hausen BM, and et al. Garlic-related dermatoses: case report and review of the literature. Am J Contact Dermatit 1999;10:37-39.
  57. Gaddoni G, Selvi M, Resta F, and et al. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic in a cook. Ann Ital Dermatol Clin Sperimentale 1994;48:120-121.
  58. Fleischer S, Bayerl C, and Jung EG. [Occupational allergic hand dermatitis to garlic in a pizza baker]. Aktuelle Dermatol 1996;22:278-279.
  59. Edelstein AJ and Johnstown PA. Dermatitis caused by garlic. Arch Dermatol 1950;61:111.
  60. Ventura P, Girola M, and Lattuada V. [Clinical evaluation and tolerability of a drug with garlic and hawthorn]. Acta Toxicol Ther 1990;11:365-372.
  61. McCrindle BW, Helden E, and Conner WT. Alternative medicine -- a randomized double blind placebo-controlled clinical trial of garlic in hypercholesterolemic children [white diamond suit] 661. Pediatric Res 1998;43(4 suppl 2):115.
  62. Lutomski J. Klinische Untersuchungen zur therapeutischen Wirksamkeit von Ilha Rogoff Knobauchpillen mit Rutin. Z Phytother 1984;5:938-942.
  63. Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Mrowietz C, and et al. Effects of garlic on blood fluidity and fibrinolytic activity: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Br J of Clin Prac 1990;69:24-29.
  64. Kannar D. Clinical evaluation of Australian based garlic and its combination with inulin in mild and moderate hyperlipidaemia [dissertation] . Clayton Australia: Monash University 1998;p i-vi:67-114.
  65. De Santos O and Grunwald J. Effect of garlic powder tablets on blood lipids and blood pressure: a six month placebo controlled double blind study. Br J Clin Res 1993;4:37-44.
  66. Bordia A. [Garlic and coronary heart disease. Results of a 3-year treatment with garlic extract on the reinfarction and mortality rate]. Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung 1989;129(28 suppl 15):16-17.
  67. Bordia A. Knoblauch und koronare Herzkrankheit: Wirkungen einer dreijahrigen Behandlung min Knoblauchextrakt auf die Reinfarkt und Mortalitatsrate. Dtsch Apoth Ztg 1989;129(suppl 15):1-25.
  68. Kandziora J. Antihypertensive Wirksamkeit und Vertraglichkeit eines Knoblauch-preparates. Arztliche Forschung 1988;1:1-8.
  69. Kandziora J. Blutdruck and lipidsenkende Wirkung eines Knoblauch-praparates in kombination mit einem Diuretikum. Arztliche Forschung 1988;3:3-8.
  70. Mansell P, Reckless PD, and Lloyd L. The effect of dried garlic powder tablets on serum lipids in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Eur J Clin Res 1996;8:25-26.
  71. de Santos AO and Jones RA. Effects of garlic powder and garlic oil preparations on blood lipids, blood pressure and well-being. Br J Clin Res 1995;6:91-100.
  72. Gardner CD, Chatterjee L, and Carlson J. Effect of garlic supplementation on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemic men and women. Circulation 1999;99:1123.
  73. Yeh YY, Lin RI, Yeh SM, and et al. Garlic reduces plasma cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men maintaining habitual diets. In: Ohigashi H, Osawa T, Terao J, and et al. Food Factors for Cancer Prevention. Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag;1997.
  74. Barrie SA, Wright JV, and Pizzorno JE. Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation, serum lipids and blood pressure in humans. J Orthomolec Med 1987;2:15-21.
  75. Melvin KR. Effects of garlic powder tablets on patients with hyperlipdaemia in Canadian clinical practice. Eur J Clin Res 1996;8:30-32.
  76. Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Arzneim Forsch/Drug Res 1990;40(II):1111-1116.
  77. Saradeth T, Seidl S, Resch KL, and et al. Does garlic alter the lipid pattern in normal volunteers? Phytomedicine 1994;1:183-185.
  78. Siegel G. Long-term effect of garlic in preventing arteriosclerosis - results of two controlled clinical trials. Eur Phytojournal 2001;Symposium posters:1.
  79. Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, and et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999;144:237-249.
  80. Orekhov AN, Pivovarova EM, and Tertov VV. Garlic powder tablets reduce atherogenicity of low density lipoprotein. A placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Metab Cardiovascular Dis 1996;6:21-31.
  81. Czerny B and Samochowiec J. Klinische Untersuchungen mit einem Knoblauch-Lezithin-Präparat. Arztezeitschr Naturheilverf 1996;37:126-129.
  82. Bimmermann A, Weingart K, and Schwartzkopff W. Allium sativum: Studie zur Wirksamkeit bei Hyperlipoproteinamie. Therapiewoche 1988;38:3885-3890.
  83. Latha R, Venkatakrishnan L, Aruna V, and et al. The effect of garlic oil on lipid peroxidation and blood cell counts of arsenic exposed albino mice. Journal of Natural Remedies 2006;6:19-25.
  84. Hughes BG, Murray BK, North JA, and et al. Antiviral constituents from Allium sativum. Planta Med 1989;55:114.
  85. Mulrow C, Lawrence V, Ackerman R, and et al. Garlic: effects on cardiovascular risks and disease, protective effects against cancer, and clinical adverse effects. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 20 (Contract 290-97-0012 to the San Antonio Evidence-based Practice Center based at The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio and the Veterans Evidence-based Research, Dissemination, and Implementation Center, a Veterans Affairs Health Services Research and Development Center of Excellence). AHRQ Publication No. 01-E023. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. October 2000.
  86. Gallwitz, H., Bonse, S., Martinez-Cruz, A., Schlichting, I., Schumacher, K., and Krauth-Siegel, R. L. Ajoene is an inhibitor and subversive substrate of human glutathione reductase and Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase: crystallographic, kinetic, and spectroscopic studies. J Med Chem. 2-11-1999;42:364-372. View abstract.
  87. Challier, B., Perarnau, J. M., and Viel, J. F. Garlic, onion and cereal fibre as protective factors for breast cancer: a French case-control study. Eur.J Epidemiol. 1998;14:737-747. View abstract.
  88. Lawson, L. D. Effect of garlic on serum lipids. JAMA 11-11-1998;280:1568. View abstract.
  89. Wang, B. H., Zuzel, K. A., Rahman, K., and Billington, D. Protective effects of aged garlic extract against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices. Toxicology 4-3-1998;126:213-222. View abstract.
  90. Yoshida, H., Iwata, N., Katsuzaki, H., Naganawa, R., Ishikawa, K., Fukuda, H., Fujino, T., and Suzuki, A. Antimicrobial activity of a compound isolated from an oil-macerated garlic extract. Biosci Biotechnol.Biochem 1998;62:1014-1017. View abstract.
  91. Kumar, M. and Berwal, J. S. Sensitivity of food pathogens to garlic (Allium sativum). J Appl.Microbiol. 1998;84:213-215. View abstract.
  92. Dwivedi, C., John, L. M., Schmidt, D. S., and Engineer, F. N. Effects of oil-soluble organosulfur compounds from garlic on doxorubicin-induced lipid peroxidation. Anticancer Drugs 1998;9:291-294. View abstract.
  93. Jain, R. C. Anti tubercular activity of garlic oil. Indian J Pathol.Microbiol. 1998;41:131. View abstract.
  94. Dirsch, V. M., Gerbes, A. L., and Vollmar, A. M. Ajoene, a compound of garlic, induces apoptosis in human promyeloleukemic cells, accompanied by generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor kappaB. Mol.Pharmacol 1998;53:402-407. View abstract.
  95. Lash, J. P., Cardoso, L. R., Mesler, P. M., Walczak, D. A., and Pollak, R. The effect of garlic on hypercholesterolemia in renal transplant patients. Transplant.Proc. 1998;30:189-191. View abstract.
  96. Mel'chinskaia, E. N., Popovtseva, O. N., and Gromnatskii, N. I. [Immunologic aspects of alisate in diabetes mellitus patients]. Biulleten' eksperimental'noi biologii i meditsiny. 1997;124:595-597. View abstract.
  97. el Sabban, F. and Radwan, G. M. Influence of garlic compared to aspirin on induced photothrombosis in mouse pial microvessels, in vivo. Thromb.Res 10-15-1997;88:193-203. View abstract.
  98. Roberge, R. J., Leckey, R., Spence, R., and Krenzelok, E. J. Garlic burns of the breast. Am J Emerg.Med 1997;15:548. View abstract.
  99. Rance, F. and Dutau, G. Labial food challenge in children with food allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1997;8:41-44. View abstract.
  100. Pinto, J. T., Qiao, C., Xing, J., Rivlin, R. S., Protomastro, M. L., Weissler, M. L., Tao, Y., Thaler, H., and Heston, W. D. Effects of garlic thioallyl derivatives on growth, glutathione concentration, and polyamine formation of human prostate carcinoma cells in culture. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1997;66:398-405. View abstract.
  101. Bordia, A. K., Joshi, H. K., Sanadhya, Y. K., and Bhu, N. Effect of essential oil of garlic on serum fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis 1977;28:155-159. View abstract.
  102. Hageman, G., Krul, C., van Herwijnen, M., Schilderman, P., and Kleinjans, J. Assessment of the anticarcinogenic potential of raw garlic in humans. Cancer Lett 3-19-1997;114(1-2):161-162. View abstract.
  103. Das, I., Patel, S., and Sooranna, S. R. Effects of aspirin and garlic on cyclooxygenase-induced chemiluminescence in human term placenta. Biochem Soc.Trans. 1997;25:99S. View abstract.
  104. Martin, N., Bardisa, L., Pantoja, C., Barra, E., Demetrio, C., Valenzuela, J., Barrios, M., and Sepulveda, M. J. Involvement of calcium in the cardiac depressant actions of a garlic dialysate. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;55:113-118. View abstract.
  105. Jain, R. C. Effect of garlic on serum lipids, coagulability and fibrinolytic activity of blood. Am J Clin Nutr 1977;30:1380-1381. View abstract.
  106. Bordia, A., Verma, S. K., and Srivastava, K. C. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in humans: a study in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;55:201-205. View abstract.
  107. Van Hecke, E. Contact allergy to onion. Contact Dermatitis 1977;3:167-168. View abstract.
  108. Naganawa, R., Iwata, N., Ishikawa, K., Fukuda, H., Fujino, T., and Suzuki, A. Inhibition of microbial growth by ajoene, a sulfur-containing compound derived from garlic. Appl Environ.Microbiol 1996;62:4238-4242. View abstract.
  109. Wargovich, M. J., Uda, N., Woods, C., Velasco, M., and McKee, K. Allium vegetables: their role in the prevention of cancer. Biochem Soc.Trans. 1996;24:811-814. View abstract.
  110. de Rooij, B. M., Boogaard, P. J., Rijksen, D. A., Commandeur, J. N., and Vermeulen, N. P. Urinary excretion of N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine upon garlic consumption by human volunteers. Arch.Toxicol 1996;70:635-639. View abstract.
  111. Ruocco, V., Brenner, S., and Lombardi, M. L. A case of diet-related pemphigus. Dermatology 1996;192:373-374. View abstract.
  112. Bordia, T., Mohammed, N., Thomson, M., and Ali, M. An evaluation of garlic and onion as antithrombotic agents. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1996;54:183-186. View abstract.
  113. Ali, M. Mechanism by which garlic (Allium sativum) inhibits cyclooxygenase activity. Effect of raw versus boiled garlic extract on the synthesis of prostanoids. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;53:397-400. View abstract.
  114. Agarwal, K. C. Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Med Res.Rev. 1996;16:111-124. View abstract.
  115. Delaney, T. A. and Donnelly, A. M. Garlic dermatitis. Austr J Dermatol 1996;37:109-110. View abstract.
  116. Moore, G. S. and Atkins, R. D. The fungicidal and fungistatic effects of an aqueous garlic extract on medically important yeast-like fungi. Mycologia. 1977;69:341-348. View abstract.
  117. Farrell, A. M. and Staughton, R. C. Garlic burns mimicking herpes zoster. Lancet 4-27-1996;347:1195. View abstract.
  118. Augusti, K. T. and Sheela, C. G. Antiperoxide effect of S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide, an insulin secretagogue, in diabetic rats. Experientia 2-15-1996;52:115-120. View abstract.
  119. Makheja, A. N., Vanderhoek, J. Y., and Bailey, J. M. Inhibition of platelet aggregation and thromboxane synthesis by onion and garlic. Lancet 4-7-1979;1:781. View abstract.
  120. Wang, E. J., Li, Y., Lin, M., Chen, L., Stein, A. P., Reuhl, K. R., and Yang, C. S. Protective effects of garlic and related organosulfur compounds on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 1996;136:146-154. View abstract.
  121. Yamada, Y. and Azuma, K. Evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity of allicin. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1977;11:743-749. View abstract.
  122. Dorant, E., van den Brandt, P. A., Goldbohm, R. A., and Sturmans, F. Consumption of onions and a reduced risk of stomach carcinoma. Gastroenterology 1996;110:12-20. View abstract.
  123. Levi, F., Franceschi, S., Negri, E., and La Vecchia, C. Dietary factors and the risk of endometrial cancer. Cancer 6-1-1993;71:3575-3581. View abstract.
  124. Gupta, M. K., Mittal, S. R., Mathur, A. K., and Bhan, A. K. Garlic--the other side of the coin. Int J Cardiol. 1993;38:333. View abstract.
  125. Shu, X. O., Zheng, W., Potischman, N., Brinton, L. A., Hatch, M. C., Gao, Y. T., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. A population-based case-control study of dietary factors and endometrial cancer in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Am J Epidemiol. 1-15-1993;137:155-165. View abstract.
  126. Srivastava, K. C. and Tyagi, O. D. Effects of a garlic-derived principle (ajoene) on aggregation and arachidonic acid metabolism in human blood platelets. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1993;49:587-595. View abstract.
  127. Morioka, N., Sze, L. L., Morton, D. L., and Irie, R. F. A protein fraction from aged garlic extract enhances cytotoxicity and proliferation of human lymphocytes mediated by interleukin-2 and concanavalin A. Cancer Immunol.Immunother. 1993;37:316-322. View abstract.
  128. Guo, N. L., Lu, D. P., Woods, G. L., Reed, E., Zhou, G. Z., Zhang, L. B., and Waldman, R. H. Demonstration of the anti-viral activity of garlic extract against human cytomegalovirus in vitro. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1993;106:93-96. View abstract.
  129. Levi, F., La Vecchia, C., Gulie, C., and Negri, E. Dietary factors and breast cancer risk in Vaud, Switzerland. Nutr Cancer 1993;19:327-335. View abstract.
  130. Phelps, S. and Harris, W. S. Garlic supplementation and lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility. Lipids 1993;28:475-477. View abstract.
  131. Deshpande, R. G., Khan, M. B., Bhat, D. A., and Navalkar, R. G. Inhibition of Mycobacterium avium complex isolates from AIDS patients by garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob.Chemother. 1993;32:623-626. View abstract.
  132. Yeh, Y. Y. and Yeh, S. M. Garlic reduces plasma lipids by inhibiting hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol synthesis. Lipids 1994;29:189-193. View abstract.
  133. Hu, J., Nyren, O., Wolk, A., Bergstrom, R., Yuen, J., Adami, H. O., Guo, L., Li, H., Huang, G., Xu, X., and . Risk factors for oesophageal cancer in northeast China. Int J Cancer 4-1-1994;57:38-46. View abstract.
  134. Nagae, S., Ushijima, M., Hatono, S., Imai, J., Kasuga, S., Matsuura, H., Itakura, Y., and Higashi, Y. Pharmacokinetics of the garlic compound S-allylcysteine. Planta Med 1994;60:214-217. View abstract.
  135. Lachmann, G., Lorenz, D., Radeck, W., and Steiper, M. [The pharmacokinetics of the S35 labeled labeled garlic constituents alliin, allicin and vinyldithiine]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:734-743. View abstract.
  136. Apitz-Castro, R., Badimon, J. J., and Badimon, L. A garlic derivative, ajoene, inhibits platelet deposition on severely damaged vessel wall in an in vivo porcine experimental model. Thromb.Res 8-1-1994;75:243-249. View abstract.
  137. Venugopal, P. V. and Venugopal, T. V. Antidermatophytic activity of garlic (Allium sativum) in vitro. Int J Dermatol. 1995;34:278-279. View abstract.
  138. Pai, S. T. and Platt, M. W. Antifungal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract against the Aspergillus species involved in otomycosis. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 1995;20:14-18. View abstract.
  139. Canduela, V., Mongil, I., Carrascosa, M., Docio, S., and Cagigas, P. Garlic: always good for the health? Br J Dermatol. 1995;132:161-162. View abstract.
  140. Orekhov, A. N., Tertov, V. V., Sobenin, I. A., and Pivovarova, E. M. Direct anti-atherosclerosis-related effects of garlic. Ann Med 1995;27:63-65. View abstract.
  141. Petry, J. J. Garlic and postoperative bleeding. Plast.Reconstr.Surg 1995;96:483-484. View abstract.
  142. Das, I., Khan, N. S., and Sooranna, S. R. Potent activation of nitric oxide synthase by garlic: a basis for its therapeutic applications. Curr.Med Res Opin. 1995;13:257-263. View abstract.
  143. German, K., Kumar, U., and Blackford, H. N. Garlic and the risk of TURP bleeding. Br J Urol 1995;76:518. View abstract.
  144. Ali, M. and Thomson, M. Consumption of a garlic clove a day could be beneficial in preventing thrombosis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 1995;53:211-212. View abstract.
  145. Mitchell, J. C. Contact sensitivity to garlic (Allium). Contact Dermatitis 1980;6:356-357. View abstract.
  146. Arora, R. C., Arora, S., and Gupta, R. K. The long-term use of garlic in ischemic heart disease--an appraisal. Atherosclerosis 1981;40:175-179. View abstract.
  147. Bordia, A. Effect of garlic on blood lipids in patients with coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1981;34:2100-2103. View abstract.
  148. Sandhu, D. K., Warraich, M. K., and Singh, S. Sensitivity of yeasts isolated from cases of vaginitis to aqueous extracts of garlic. Mykosen 1980;23:691-698. View abstract.
  149. Dixit, V. P. and Joshi, S. Effects of chronic administration of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) on testicular function. Indian J Exp Biol 1982;20:534-536. View abstract.
  150. Szybejko, J., Zukowski, A., and Herbec, R. [Unusual cause of obturation of the small intestine]. Wiad.Lek. 4-15-1982;35:163-164. View abstract.
  151. Rich, G. E. Garlic an antibiotic? Med J Aust 1-23-1982;1:60. View abstract.
  152. Belman, S. Onion and garlic oils inhibit tumor promotion. Carcinogenesis 1983;4:1063-1065. View abstract.
  153. Caporaso, N., Smith, S. M., and Eng, R. H. Antifungal activity in human urine and serum after ingestion of garlic (Allium sativum). Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1983;23:700-702. View abstract.
  154. Tutakne, M. A., Satyanarayanan, G., Bhardwaj, J. R., and Sethi, I. C. Sporotrichosis treated with garlic juice. A case report. Indian J Dermatol. 1983;28:41-45. View abstract.
  155. anonymous. Garlic in cryptococcal meningitis: a preliminary report of 21 cases. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1980;93:123-126. View abstract.
  156. Papageorgiou, C., Corbet, J. P., Menezes-Brandao, F., Pecegueiro, M., and Benezra, C. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic (Allium sativum L.). Identification of the allergens: the role of mono-, di-, and trisulfides present in garlic. A comparative study in man and animal (guinea-pig). Arch.Dermatol.Res 1983;275:229-234. View abstract.
  157. Sumiyoshi, H., Kanezawa, A., Masamoto, K., Harada, H., Nakagami, S., Yokota, A., Nishikawa, M., and Nakagawa, S. [Chronic toxicity test of garlic extract in rats]. J Toxicol Sci 1984;9:61-75. View abstract.
  158. Nakagawa, S., Masamoto, K., Sumiyoshi, H., and Harada, H. [Acute toxicity test of garlic extract]. J Toxicol Sci 1984;9:57-60. View abstract.
  159. Jain, R. C. and Konar, D. B. Effect of garlic oil in experimental cholesterol atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1978;29:125-129. View abstract.
  160. Apitz-Castro, R., Cabrera, S., Cruz, M. R., Ledezma, E., and Jain, M. K. Effects of garlic extract and of three pure components isolated from it on human platelet aggregation, arachidonate metabolism, release reaction and platelet ultrastructure. Thromb.Res 10-15-1983;32:155-169. View abstract.
  161. Boullin, D. J. Garlic as a platelet inhibitor. Lancet 4-4-1981;1:776-777. View abstract.
  162. Bhushan, S., Sharma, S. P., Singh, S. P., Agrawal, S., Indrayan, A., and Seth, P. Effect of garlic on normal blood cholesterol level. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1979;23:211-214. View abstract.
  163. Bleumink, E., Doeglas, H. M., Klokke, A. H., and Nater, J. P. Allergic contact dermatitis to garlic. Br.J Dermatol. 1972;87:6-9. View abstract.
  164. Yoshikawa, K., Hadame, K., Saitoh, K., and Hijikata, T. Patch tests with common vegetables in hand dermatitis patients. Contact Dermatitis 1979;5:274-275. View abstract.
  165. Bleumink, E. and Nater, J. P. Contact dermatitis to garlic; crossreactivity between garlic, onion and tulip. Arch.Dermatol.Forsch 8-15-1973;247:117-124. View abstract.
  166. Fliermans, C. B. Inhibition of Histoplasma capsulatum by garlic. Mycopathol.Mycol.Appl. 7-31-1973;50:227-231. View abstract.
  167. Cook-Mozaffari, P. J., Azordegan, F., Day, N. E., Ressicaud, A., Sabai, C., and Aramesh, B. Oesophageal cancer studies in the Caspian Littoral of Iran: results of a case-control study. Br.J Cancer 1979;39:293-309. View abstract.
  168. Bordia, A. and Bansal, H. C. Letter: Essential oil of garlic in prevention of atherosclerosis. Lancet 12-29-1973;2:1491-1492. View abstract.
  169. Delaha, E. C. and Garagusi, V. F. Inhibition of mycobacteria by garlic extract (Allium sativum). Antimicrob.Agents Chemother 1985;27:485-486. View abstract.
  170. Block, E. The chemistry of garlic and onions. Sci Am 1985;252:114-119. View abstract.
  171. Wargovich, M. J. Diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic (Allium sativum), inhibits dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Carcinogenesis 1987;8:487-489. View abstract.
  172. Marsh, C. L., Torrey, R. R., Woolley, J. L., Barker, G. R., and Lau, B. H. Superiority of intravesical immunotherapy with Corynebacterium parvum and Allium sativum in control of murine bladder cancer. J Urol 1987;137:359-362. View abstract.
  173. Hikino, H., Tohkin, M., Kiso, Y., Namiki, T., Nishimura, S., and Takeyama, K. Antihepatotoxic actions of Allium sativum bulbs. Planta Med 1986;:163-168. View abstract.
  174. Adetumbi, M., Javor, G. T., and Lau, B. H. Allium sativum (garlic) inhibits lipid synthesis by Candida albicans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1986;30:499-501. View abstract.
  175. Apitz-Castro, R., Escalante, J., Vargas, R., and Jain, M. K. Ajoene, the antiplatelet principle of garlic, synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin and dypiridamole on human platelets. Thromb.Res 5-1-1986;42:303-311. View abstract.
  176. Plengvidhya, C., Sitprija, S., Chinayon, S., Pasatrat, S., and Tankeyoon, M. Effects of spray dried garlic preparation on primary hyperlipoproteinemia. J Med Assoc Thai. 1988;71:248-252. View abstract.
  177. Bojs, G. and Svensson, A. Contact allergy to garlic used for wound healing. Contact Dermatitis 1988;18:179-181. View abstract.
  178. St Louis, M. E., Peck, S. H., Bowering, D., Morgan, G. B., Blatherwick, J., Banerjee, S., Kettyls, G. D., Black, W. A., Milling, M. E., Hauschild, A. H., and . Botulism from chopped garlic: delayed recognition of a major outbreak. Ann Intern Med 1988;108:363-368. View abstract.
  179. Sparnins, V. L., Barany, G., and Wattenberg, L. W. Effects of organosulfur compounds from garlic and onions on benzo[a]pyrene-induced neoplasia and glutathione S-transferase activity in the mouse. Carcinogenesis 1988;9:131-134. View abstract.
  180. Parish, R. A., McIntire, S., and Heimbach, D. M. Garlic burns: a naturopathic remedy gone awry. Pediatr.Emerg.Care 1987;3:258-260. View abstract.
  181. Kendler, B. S. Garlic (Allium sativum) and onion (Allium cepa): a review of their relationship to cardiovascular disease. Prev.Med 1987;16:670-685. View abstract.
  182. Sitprija, S., Plengvidhya, C., Kangkaya, V., Bhuvapanich, S., and Tunkayoon, M. Garlic and diabetes mellitus phase II clinical trial. J Med Assoc Thai. 1987;70 Suppl 2:223-227. View abstract.
  183. Pena, N., Auro, A., and Sumano, H. A comparative trial of garlic, its extract and ammonium-potassium tartrate as anthelmintics in carp. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;24(2-3):199-203. View abstract.
  184. Harenberg, J., Giese, C., and Zimmermann, R. Effect of dried garlic on blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, platelet aggregation and serum cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Atherosclerosis 1988;74:247-249. View abstract.
  185. Abbruzzese, M. R., Delaha, E. C., and Garagusi, V. F. Absence of antimycobacterial synergism between garlic extract and antituberculosis drugs. Diagn.Microbiol.Infect.Dis. 1987;8:79-85. View abstract.
  186. Ghannoum, M. A. Studies on the anticandidal mode of action of Allium sativum (garlic). J Gen.Microbiol. 1988;134 ( Pt 11):2917-2924. View abstract.
  187. Tsai, Y., Cole, L. L., Davis, L. E., Lockwood, S. J., Simmons, V., and Wild, G. C. Antiviral properties of garlic: in vitro effects on influenza B, herpes simplex and coxsackie viruses. Planta Med 1985;:460-461. View abstract.
  188. Buiatti, E., Palli, D., Decarli, A., Amadori, D., Avellini, C., Bianchi, S., Biserni, R., Cipriani, F., Cocco, P., Giacosa, A., and . A case-control study of gastric cancer and diet in Italy. Int J Cancer 10-15-1989;44:611-616. View abstract.
  189. Rendu, F., Daveloose, D., Debouzy, J. C., Bourdeau, N., Levy-Toledano, S., Jain, M. K., and Apitz-Castro, R. Ajoene, the antiplatelet compound derived from garlic, specifically inhibits platelet release reaction by affecting the plasma membrane internal microviscosity. Biochem.Pharmacol. 4-15-1989;38:1321-1328. View abstract.
  190. Nishino, H., Iwashima, A., Itakura, Y., Matsuura, H., and Fuwa, T. Antitumor-promoting activity of garlic extracts. Oncology 1989;46:277-280. View abstract.
  191. Feldberg, R. S., Chang, S. C., Kotik, A. N., Nadler, M., Neuwirth, Z., Sundstrom, D. C., and Thompson, N. H. In vitro mechanism of inhibition of bacterial cell growth by allicin. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother 1988;32:1763-1768. View abstract.
  192. Kaplan, B., Schewach-Millet, M., and Yorav, S. Factitial dermatitis induced by application of garlic. Int J Dermatol. 1990;29:75-76. View abstract.
  193. Ghannoum, M. A. Inhibition of Candida adhesion to buccal epithelial cells by an aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic). J Appl.Bacteriol. 1990;68:163-169. View abstract.
  194. Wang, Z. Y., Boice, J. D., Jr., Wei, L. X., Beebe, G. W., Zha, Y. R., Kaplan, M. M., Tao, Z. F., Maxon, H. R., III, Zhang, S. Z., Schneider, A. B., and . Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-21-1990;82:478-485. View abstract.
  195. Unnikrishnan, M. C., Soudamini, K. K., and Kuttan, R. Chemoprotection of garlic extract toward cyclophosphamide toxicity in mice. Nutr.Cancer 1990;13:201-207. View abstract.
  196. Hussain, S. P., Jannu, L. N., and Rao, A. R. Chemopreventive action of garlic on methylcholanthrene-induced carcinogenesis in the uterine cervix of mice. Cancer Lett. 1990;49:175-180. View abstract.
  197. Lee, M. H., Kim, Y. M., and Kim, S. G. Efficacy and tolerability of diphenyl-dimethyl-dicarboxylate plus garlic oil in patients with chronic hepatitis. Int.J.Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 2012;50:778-786. View abstract.
  198. Stabler, S. N., Tejani, A. M., Huynh, F., and Fowkes, C. Garlic for the prevention of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;8:CD007653. View abstract.
  199. Wang, Q., Wang, Y., Ji, Z., Chen, X., Pan, Y., Gao, G., Gu, H., Yang, Y., Choi, B. C., and Yan, Y. Risk factors for multiple myeloma: a hospital-based case-control study in Northwest China. Cancer Epidemiol. 2012;36:439-444. View abstract.
  200. Khodavandi, A., Alizadeh, F., Harmal, N. S., Sidik, S. M., Othman, F., Sekawi, Z., and Chong, P. P. Expression analysis of SIR2 and SAPs1-4 gene expression in Candida albicans treated with allicin compared to fluconazole. Trop.Biomed. 2011;28:589-598. View abstract.
  201. Lissiman, E., Bhasale, A. L., and Cohen, M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;3:CD006206. View abstract.
  202. Fedder, S. L. Spinal epidural hematoma and garlic ingestion. Neurosurgery 1990;27:659. View abstract.
  203. Berginc, K. and Kristl, A. The effect of garlic supplements and phytochemicals on the ADMET properties of drugs. Expert.Opin.Drug Metab Toxicol. 2012;8:295-310. View abstract.
  204. Nantz, M. P., Rowe, C. A., Muller, C. E., Creasy, R. A., Stanilka, J. M., and Percival, S. S. Supplementation with aged garlic extract improves both NK and gammadelta-T cell function and reduces the severity of cold and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled nutrition intervention. Clin.Nutr. 2012;31:337-344. View abstract.
  205. Ma, J. L., Zhang, L., Brown, L. M., Li, J. Y., Shen, L., Pan, K. F., Liu, W. D., Hu, Y., Han, Z. X., Crystal-Mansour, S., Pee, D., Blot, W. J., Fraumeni, J. F., Jr., You, W. C., and Gail, M. H. Fifteen-year effects of Helicobacter pylori, garlic, and vitamin treatments on gastric cancer incidence and mortality. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 3-21-2012;104:488-492. View abstract.
  206. Zeng, T., Guo, F. F., Zhang, C. L., Song, F. Y., Zhao, X. L., and Xie, K. Q. A meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials for the effects of garlic on serum lipid profiles. J.Sci.Food Agric. 2012;92:1892-1902. View abstract.
  207. Filobbos, G., Chapman, T., and Gesakis, K. Iatrogenic burns from garlic. J.Burn Care Res. 2012;33:e21. View abstract.
  208. Kianoush, S., Balali-Mood, M., Mousavi, S. R., Moradi, V., Sadeghi, M., Dadpour, B., Rajabi, O., and Shakeri, M. T. Comparison of therapeutic effects of garlic and d-Penicillamine in patients with chronic occupational lead poisoning. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2012;110:476-481. View abstract.
  209. Bakhshi, M., Taheri, J. B., Shabestari, S. B., Tanik, A., and Pahlevan, R. Comparison of therapeutic effect of aqueous extract of garlic and nystatin mouthwash in denture stomatitis. Gerodontology. 2012;29:e680-e684. View abstract.
  210. Higashikawa, F., Noda, M., Awaya, T., Ushijima, M., and Sugiyama, M. Reduction of serum lipids by the intake of the extract of garlic fermented with Monascus pilosus: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin.Nutr. 2012;31:261-266. View abstract.
  211. Dausch, J. G. and Nixon, D. W. Garlic: a review of its relationship to malignant disease. Prev.Med 1990;19:346-361. View abstract.
  212. Ashraf, R., Khan, R. A., and Ashraf, I. Garlic (Allium sativum) supplementation with standard antidiabetic agent provides better diabetic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Pak.J.Pharm.Sci. 2011;24:565-570. View abstract.
  213. Davis, L. E., Shen, J. K., and Cai, Y. Antifungal activity in human cerebrospinal fluid and plasma after intravenous administration of Allium sativum. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1990;34:651-653. View abstract.
  214. Ayala-Zavala, J. F. and Gonzalez-Aguilar, G. A. Optimizing the use of garlic oil as antimicrobial agent on fresh-cut tomato through a controlled release system. J.Food Sci. 2010;75:M398-M405. View abstract.
  215. Zhou, Y., Zhuang, W., Hu, W., Liu, G. J., Wu, T. X., and Wu, X. T. Consumption of large amounts of Allium vegetables reduces risk for gastric cancer in a meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2011;141:80-89. View abstract.
  216. Takeuchi, S., Matsuzaki, Y., Ikenaga, S., Nishikawa, Y., Kimura, K., Nakano, H., and Sawamura, D. Garlic-induced irritant contact dermatitis mimicking nail psoriasis. J.Dermatol. 2011;38:280-282. View abstract.
  217. Campos, R., Amato, Neto, V, Castanho, R. E., Moreira, A. A., and Pinto, P. L. [Treatment of ascaridiasis with garlic (Allium sativum)]. Rev Hosp.Clin Fac.Med Sao Paulo 1990;45:213-215. View abstract.
  218. Nahas, R. and Balla, A. Complementary and alternative medicine for prevention and treatment of the common cold. Can.Fam.Physician 2011;57:31-36. View abstract.
  219. Khodavandi, A., Alizadeh, F., Harmal, N. S., Sidik, S. M., Othman, F., Sekawi, Z., Jahromi, M. A., Ng, K. P., and Chong, P. P. Comparison between efficacy of allicin and fluconazole against Candida albicans in vitro and in a systemic candidiasis mouse model. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 2011;315:87-93. View abstract.
  220. Chavan, S. D., Shetty, N. L., and Kanuri, M. Comparative evaluation of garlic extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on salivary Streptococcus mutans count - an in vitro study. Oral Health Prev.Dent. 2010;8:369-374. View abstract.
  221. Salem, S., Salahi, M., Mohseni, M., Ahmadi, H., Mehrsai, A., Jahani, Y., and Pourmand, G. Major dietary factors and prostate cancer risk: a prospective multicenter case-control study. Nutr.Cancer 2011;63:21-27. View abstract.
  222. Guo, Y., Zhang, K., Wang, Q., Li, Z., Yin, Y., Xu, Q., Duan, W., and Li, C. Neuroprotective effects of diallyl trisulfide in SOD1-G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain Res. 2-16-2011;1374:110-115. View abstract.
  223. Makheja, A. N. and Bailey, J. M. Antiplatelet constituents of garlic and onion. Agents Actions 1990;29(3-4):360-363. View abstract.
  224. Sobenin, I. A., Pryanishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, Y. A., Martirosyan, D. M., and Orekhov, A. N. The effects of time-released garlic powder tablets on multifunctional cardiovascular risk in patients with coronary artery disease. Lipids Health Dis. 2010;9:119. View abstract.
  225. Hurley, M. N., Forrester, D. L., and Smyth, A. R. Antibiotic adjuvant therapy for pulmonary infection in cystic fibrosis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD008037. View abstract.
  226. Brosche, T. and Platt, D. [Garlic as phytogenic antilipemic agent. Recent studies with a standardized dry garlic powder substance]. Fortschr.Med 12-20-1990;108:703-706. View abstract.
  227. Wolf, S., Reim, M., and Jung, F. Effect of garlic on conjunctival vessels: a randomised, placebo- controlled, double-blind trial. Br J clin Pract suppl 1990;69:36-39. View abstract.
  228. Jung, F., Jung, E. M., Mrowietz, C., Kiesewetter, H., and Wenzel, E. Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation: a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover study in apparently healthy subjects. Br.J Clin Pract.Suppl 1990;69:30-35. View abstract.
  229. Zimmermann, W. and Zimmermann, B. Reduction in elevated blood lipids in hospitalised patients by a standardised garlic preparation. Br.J Clin Pract.Suppl 1990;69:20-23. View abstract.
  230. Brosche, T., Platt, D., and Dorner, H. The effect of a garlic preparation on the composition of plasma lipoproteins and erythrocyte membranes in geriatric subjects. Br.J Clin Pract.Suppl 1990;69:12-19. View abstract.
  231. Hansanugrum, A. and Barringer, S. A. Effect of milk on the deodorization of malodorous breath after garlic ingestion. J.Food Sci. 8-1-2010;75:C549-C558. View abstract.
  232. Kiesewetter, H., Jung, F., Pindur, G., Jung, E. M., Mrowietz, C., and Wenzel, E. Effect of garlic on thrombocyte aggregation, microcirculation, and other risk factors. Int J Clin Pharmacol.Ther.Toxicol. 1991;29:151-155. View abstract.
  233. Ried, K., Frank, O. R., and Stocks, N. P. Aged garlic extract lowers blood pressure in patients with treated but uncontrolled hypertension: a randomised controlled trial. Maturitas 2010;67:144-150. View abstract.
  234. Adachi, A. [Two cases of eosinophilic gastroenteritis whose causative allergens are usefully diagnosed by patch test]. Arerugi 2010;59:545-551. View abstract.
  235. Russell, J. E. Chinese complementary therapy for stress causing bilateral chemical burns to the feet. Emerg.Med.J. 2010;27:787. View abstract.
  236. De, B. K., Dutta, D., Pal, S. K., Gangopadhyay, S., Das, Baksi S., and Pani, A. The role of garlic in hepatopulmonary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Can.J.Gastroenterol. 2010;24:183-188. View abstract.
  237. Smyth, A. R., Cifelli, P. M., Ortori, C. A., Righetti, K., Lewis, S., Erskine, P., Holland, E. D., Givskov, M., Williams, P., Camara, M., Barrett, D. A., and Knox, A. Garlic as an inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum sensing in cystic fibrosis--a pilot randomized controlled trial. Pediatr.Pulmonol. 2010;45:356-362. View abstract.
  238. Tu, H. K., Pan, K. F., Zhang, Y., Li, W. Q., Zhang, L., Ma, J. L., Li, J. Y., and You, W. C. Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism and risk of gastric lesions, and its effects on chemoprevention in a Chinese population. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:1089-1097. View abstract.
  239. Ahmadi, N., Tsimikas, S., Hajsadeghi, F., Saeed, A., Nabavi, V., Bevinal, M. A., Kadakia, J., Flores, F., Ebrahimi, R., and Budoff, M. J. Relation of oxidative biomarkers, vascular dysfunction, and progression of coronary artery calcium. Am.J.Cardiol. 2-15-2010;105:459-466. View abstract.
  240. Gattu, S., Rashid, R. M., and Khachemoune, A. Self-induced skin lesions: a review of dermatitis artefacta. Cutis 2009;84:247-251. View abstract.
  241. Ayala-Zavala, J. F., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G. A., and Toro-Sanchez, L. Enhancing safety and aroma appealing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables using the antimicrobial and aromatic power of essential oils. J Food Sci 2009;74:R84-R91. View abstract.
  242. Demirkaya, E., Avci, A., Kesik, V., Karslioglu, Y., Oztas, E., Kismet, E., Gokcay, E., Durak, I., and Koseoglu, V. Cardioprotective roles of aged garlic extract, grape seed proanthocyanidin, and hazelnut on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:633-640. View abstract.
  243. Munawir, A., Sohn, E. T., Kang, C., Lee, S. H., Yoon, T. J., Kim, J. S., and Kim, E. Proteinaceous cytotoxic component of Allium sativum induces apoptosis of INT-407 intestinal cells. J Med Food 2009;12:776-781. View abstract.
  244. Lee, E. K., Chung, S. W., Kim, J. Y., Kim, J. M., Heo, H. S., Lim, H. A., Kim, M. K., Anton, S., Yokozawa, T., and Chung, H. Y. Allylmethylsulfide Down-Regulates X-Ray Irradiation-Induced Nuclear Factor-kappaB Signaling in C57/BL6 Mouse Kidney. J Med Food 2009;12:542-551. View abstract.
  245. Lissiman, E., Bhasale, A. L., and Cohen, M. Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2009;:CD006206. View abstract.
  246. Reinhart, K. M., Talati, R., White, C. M., and Coleman, C. I. The impact of garlic on lipid parameters: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr.Res.Rev. 2009;22:39-48. View abstract.
  247. Cohain, J. S. Long-term symptomatic group B streptococcal vulvovaginitis: eight cases resolved with freshly cut garlic. Eur.J Obstet.Gynecol.Reprod.Biol. 2009;146:110-111. View abstract.
  248. Ejaz, S., Chekarova, I., Cho, J. W., Lee, S. Y., Ashraf, S., and Lim, C. W. Effect of aged garlic extract on wound healing: a new frontier in wound management. Drug Chem.Toxicol. 2009;32:191-203. View abstract.
  249. Shakeel, M., Trinidade, A., McCluney, N., and Clive, B. Complementary and alternative medicine in epistaxis: a point worth considering during the patient's history. Eur.J.Emerg.Med. 2010;17:17-19. View abstract.
  250. Nagaraj, N. S., Anilakumar, K. R., and Singh, O. V. Diallyl disulfide causes caspase-dependent apoptosis in human cancer cells through a Bax-triggered mitochondrial pathway. J Nutr.Biochem. 5-6-2009; View abstract.
  251. Jung, E. M., Jung, F., Mrowietz, C., Kiesewetter, H., Pindur, G., and Wenzel, E. Influence of garlic powder on cutaneous microcirculation. A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study in apparently healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:626-630. View abstract.
  252. Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the potential herbal sources of future drugs effective in oxidant-related diseases. Inflamm.Allergy Drug Targets. 2009;8:2-10. View abstract.
  253. Khoo, Y. S. and Aziz, Z. Garlic supplementation and serum cholesterol: a meta-analysis. J Clin Pharm.Ther 2009;34:133-145. View abstract.
  254. Liu, C. T., Su, H. M., Lii, C. K., and Sheen, L. Y. Effect of supplementation with garlic oil on activity of Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes from rats. Planta Med 2009;75:205-210. View abstract.
  255. Zamani, A., Vahidinia, A., and Ghannad, M. S. The effect of garlic consumption on Th1/Th2 cytokines in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated rat spleen lymphocytes. Phytother.Res. 2009;23:579-581. View abstract.
  256. Sobenin, I. A., Andrianova, I. V., Demidova, O. N., Gorchakova, T., and Orekhov, A. N. Lipid-lowering effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in double-blinded placebo-controlled randomized study. J Atheroscler.Thromb. 2008;15:334-338. View abstract.
  257. Bagga, S., Thomas, B. S., and Bhat, M. Garlic burn as self-inflicted mucosal injury--a case report and review of the literature. Quintessence.Int. 2008;39:491-494. View abstract.
  258. Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Moslehi, R., Ma, J., Pan, K., Zhou, T., Liu, W., Brown, L. M., Hu, Y., Pee, D., Gail, M. H., and You, W. Long-term garlic or micronutrient supplementation, but not anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy, increases serum folate or glutathione without affecting serum vitamin B-12 or homocysteine in a rural Chinese population. J Nutr. 2009;139:106-112. View abstract.
  259. Kim, J. Y. and Kwon, O. Garlic intake and cancer risk: an analysis using the Food and Drug Administration's evidence-based review system for the scientific evaluation of health claims. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2009;89:257-264. View abstract.
  260. Ambati, S., Yang, J. Y., Rayalam, S., Park, H. J., Della-Fera, M. A., and Baile, C. A. Ajoene exerts potent effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Phytother.Res. 2009;23:513-518. View abstract.
  261. Reinhart, K. M., Coleman, C. I., Teevan, C., Vachhani, P., and White, C. M. Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis. Ann.Pharmacother. 2008;42:1766-1771. View abstract.
  262. Razo-Rodriguez, A. C., Chirino, Y. I., Sanchez-Gonzalez, D. J., Martinez-Martinez, C. M., Cruz, C., and Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Garlic powder ameliorates cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress. J Med Food 2008;11:582-586. View abstract.
  263. Bordel-Gomez, M. T. and Miranda-Romero, A. Sensitivity to diallyl disulfide in a Spanish population. Contact Dermatitis 2008;59:125-126. View abstract.
  264. Soffar, S. A. and Mokhtar, G. M. Evaluation of the antiparasitic effect of aqueous garlic (Allium sativum) extract in hymenolepiasis nana and giardiasis. J Egypt.Soc Parasitol. 1991;21:497-502. View abstract.
  265. El Beshbishy, H. A. Aqueous garlic extract attenuates hepatitis and oxidative stress induced by galactosamine/lipoploysaccharide in rats. Phytother.Res. 2008;22:1372-1379. View abstract.
  266. Lei, Y. P., Chen, H. W., Sheen, L. Y., and Lii, C. K. Diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide suppress oxidized LDL-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule and E-selectin expression through protein kinase A- and B-dependent signaling pathways. J Nutr. 2008;138:996-1003. View abstract.
  267. Prasad, S., Kalra, N., Srivastava, S., and Shukla, Y. Regulation of oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis by diallyl sulfide in DMBA-exposed Swiss mice. Hum.Exp.Toxicol. 2008;27:55-63. View abstract.
  268. Avci, A., Atli, T., Erguder, I. B., Varli, M., Devrim, E., Aras, S., and Durak, I. Effects of garlic consumption on plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters in elderly subjects. Gerontology 2008;54:173-176. View abstract.
  269. Lembo, G., Balato, N., Patruno, C., Auricchio, L., and Ayala, F. Allergic contact dermatitis due to garlic (Allium sativum). Contact Dermatitis 1991;25:330-331. View abstract.
  270. Zhang, Z. D., Li, Y., and Jiao, Z. K. [Effect of local application of allicinvia gastroscopy on cell proliferation and apoptosis of progressive gastric carcinoma]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2008;28:108-110. View abstract.
  271. Su, Q. S., Tian, Y., Zhang, J. G., and Zhang, H. Effects of allicin supplementation on plasma markers of exercise-induced muscle damage, IL-6 and antioxidant capacity. Eur.J Appl.Physiol 2008;103:275-283. View abstract.
  272. McFadden, J. P., White, J. M., Basketter, D. A., and Kimber, I. Reduced allergy rates in atopic eczema to contact allergens used in both skin products and foods: atopy and the 'hapten-atopy hypothesis'. Contact Dermatitis 2008;58:156-158. View abstract.
  273. Millen, A. E., Subar, A. F., Graubard, B. I., Peters, U., Hayes, R. B., Weissfeld, J. L., Yokochi, L. A., and Ziegler, R. G. Fruit and vegetable intake and prevalence of colorectal adenoma in a cancer screening trial. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2007;86:1754-1764. View abstract.
  274. Hiltunen, R., Josling, P. D., and James, M. H. Preventing airborne infection with an intranasal cellulose powder formulation (Nasaleze travel). Adv.Ther 2007;24:1146-1153. View abstract.
  275. Fani, M. M., Kohanteb, J., and Dayaghi, M. Inhibitory activity of garlic (Allium sativum) extract on multidrug-resistant Streptococcus mutans. J Indian Soc.Pedod.Prev.Dent. 2007;25:164-168. View abstract.
  276. Gamboa-Leon, M. R., Aranda-Gonzalez, I., Mut-Martin, M., Garcia-Miss, M. R., and Dumonteil, E. In vivo and in vitro control of Leishmania mexicana due to garlic-induced NO production. Scand.J Immunol. 2007;66:508-514. View abstract.
  277. Gadkari, J. V. and Joshi, V. D. Effect of ingestion of raw garlic on serum cholesterol level, clotting time and fibrinolytic activity in normal subjects. J Postgrad.Med 1991;37:128-131. View abstract.
  278. Sobenin, I. A., Nedosugova, L. V., Filatova, L. V., Balabolkin, M. I., Gorchakova, T. V., and Orekhov, A. N. Metabolic effects of time-released garlic powder tablets in type 2 diabetes mellitus: the results of double-blinded placebo-controlled study. Acta Diabetol. 2008;45:1-6. View abstract.
  279. Singh, B. B., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kubik, E., Mishra, L. C., Shepard, N. P., Singh, V. J., Meier, M., and Madhu, S. G. Ayurvedic and collateral herbal treatments for hyperlipidemia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental designs. Altern.Ther Health Med 2007;13:22-28. View abstract.
  280. Galduroz, J. C., Antunes, H. K., and Santos, R. F. Gender- and age-related variations in blood viscosity in normal volunteers: a study of the effects of extract of Allium sativum and Ginkgo biloba. Phytomedicine. 2007;14(7-8):447-451. View abstract.
  281. Munchberg, U., Anwar, A., Mecklenburg, S., and Jacob, C. Polysulfides as biologically active ingredients of garlic. Org.Biomol.Chem. 5-21-2007;5:1505-1518. View abstract.
  282. Sobenin, I. A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Use of allicor to lower the risk of myocardial infarction]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2007;85:25-28. View abstract.
  283. Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J. C., Motta, R. H., Ferraresi, P. M., and Sartoratto, A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic against oral streptococci. Int.J Dent.Hyg. 2007;5:109-115. View abstract.
  284. Kodai, S., Takemura, S., Minamiyama, Y., Hai, S., Yamamoto, S., Kubo, S., Yoshida, Y., Niki, E., Okada, S., Hirohashi, K., and Suehiro, S. S-allyl cysteine prevents CCl-induced acute liver injury in rats. Free Radic.Res. 2007;41:489-497. View abstract.
  285. Chauhan, N. B. and Sandoval, J. Amelioration of early cognitive deficits by aged garlic extract in Alzheimer's transgenic mice. Phytother.Res. 2007;21:629-640. View abstract.
  286. Wojcikowski, K., Myers, S., and Brooks, L. Effects of garlic oil on platelet aggregation: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Platelets. 2007;18:29-34. View abstract.
  287. Ahmad, M. S., Pischetsrieder, M., and Ahmed, N. Aged garlic extract and S-allyl cysteine prevent formation of advanced glycation endproducts. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-30-2007;561(1-3):32-38. View abstract.
  288. Hajheydari, Z., Jamshidi, M., Akbari, J., and Mohammadpour, R. Combination of topical garlic gel and betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: a double-blind randomized controlled study. Indian J Dermatol.Venereol.Leprol. 2007;73:29-32. View abstract.
  289. Knox, J. and Gaster, B. Dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. J Altern.Complement Med 2007;13:83-95. View abstract.
  290. Ekeowa-Anderson, A. L., Shergill, B., and Goldsmith, P. Allergic contact cheilitis to garlic. Contact Dermatitis 2007;56:174-175. View abstract.
  291. Dunstan, J. A., Breckler, L., Hale, J., Lehmann, H., Franklin, P., Lyons, G., Ching, S. Y., Mori, T. A., Barden, A., and Prescott, S. L. Supplementation with vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and selenium has no effect on anti-oxidant status and immune responses in allergic adults: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Exp.Allergy 2007;37:180-187. View abstract.
  292. Garcia-Anoveros, J. and Nagata, K. TRPA1. Handb.Exp.Pharmacol. 2007;:347-362. View abstract.
  293. Saleem, S., Ahmad, M., Ahmad, A. S., Yousuf, S., Ansari, M. A., Khan, M. B., Ishrat, T., and Islam, F. Behavioral and histologic neuroprotection of aqueous garlic extract after reversible focal cerebral ischemia. J Med Food 2006;9:537-544. View abstract.
  294. van Doorn, M. B., Espirito Santo, S. M., Meijer, P., Kamerling, I. M., Schoemaker, R. C., Dirsch, V., Vollmar, A., Haffner, T., Gebhardt, R., Cohen, A. F., Princen, H. M., and Burggraaf, J. Effect of garlic powder on C-reactive protein and plasma lipids in overweight and smoking subjects. Am.J Clin Nutr. 2006;84:1324-1329. View abstract.
  295. Chu, Q., Lee, D. T., Tsao, S. W., Wang, X., and Wong, Y. C. S-allylcysteine, a water-soluble garlic derivative, suppresses the growth of a human androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft, CWR22R, under in vivo conditions. BJU.Int. 2007;99:925-932. View abstract.
  296. Capraz, M., Dilek, M., and Akpolat, T. Garlic, hypertension and patient education. Int.J Cardiol. 9-14-2007;121:130-131. View abstract.
  297. Friedman, T., Shalom, A., and Westreich, M. Self-inflicted garlic burns: our experience and literature review. Int.J Dermatol. 2006;45:1161-1163. View abstract.
  298. Zhang, L., Gail, M. H., Wang, Y. Q., Brown, L. M., Pan, K. F., Ma, J. L., Amagase, H., You, W. C., and Moslehi, R. A randomized factorial study of the effects of long-term garlic and micronutrient supplementation and of 2-wk antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection on serum cholesterol and lipoproteins. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 2006;84:912-919. View abstract.
  299. Laing, M. E., Barry, J., Buckley, A. M., and Murphy, G. M. Immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions to food and latex in a chef. Contact Dermatitis 2006;55:193-194. View abstract.
  300. Rapp, A., Grohmann, G., Oelzner, P., Uehleke, B., and Uhlemann, C. [Does garlic influence rheologic properties and blood flow in progressive systemic sclerosis?]. Forsch.Komplementmed. 2006;13:141-146. View abstract.
  301. Ledezma, E. and Apitz-Castro, R. [Ajoene the main active compound of garlic (Allium sativum): a new antifungal agent]. Rev.Iberoam.Micol. 2006;23:75-80. View abstract.
  302. Chauhan, N. B. Effect of aged garlic extract on APP processing and tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer's transgenic model Tg2576. J Ethnopharmacol. 12-6-2006;108:385-394. View abstract.
  303. Thamburan, S., Klaasen, J., Mabusela, W. T., Cannon, J. F., Folk, W., and Johnson, Q. Tulbaghia alliacea phytotherapy: a potential anti-infective remedy for candidiasis. Phytother.Res. 2006;20:844-850. View abstract.
  304. Ariga, T. and Seki, T. Antithrombotic and anticancer effects of garlic-derived sulfur compounds: a review. Biofactors 2006;26:93-103. View abstract.
  305. Shukla, Y. and Kalra, N. Cancer chemoprevention with garlic and its constituents. Cancer Lett. 3-18-2007;247:167-181. View abstract.
  306. Coppi, A., Cabinian, M., Mirelman, D., and Sinnis, P. Antimalarial activity of allicin, a biologically active compound from garlic cloves. Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 2006;50:1731-1737. View abstract.
  307. Mukherjee, M., Das, A. S., Das, D., Mukherjee, S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Role of oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) on intestinal transference of calcium and its possible correlation with preservation of skeletal health in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Phytother.Res. 2006;20:408-415. View abstract.
  308. Dorhoi, A., Dobrean, V., Zahan, M., and Virag, P. Modulatory effects of several herbal extracts on avian peripheral blood cell immune responses. Phytother.Res. 2006;20:352-358. View abstract.
  309. Yuncu, M., Eralp, A., and Celik, A. Effect of aged garlic extract against methotrexate-induced damage to the small intestine in rats. Phytother.Res. 2006;20:504-510. View abstract.
  310. Sobenin, I. A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Rabinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Allicor efficacy in lowering the risk of ischemic heart disease in primary prophylaxis]. Ter.Arkh. 2005;77:9-13. View abstract.
  311. Leelarungrayub, N., Rattanapanone, V., Chanarat, N., and Gebicki, J. M. Quantitative evaluation of the antioxidant properties of garlic and shallot preparations. Nutrition 2006;22:266-274. View abstract.
  312. Zeybek, A., Cikler, E., Saglam, B., Ercan, F., Cetinel, S., and Sener, G. Aqueous garlic extract inhibits protamine sulfate-induced bladder damage. Urol.Int. 2006;76:173-179. View abstract.
  313. Pinto, J. T., Krasnikov, B. F., and Cooper, A. J. Redox-sensitive proteins are potential targets of garlic-derived mercaptocysteine derivatives. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):835S-841S. View abstract.
  314. Wargovich, M. J. Diallylsulfide and allylmethylsulfide are uniquely effective among organosulfur compounds in inhibiting CYP2E1 protein in animal models. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):832S-834S. View abstract.
  315. Tanaka, S., Haruma, K., Yoshihara, M., Kajiyama, G., Kira, K., Amagase, H., and Chayama, K. Aged garlic extract has potential suppressive effect on colorectal adenomas in humans. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):821S-826S. View abstract.
  316. Ishikawa, H., Saeki, T., Otani, T., Suzuki, T., Shimozuma, K., Nishino, H., Fukuda, S., and Morimoto, K. Aged garlic extract prevents a decline of NK cell number and activity in patients with advanced cancer. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):816S-820S. View abstract.
  317. Gail, M. H. and You, W. C. A factorial trial including garlic supplements assesses effect in reducing precancerous gastric lesions. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):813S-815S. View abstract.
  318. Borek, C. Garlic reduces dementia and heart-disease risk. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):810S-812S. View abstract.
  319. Takasu, J., Uykimpang, R., Sunga, M. A., Amagase, H., and Niihara, Y. Aged garlic extract is a potential therapy for sickle-cell anemia. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):803S-805S. View abstract.
  320. Yeh, Y. Y. and Yeh, S. M. Homocysteine-lowering action is another potential cardiovascular protective factor of aged garlic extract. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):745S-749S. View abstract.
  321. Budoff, M. Aged garlic extract retards progression of coronary artery calcification. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):741S-744S. View abstract.
  322. Rahman, K. and Lowe, G. M. Garlic and cardiovascular disease: a critical review. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):736S-740S. View abstract.
  323. Amagase, H. Clarifying the real bioactive constituents of garlic. J Nutr. 2006;136(3 Suppl):716S-725S. View abstract.
  324. Arnault, I. and Auger, J. Seleno-compounds in garlic and onion. J Chromatogr.A 4-21-2006;1112(1-2):23-30. View abstract.
  325. Cooper, A. J. and Pinto, J. T. Cysteine S-conjugate beta-lyases. Amino.Acids 2006;30:1-15. View abstract.
  326. Unsal, A., Eroglu, M., Avci, A., Cimentepe, E., Guven, C., Derya, Balbay M., and Durak, I. Protective role of natural antioxidant supplementation on testicular tissue after testicular torsion and detorsion. Scand.J Urol.Nephrol. 2006;40:17-22. View abstract.
  327. Mukherjee, M., Das, A. S., Das, D., Mukherjee, S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Effects of garlic oil on postmenopausal osteoporosis using ovariectomized rats: comparison with the effects of lovastatin and 17beta-estradiol. Phytother.Res. 2006;20:21-27. View abstract.
  328. Ernst, E. Complementary/alternative medicine for hypertension: a mini-review. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2005;155(17-18):386-391. View abstract.
  329. Lanzotti, V. The analysis of onion and garlic. J Chromatogr.A 4-21-2006;1112(1-2):3-22. View abstract.
  330. Sendl, A., Schliack, M., Loser, R., Stanislaus, F., and Wagner, H. Inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in vitro by extracts and isolated compounds prepared from garlic and wild garlic. Atherosclerosis 1992;94:79-85. View abstract.
  331. Ashraf, R., Aamir, K., Shaikh, A. R., and Ahmed, T. Effects of garlic on dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2005;17:60-64. View abstract.
  332. Eguchi, A., Murakami, A., and Ohigashi, H. Novel bioassay system for evaluating anti-oxidative activities of food items: use of basolateral media from differentiated Caco-2 cells. Free Radic.Res. 2005;39:1367-1375. View abstract.
  333. Schulz, M., Lahmann, P. H., Boeing, H., and et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2005;14(11 Pt 1):2531-2535. View abstract.
  334. Ghazanfari, T., Hassan, Z. M., and Khamesipour, A. Enhancement of peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activity against Leishmania major by garlic (Allium sativum) treatment. J Ethnopharmacol. 2-20-2006;103:333-337. View abstract.
  335. Visbal, G., San Blas, G., Murgich, J., and Franco, H. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, paracoccidioidomycosis, and antifungal antibiotics. Curr.Drug Targets.Infect.Disord. 2005;5:211-226. View abstract.
  336. Wongmekiat, O. and Thamprasert, K. Investigating the protective effects of aged garlic extract on cyclosporin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2005;19:555-562. View abstract.
  337. Kabasakal, L., Sehirli, O., Cetinel, S., Cikler, E., Gedik, N., and Sener, G. Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. J Med Food 2005;8:319-326. View abstract.
  338. Akcicek, E., Otles, S., and Esiyok, D. Cancer and its prevention by some horticultural and field crops in Turkey. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2005;6:224-230. View abstract.
  339. Anthony, J. P., Fyfe, L., and Smith, H. Plant active components - a resource for antiparasitic agents? Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:462-468. View abstract.
  340. Williams, M. J., Sutherland, W. H., McCormick, M. P., Yeoman, D. J., and de Jong, S. A. Aged garlic extract improves endothelial function in men with coronary artery disease. Phytother.Res. 7-22-2005;19:314-319. View abstract.
  341. Tattelman, E. Health effects of garlic. Am.Fam.Physician 7-1-2005;72:103-106. View abstract.
  342. Rose, P., Whiteman, M., Moore, P. K., and Zhu, Y. Z. Bioactive S-alk(en)yl cysteine sulfoxide metabolites in the genus Allium: the chemistry of potential therapeutic agents. Nat.Prod.Rep. 2005;22:351-368. View abstract.
  343. Gurley, B. J., Gardner, S. F., Hubbard, M. A., Williams, D. K., Gentry, W. B., Cui, Y., and Ang, C. Y. Clinical assessment of effects of botanical supplementation on cytochrome P450 phenotypes in the elderly: St John's wort, garlic oil, Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba. Drugs Aging 2005;22:525-539. View abstract.
  344. Sabitha, P., Adhikari, P. M., Shenoy, S. M., Kamath, A., John, R., Prabhu, M. V., Mohammed, S., Baliga, S., and Padmaja, U. Efficacy of garlic paste in oral candidiasis. Trop.Doct. 2005;35:99-100. View abstract.
  345. Jabbari, A., Argani, H., Ghorbanihaghjo, A., and Mahdavi, R. Comparison between swallowing and chewing of garlic on levels of serum lipids, cyclosporine, creatinine and lipid peroxidation in Renal Transplant Recipients. Lipids Health Dis. 5-19-2005;4:11. View abstract.
  346. Sobenin, I. A., Prianishnikov, V. V., Kunnova, L. M., Radinovich, E. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Reduction of cardiovascular risk in primary prophylaxy of coronary heart disease]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2005;83:52-55. View abstract.
  347. Pittler, M. H. and Ernst, E. Complementary therapies for peripheral arterial disease: systematic review. Atherosclerosis 2005;181:1-7. View abstract.
  348. Bhuvaneswari, V., Abraham, S. K., and Nagini, S. Combinatorial antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic effects of tomato and garlic through modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes during hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Nutrition 2005;21:726-731. View abstract.
  349. Omurtag, G. Z., Guranlioglu, F. D., Sehirli, O., Arbak, S., Uslu, B., Gedik, N., and Sener, G. Protective effect of aqueous garlic extract against naphthalene-induced oxidative stress in mice. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2005;57:623-630. View abstract.
  350. Bakri, I. M. and Douglas, C. W. Inhibitory effect of garlic extract on oral bacteria. Arch Oral Biol. 2005;50:645-651. View abstract.
  351. Wu, X., Kassie, F., and Mersch-Sundermann, V. Induction of apoptosis in tumor cells by naturally occurring sulfur-containing compounds. Mutat.Res. 2005;589:81-102. View abstract.
  352. Rajan, T. V., Hein, M., Porte, P., and Wikel, S. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of garlic as a mosquito repellant: a preliminary study. Med Vet.Entomol. 2005;19:84-89. View abstract.
  353. Davis, S. R. An overview of the antifungal properties of allicin and its breakdown products--the possibility of a safe and effective antifungal prophylactic. Mycoses 2005;48:95-100. View abstract.
  354. Tanaka, S., Haruma, K., Kunihiro, M., Nagata, S., Kitadai, Y., Manabe, N., Sumii, M., Yoshihara, M., Kajiyama, G., and Chayama, K. Effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on colorectal adenomas: a double-blinded study. Hiroshima J Med Sci. 2004;53(3-4):39-45. View abstract.
  355. Dhawan, V. and Jain, S. Effect of garlic supplementation on oxidized low density lipoproteins and lipid peroxidation in patients of essential hypertension. Mol.Cell Biochem. 2004;266(1-2):109-115. View abstract.
  356. Khanum, F., Anilakumar, K. R., and Viswanathan, K. R. Anticarcinogenic properties of garlic: a review. Crit Rev.Food Sci Nutr. 2004;44:479-488. View abstract.
  357. Bespalov, V. G., Barash, N. I., Ivanova, O. A., Krzhivitskii, P. I., Semiglazov, V. F., Aleksandrov, V. A., Sobenin, N. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Study of an antioxidant dietary supplement "Karinat" in patients with benign breast disease]. Vopr.Onkol. 2004;50:467-472. View abstract.
  358. Tanamai, J., Veeramanomai, S., and Indrakosas, N. The efficacy of cholesterol-lowering action and side effects of garlic enteric coated tablets in man. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2004;87:1156-1161. View abstract.
  359. Swanson, C. A., Mao, B. L., Li, J. Y., Lubin, J. H., Yao, S. X., Wang, J. Z., Cai, S. K., Hou, Y., Luo, Q. S., and Blot, W. J. Dietary determinants of lung-cancer risk: results from a case-control study in Yunnan Province, China. Int J Cancer 4-1-1992;50:876-880. View abstract.
  360. Turner, B., Molgaard, C., and Marckmann, P. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) powder tablets on serum lipids, blood pressure and arterial stiffness in normo-lipidaemic volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br.J.Nutr. 2004;92:701-706. View abstract.
  361. Budoff, M. J., Takasu, J., Flores, F. R., Niihara, Y., Lu, B., Lau, B. H., Rosen, R. T., and Amagase, H. Inhibiting progression of coronary calcification using Aged Garlic Extract in patients receiving statin therapy: a preliminary study. Prev.Med 2004;39:985-991. View abstract.
  362. Li, H., Li, H. Q., Wang, Y., Xu, H. X., Fan, W. T., Wang, M. L., Sun, P. H., and Xie, X. Y. An intervention study to prevent gastric cancer by micro-selenium and large dose of allitridum. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 2004;117:1155-1160. View abstract.
  363. Saravanan, G. and Prakash, J. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on lipid peroxidation in experimental myocardial infarction in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94:155-158. View abstract.
  364. Mukherjee, M., Das, A. S., Mitra, S., and Mitra, C. Prevention of bone loss by oil extract of garlic (Allium sativum Linn.) in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis. Phytother.Res. 2004;18:389-394. View abstract.
  365. Durak, I., Kavutcu, M., Aytac, B., Avci, A., Devrim, E., Ozbek, H., and Ozturk, H. S. Effects of garlic extract consumption on blood lipid and oxidant/antioxidant parameters in humans with high blood cholesterol. J Nutr.Biochem. 2004;15:373-377. View abstract.
  366. Berspalov, V. G., Shcherbakov, A. M., Kalinovskii, V. P., Novik, V. I., Chepik, O. F., Aleksandrov, V. A., Sobenin, I. A., and Orekhov, A. N. [Study of the antioxidant drug "Karinat" in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis]. Vopr.Onkol. 2004;50:81-85. View abstract.
  367. Sheela, C. G. and Augusti, K. T. Antidiabetic effects of S-allyl cysteine sulphoxide isolated from garlic Allium sativum Linn. Indian J Exp Biol 1992;30:523-526. View abstract.
  368. Nikolic, V., Stankovic, M., Nikolic, Lj, and Cvetkovic, D. Mechanism and kinetics of synthesis of allicin. Pharmazie 2004;59:10-14. View abstract.
  369. Bennett, C. M., Dalton, C., Beers-Deeble, M., Milazzo, A., Kraa, E., Davos, D., Puech, M., Tan, A., and Heuzenroeder, M. W. Fresh garlic: a possible vehicle for Salmonella Virchow. Epidemiol.Infect. 2003;131:1041-1048. View abstract.
  370. McFadden, J. P., White, I. R., and Rycroft, R. J. Allergic contact dermatitis from garlic. Contact Dermatitis 1992;27:333-334. View abstract.
  371. van Ketel, W. G. and de Haan, P. Occupational eczema from garlic and onion. Contact Dermatitis 1978;4:53-54. View abstract.
  372. Dwivedi, C., Rohlfs, S., Jarvis, D., and Engineer, F. N. Chemoprevention of chemically induced skin tumor development by diallyl sulfide and diallyl disulfide. Pharm.Res 1992;9:1668-1670. View abstract.
  373. Canizares, P., Gracia, I., Gomez, L. A., Martin, de Argila, Boixeda, D., Garcia, A., and de Rafael, L. Allyl-thiosulfinates, the bacteriostatic compounds of garlic against Helicobacter pylori. Biotechnol.Prog. 2004;20:397-401. View abstract.
  374. Apitz-Castro, R., Badimon, J. J., and Badimon, L. Effect of ajoene, the major antiplatelet compound from garlic, on platelet thrombus formation. Thromb.Res 10-15-1992;68:145-155. View abstract.
  375. Anim-Nyame, N., Sooranna, S. R., Johnson, M. R., Gamble, J., and Steer, P. J. Garlic supplementation increases peripheral blood flow: a role for interleukin-6? J Nutr.Biochem. 2004;15:30-36. View abstract.
  376. Hsu, C. C., Huang, C. N., Hung, Y. C., and Yin, M. C. Five cysteine-containing compounds have antioxidative activity in Balb/cA mice. J Nutr. 2004;134:149-152. View abstract.
  377. Ashraf, M. Z., Hussain, M. E., and Fahim, M. Endothelium mediated vasorelaxant response of garlic in isolated rat aorta: role of nitric oxide. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;90:5-9. View abstract.
  378. Mukhrejee, S., Banerjee, S. K., Maulik, M., Dinda, A. K., Talwar, K. K., and Maulik, S. K. Protection against acute adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity by garlic: Role of endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of TNF-alpha expression. BMC.Pharmacol 12-20-2003;3:16. View abstract.
  379. Pathak, A., Leger, P., Bagheri, H., Senard, J. M., Boccalon, H., and Montastruc, J. L. Garlic interaction with fluindione: a case report. Therapie 2003;58:380-381. View abstract.
  380. Kosuge, Y., Koen, Y., Ishige, K., Minami, K., Urasawa, H., Saito, H., and Ito, Y. S-allyl-L-cysteine selectively protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons from amyloid beta-protein- and tunicamycin-induced neuronal death. Neuroscience 2003;122:885-895. View abstract.
  381. Baluchnejadmojarad, T. and Roghani, M. Endothelium-dependent and -independent effect of aqueous extract of garlic on vascular reactivity on diabetic rats. Fitoterapia 2003;74(7-8):630-637. View abstract.
  382. Hjorth, N. and Roed-Petersen, J. Occupational protein contact dermatitis in food handlers. Contact Dermatitis 1976;2:28-42. View abstract.
  383. Xiao, D., Pinto, J. T., Soh, J. W., Deguchi, A., Gundersen, G. G., Palazzo, A. F., Yoon, J. T., Shirin, H., and Weinstein, I. B. Induction of apoptosis by the garlic-derived compound S-allylmercaptocysteine (SAMC) is associated with microtubule depolymerization and c-Jun NH-terminal kinase 1 activation. Cancer Res 10-15-2003;63:6825-6837. View abstract.
  384. Peleg, A., Hershcovici, T., Lipa, R., Anbar, R., Redler, M., and Beigel, Y. Effect of garlic on lipid profile and psychopathologic parameters in people with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. Isr.Med Assoc J 2003;5:637-640. View abstract.
  385. Zheng, W., Blot, W. J., Shu, X. O., Gao, Y. T., Ji, B. T., Ziegler, R. G., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Diet and other risk factors for laryngeal cancer in Shanghai, China. Am J Epidemiol. 7-15-1992;136:178-191. View abstract.
  386. Zheng, W., Blot, W. J., Shu, X. O., Diamond, E. L., Gao, Y. T., Ji, B. T., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. A population-based case-control study of cancers of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in Shanghai. Int J Cancer 10-21-1992;52:557-561. View abstract.
  387. Maldonado, P. D., Barrera, D., Medina-Campos, O. N., Hernandez-Pando, R., Ibarra-Rubio, M. E., and Pedraza-Chaverri, J. Aged garlic extract attenuates gentamicin induced renal damage and oxidative stress in rats. Life Sci. 10-3-2003;73:2543-2556. View abstract.
  388. Kweon, S., Park, K. A., and Choi, H. Chemopreventive effect of garlic powder diet in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis. Life Sci. 9-26-2003;73:2515-2526. View abstract.
  389. Hassan, Z. M., Yaraee, R., Zare, N., Ghazanfari, T., Sarraf Nejad, A. H., and Nazori, B. Immunomodulatory affect of R10 fraction of garlic extract on natural killer activity. Int Immunopharmacol. 2003;3(10-11):1483-1489. View abstract.
  390. Salih, B. A. and Abasiyanik, F. M. Does regular garlic intake affect the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in asymptomatic subjects? Saudi.Med J 2003;24:842-845. View abstract.
  391. Lohse, N., Kraghede, P. G., and Molbak, K. [Botulism an a 38-year-old man after ingestion of garlic in chilli oil]. Ugeskr.Laeger 7-21-2003;165:2962-2963. View abstract.
  392. Keiss, H. P., Dirsch, V. M., Hartung, T., Haffner, T., Trueman, L., Auger, J., Kahane, R., and Vollmar, A. M. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated human blood thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB activity. J Nutr. 2003;133:2171-2175. View abstract.
  393. Lachter, J., Babich, J. P., Brookman, J. C., and Factor, A. Y. Garlic: a way out of work. Mil.Med 2003;168:499-500. View abstract.
  394. Balasenthil, S., Rao, K. S., and Nagini, S. Retinoic acid receptor-beta mRNA expression during chemoprevention of hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis by garlic. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2003;12:215-218. View abstract.
  395. Teranishi, K., Apitz-Castro, R., Robson, S. C., Romano, E., and Cooper, D. K. Inhibition of baboon platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo by the garlic derivative, ajoene. Xenotransplantation. 2003;10:374-379. View abstract.
  396. Benatuil, L., Apitz-Castro, R., and Romano, E. Ajoene inhibits the activation of human endothelial cells induced by porcine cells: implications for xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2003;10:368-373. View abstract.
  397. Tilli, C. M., Stavast-Kooy, A. J., Vuerstaek, J. D., Thissen, M. R., Krekels, G. A., Ramaekers, F. C., and Neumann, H. A. The garlic-derived organosulfur component ajoene decreases basal cell carcinoma tumor size by inducing apoptosis. Arch Dermatol.Res 2003;295:117-123. View abstract.
  398. Sovova, M. and Sova, P. [Pharmaceutical significance of Allium sativum L. 4. Antifungal effects]. Ceska.Slov.Farm. 2003;52:82-87. View abstract.
  399. Andrianova, I. V., Sobenin, I. A., Sereda, E. V., Borodina, L. I., and Studenikin, M. I. [Effect of long-acting garlic tablets "allicor" on the incidence of acute respiratory viral infections in children]. Ter.Arkh. 2003;75:53-56. View abstract.
  400. Alder, R., Lookinland, S., Berry, J. A., and Williams, M. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. J Am Acad.Nurse Pract. 2003;15:120-129. View abstract.
  401. Davis, S. R., Perrie, R., and Apitz-Castro, R. The in vitro susceptibility of Scedosporium prolificans to ajoene, allitridium and a raw extract of garlic (Allium sativum). J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2003;51:593-597. View abstract.
  402. Germain, E., Auger, J., Ginies, C., Siess, M. H., and Teyssier, C. In vivo metabolism of diallyl disulphide in the rat: identification of two new metabolites. Xenobiotica 2002;32:1127-1138. View abstract.
  403. Baluchnejadmojarad, T., Roghani, M., Homayounfar, H., and Hosseini, M. Beneficial effect of aqueous garlic extract on the vascular reactivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85:139-144. View abstract.
  404. Helen, A., Krishnakumar, K., Vijayammal, P. L., and Augusti, K. T. A comparative study of antioxidants S-allyl cysteine sulfoxide and vitamin E on the damages induced by nicotine in rats. Pharmacology 2003;67:113-117. View abstract.
  405. Groppo, F. C., Ramacciato, J. C., Simoes, R. P., Florio, F. M., and Sartoratto, A. Antimicrobial activity of garlic, tea tree oil, and chlorhexidine against oral microorganisms. Int.Dent.J. 2002;52:433-437. View abstract.
  406. Dillon, S. A., Burmi, R. S., Lowe, G. M., Billington, D., and Rahman, K. Antioxidant properties of aged garlic extract: an in vitro study incorporating human low density lipoprotein. Life Sci. 2-21-2003;72:1583-1594. View abstract.
  407. Li, M., Min, J. M., Cui, J. R., Zhang, L. H., Wang, K., Valette, A., Davrinche, C., Wright, M., and Leung-Tack, J. Z-ajoene induces apoptosis of HL-60 cells: involvement of Bcl-2 cleavage. Nutr.Cancer 2002;42:241-247. View abstract.
  408. von Stebut, E., Belkaid, Y., Nguyen, B., Wilson, M., Sacks, D. L., and Udey, M. C. Skin-derived macrophages from Leishmania major-susceptible mice exhibit interleukin-12- and interferon-gamma-independent nitric oxide production and parasite killing after treatment with immunostimulatory DNA. J Invest Dermatol. 2002;119:621-628. View abstract.
  409. Hughes, T. M., Varma, S., and Stone, N. M. Occupational contact dermatitis from a garlic and herb mixture. Contact Dermatitis 2002;47:48. View abstract.
  410. Banerjee, S. K., Dinda, A. K., Manchanda, S. C., and Maulik, S. K. Chronic garlic administration protects rat heart against oxidative stress induced by ischemic reperfusion injury. BMC.Pharmacol. 8-16-2002;2:16. View abstract.
  411. Lin, M. C., Wang, E. J., Lee, C., Chin, K. T., Liu, D., Chiu, J. F., and Kung, H. F. Garlic inhibits microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression in human liver and intestinal cell lines and in rat intestine. J Nutr. 2002;132:1165-1168. View abstract.
  412. Hu, X., Cao, B. N., Hu, G., He, J., Yang, D. Q., and Wan, Y. S. Attenuation of cell migration and induction of cell death by aged garlic extract in rat sarcoma cells. Int J Mol.Med 2002;9:641-643. View abstract.
  413. Andrianova, I. V., Fomchenkov, I. V., and Orekhov, A. N. [Hypotensive effect of long-acting garlic tablets allicor (a double-blind placebo-controlled trial)]. Ter.Arkh. 2002;74:76-78. View abstract.
  414. Li, M., Ciu, J. R., Ye, Y., Min, J. M., Zhang, L. H., Wang, K., Gares, M., Cros, J., Wright, M., and Leung-Tack, J. Antitumor activity of Z-ajoene, a natural compound purified from garlic: antimitotic and microtubule-interaction properties. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:573-579. View abstract.
  415. Bottone, F. G., Jr., Baek, S. J., Nixon, J. B., and Eling, T. E. Diallyl disulfide (DADS) induces the antitumorigenic NSAID-activated gene (NAG-1) by a p53-dependent mechanism in human colorectal HCT 116 cells. J Nutr. 2002;132:773-778. View abstract.
  416. Pereira, F., Hatia, M., and Cardoso, J. Systemic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46:124. View abstract.
  417. Balasenthil, S., Rao, K. S., and Nagini, S. Altered cytokeratin expression during chemoprevention of experimental hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis by garlic. J Oral Pathol.Med 2002;31:142-146. View abstract.
  418. Dillon, S. A., Lowe, G. M., Billington, D., and Rahman, K. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract reduces plasma and urine concentrations of 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2 alpha) in smoking and nonsmoking men and women. J Nutr. 2002;132:168-171. View abstract.
  419. Andrianova, I. V., Ionova, V. G., Demina, E. G., Shabalina, A. A., Karabasova, IaA, Liutova, L. I., Povorinskaia, T. E., and Orekhov, A. N. [Use of allikor for the normalization of fibrinolysis and hemostasis in patients with chronic cerebrovascular diseases]. Klin.Med (Mosk) 2001;79:55-58. View abstract.
  420. Zhang, W. J., Shi, Z. X., Wang, B. B., Cui, Y. J., Guo, J. Z., and Li, B. Allitridum mimics effect of ischemic preconditioning by activation of protein kinase C. Acta Pharmacol.Sin. 2001;22:132-136. View abstract.
  421. McNulty, C. A., Wilson, M. P., Havinga, W., Johnston, B., O'Gara, E. A., and Maslin, D. J. A pilot study to determine the effectiveness of garlic oil capsules in the treatment of dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori. Helicobacter. 2001;6:249-253. View abstract.
  422. Baruchin, A. M., Sagi, A., Yoffe, B., and Ronen, M. Garlic burns. Burns 2001;27:781-782. View abstract.
  423. Hirsch, K., Danilenko, M., Giat, J., Miron, T., Rabinkov, A., Wilchek, M., Mirelman, D., Levy, J., and Sharoni, Y. Effect of purified allicin, the major ingredient of freshly crushed garlic, on cancer cell proliferation. Nutr.Cancer 2000;38:245-254. View abstract.
  424. Kannar, D., Wattanapenpaiboon, N., Savige, G. S., and Wahlqvist, M. L. Hypocholesterolemic effect of an enteric-coated garlic supplement. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:225-231. View abstract.
  425. Lawson, L. D. Garlic for total cholesterol reduction. Ann.Intern.Med 7-3-2001;135:65-66. View abstract.
  426. Balasenthil, S., Ramachandran, C. R., and Nagini, S. Prevention of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide-induced rat tongue carcinogenesis by garlic. Fitoterapia 2001;72:524-531. View abstract.
  427. Rahmy, T. R. and Hemmaid, K. Z. Prophylactic action of garlic on the histological and histochemical patterns of hepatic and gastric tissues in rats injected with a snake venom. J Nat Toxins. 2001;10:137-165. View abstract.
  428. Gupta, N. and Porter, T. D. Garlic and garlic-derived compounds inhibit human squalene monooxygenase. J Nutr 2001;131:1662-1667. View abstract.
  429. Bordia, A., Bansal, H. C., Arora, S. K., and Singh, S. V. Effect of the essential oils of garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia. Atherosclerosis 1975;21:15-19. View abstract.
  430. Li, G., Shi, Z., Jia, H., Ju, J., Wang, X., Xia, Z., Qin, L., Ge, C., Xu, Y., Cheng, L., Chen, P., and Yuan, G. A clinical investigation on garlicin injectio for treatment of unstable angina pectoris and its actions on plasma endothelin and blood sugar levels. J Tradit.Chin Med 2000;20:243-246. View abstract.
  431. Hoshino, T., Kashimoto, N., and Kasuga, S. Effects of garlic preparations on the gastrointestinal mucosa. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1109S-1113S. View abstract.
  432. Sivam, G. P. Protection against Helicobacter pylori and other bacterial infections by garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1106S-1108S. View abstract.
  433. Numagami, Y. and Ohnishi, S. T. S-allylcysteine inhibits free radical production, lipid peroxidation and neuronal damage in rat brain ischemia. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1100S-1105S. View abstract.
  434. Kasuga, S., Uda, N., Kyo, E., Ushijima, M., Morihara, N., and Itakura, Y. Pharmacologic activities of aged garlic extract in comparison with other garlic preparations. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1080S-1084S. View abstract.
  435. Lamm, D. L. and Riggs, D. R. Enhanced immunocompetence by garlic: role in bladder cancer and other malignancies. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1067S-1070S. View abstract.
  436. Knowles, L. M. and Milner, J. A. Possible mechanism by which allyl sulfides suppress neoplastic cell proliferation. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):1061S-1066S. View abstract.
  437. Pinto, J. T. and Rivlin, R. S. Antiproliferative effects of allium derivatives from garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1058S-1060S. View abstract.
  438. Song, K. and Milner, J. A. The influence of heating on the anticancer properties of garlic. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1054S-1057S. View abstract.
  439. Milner, J. A. A historical perspective on garlic and cancer. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1027S-1031S. View abstract.
  440. Campbell, J. H., Efendy, J. L., Smith, N. J., and Campbell, G. R. Molecular basis by which garlic suppresses atherosclerosis. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):1006S-1009S. View abstract.
  441. Ryu, K., Ide, N., Matsuura, H., and Itakura, Y. N alpha-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)-L-arginine, an antioxidant compound identified in aged garlic extract. J Nutr 2001;131(3s):972S-976S. View abstract.
  442. Rivlin, R. S. Historical perspective on the use of garlic. J Nutr. 2001;131(3s):951S-954S. View abstract.
  443. Zhang, X. H., Lowe, D., Giles, P., Fell, S., Board, A. R., Baughan, J. A., Connock, M. J., and Maslin, D. J. A randomized trial of the effects of garlic oil upon coronary heart disease risk factors in trained male runners. Blood Coagul.Fibrinolysis 2001;12:67-74. View abstract.
  444. Hviid, K. and Alsbjorn, B. ["Burns" caused by local application of garlic]. Ugeskr.Laeger 12-11-2000;162:6853-6854. View abstract.
  445. Tunon, H. Garlic as a tick repellent. JAMA 1-3-2001;285:41-42. View abstract.
  446. Vaes, L. P. and Chyka, P. A. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:1478-1482. View abstract.
  447. Ross, Z. M., O'Gara, E. A., Hill, D. J., Sleightholme, H. V., and Maslin, D. J. Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Appl.Environ.Microbiol. 2001;67:475-480. View abstract.
  448. Rafaat, M. and Leung, A. K. Garlic burns. Pediatr Dermatol. 2000;17:475-476. View abstract.
  449. Harris, J. C., Plummer, S., Turner, M. P., and Lloyd, D. The microaerophilic flagellate Giardia intestinalis: Allium sativum (garlic) is an effective antigiardial. Microbiology 2000;146 Pt 12:3119-3127. View abstract.
  450. Pedraza-Chaverri, J., Maldonado, P. D., Medina-Campos, O. N., Olivares-Corichi, I. M., Granados-Silvestre, M. A., Hernandez-Pando, R., and Ibarra-Rubio, M. E. Garlic ameliorates gentamicin nephrotoxicity: relation to antioxidant enzymes. Free Radic.Biol Med 10-1-2000;29:602-611. View abstract.
  451. Qidwai, W., Qureshi, R., Hasan, S. N., and Azam, S. I. Effect of dietary garlic (Allium Sativum) on the blood pressure in humans--a pilot study. J Pak.Med Assoc 2000;50:204-207. View abstract.
  452. Wohlrab, J., Wohlrab, D., and Marsch, W. C. Acute effect of a dried ethanol-water extract of garlic on the microhaemovascular system of the skin. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50:606-612. View abstract.
  453. Patumraj, S., Tewit, S., Amatyakul, S., Jariyapongskul, A., Maneesri, S., Kasantikul, V., and Shepro, D. Comparative effects of garlic and aspirin on diabetic cardiovascular complications. Drug Deliv. 2000;7:91-96. View abstract.
  454. Thabrew, M. I., Samarawickrema, N. A., Chandrasena, L. G., and Jayasekera, S. Protection by garlic against adriamycin induced alterations in the oxido-reductive status of mouse red blood cells. Phytother Res 2000;14:215-217. View abstract.
  455. Ghorai, M., Mandal, S. C., Pal, M., Pal, S. P., and Saha, B. P. A comparative study on hypocholesterolaemic effect of allicin, whole germinated seeds of bengal gram and guggulipid of gum gugglu. Phytother.Res 2000;14:200-202. View abstract.
  456. Seuri, M., Taivanen, A., Ruoppi, P., and Tukiainen, H. Three cases of occupational asthma and rhinitis caused by garlic. Clin Exp.Allergy 1993;23:1011-1014. View abstract.
  457. Koscielny, J., Schmitt, R., Radtke, H., Latza, R., and Kiesewetter, H. Garlic study vindicated by official investigation. Nature 4-6-2000;404:542. View abstract.
  458. Liu, L. and Yeh, Y. Y. Inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by organosulfur compounds derived from garlic. Lipids 2000;35:197-203. View abstract.
  459. Sanchez-Hernandez, M. C., Hernandez, M., Delgado, J., Guardia, P., Monteseirin, J., Bartolome, B., Palacios, R., Martinez, J., and Conde, J. Allergenic cross-reactivity in the Liliaceae family. Allergy 2000;55:297-299. View abstract.
  460. Mahady, G. B. and Pendland, S. Garlic and Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:309. View abstract.
  461. Schiermeier, Q. German garlic study under scrutiny. Nature 10-14-1999;401:629. View abstract.
  462. Salman, H., Bergman, M., Bessler, H., Punsky, I., and Djaldetti, M. Effect of a garlic derivative (alliin) on peripheral blood cell immune responses. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1999;21:589-597. View abstract.
  463. Byrne, D. J., Neil, H. A., Vallance, D. T., and Winder, A. F. A pilot study of garlic consumption shows no significant effect on markers of oxidation or sub-fraction composition of low-density lipoprotein including lipoprotein(a) after allowance for non-compliance and the placebo effect. Clin Chim.Acta 1999;285(1-2):21-33. View abstract.
  464. Eming, S. A., Piontek, J. O., Hunzelmann, N., Rasokat, H., and Scharffetter-Kachanek, K. Severe toxic contact dermatitis caused by garlic. Br J Dermatol. 1999;141:391-392. View abstract.
  465. Gao, C. M., Takezaki, T., Ding, J. H., Li, M. S., and Tajima, K. Protective effect of allium vegetables against both esophageal and stomach cancer: a simultaneous case-referent study of a high-epidemic area in Jiangsu Province, China. Jpn.J Cancer Res 1999;90:614-621. View abstract.
  466. Jonkers, D., van den, Broek E., van, Dooren, I, Thijs, C., Dorant, E., Hageman, G., and Stobberingh, E. Antibacterial effect of garlic and omeprazole on Helicobacter pylori. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 1999;43:837-839. View abstract.
  467. Ide, N. and Lau, B. H. S-allylcysteine attenuates oxidative stress in endothelial cells. Drug Dev.Ind.Pharm. 1999;25:619-624. View abstract.
  468. Chu, T. C., Han, P., Han, G., and Potter, D. E. Intraocular pressure lowering by S-allylmercaptocysteine in rabbits. J Ocul.Pharmacol.Ther 1999;15:9-17. View abstract.
  469. Oi, Y., Kawada, T., Shishido, C., Wada, K., Kominato, Y., Nishimura, S., Ariga, T., and Iwai, K. Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. J Nutr. 1999;129:336-342. View abstract.
  470. Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16:2935-2947. View abstract.
  471. Kojuri, J., Vosoughi, A. R., and Akrami, M. Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients. Lipids Health Dis. 2007;6:5. View abstract.
  472. Huang, J., Frohlich, J., and Ignaszewski, A. P. The impact of dietary changes and dietary supplements on lipid profile. Can J Cardiol 2011;27:488-505. View abstract.
  473. Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62:219-225. View abstract.
  474. van der Walt, A., Lopata, A. L., Nieuwenhuizen, N. E., and Jeebhay, M. F. Work-related allergy and asthma in spice mill workers - The impact of processing dried spices on IgE reactivity patterns. Int Arch.Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:271-278. View abstract.
  475. Kundakovic, T., Milenkovic, M., Zlatkovic, S., Nikolic, V., Nikolic, G., and Binic, I. Treatment of venous ulcers with the herbal-based ointment Herbadermal(R): a prospective non-randomized pilot study. Forsch.Komplementmed. 2012;19:26-30. View abstract.
  476. Sarrell, E. M., Cohen, H. A., and Kahan, E. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children. Pediatrics 2003;111(5 Pt 1):e574-e579. View abstract.
  477. Buettner, C., Mukamal, K. J., Gardiner, P., Davis, R. B., Phillips, R. S., and Mittleman, M. A. Herbal supplement use and blood lead levels of United States adults. J.Gen.Intern.Med. 2009;24:1175-1182. View abstract.
  478. Kockar, C., Ozturk, M., and Bavbek, N. Helicobacter pylori eradication with beta carotene, ascorbic acid and allicin. Acta Medica.(Hradec.Kralove) 2001;44:97-100. View abstract.
  479. Sendl, A., Elbl, G., Steinke, B., Redl, K., Breu, W., and Wagner, H. Comparative pharmacological investigations of Allium ursinum and Allium sativum. Planta Med. 1992;58:1-7. View abstract.
  480. Klintschar, M., Beham-Schmidt, C., Radner, H., Henning, G., and Roll, P. Colchicine poisoning by accidental ingestion of meadow saffron (Colchicum autumnale): pathological and medicolegal aspects. Forensic Sci Int 12-20-1999;106:191-200. View abstract.
  481. Aggarwal, B. B. and Shishodia, S. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem.Pharmacol 5-14-2006;71:1397-1421. View abstract.
  482. Cicero, A. F., Derosa, G., and Gaddi, A. What do herbalists suggest to diabetic patients in order to improve glycemic control? Evaluation of scientific evidence and potential risks. Acta Diabetol. 2004;41:91-98. View abstract.
  483. Xie, W. and Du, L. Diabetes is an inflammatory disease: evidence from traditional Chinese medicines. Diabetes Obes.Metab 2011;13:289-301. View abstract.
  484. Cox MC, Low J, Lee J, et al. Influence of garlic (Allium sativum) on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel. Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:4636-40. View abstract.
  485. Ried K, Frank OR, Stocks NP, et al. Effect of garlic on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2008;8:13. View abstract.
  486. Mohammed Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacodynamic interaction of warfarin with cranberry but not with garlic in healthy subjects. Br J Pharmacol 2008;154:1691-700. View abstract.
  487. Cavagnaro PF, Camargo A, Galmarini CR, Simon PW. Effect of cooking on garlic (Allium sativum l.) Antiplatelet activity and thiosulfinates content. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:1280-8. View abstract.
  488. Satitvipawee P, Rawdaree P, Indrabhakti S, et al. No effect of garlic extract supplement on serum lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. J Med Assoc Thai 2003;86:750-7. View abstract.
  489. Gardner CD, Lawson LD, Block E, et al. Effect of raw garlic vs commercial garlic supplements on plasma lipid concentrations in adults with moderate hypercholesterolemia: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:346-53. View abstract.
  490. Hubbard VG, Goldsmith P. Garlic-fingered chefs. Contact Dermatitis 2005;52:165-6. View abstract.
  491. Macan H, Uykimpang R, Alconcel M, et al. Aged garlic extract may be safe for patients on warfarin therapy. J Nutr 2006;136(3 Suppl):793S-795S. View abstract.
  492. Dhamija P, Malhotra S, Pandhi P. Effect of oral administration of crude aqueous extract of garlic on pharmacokinetic parameters of isoniazid and rifampicin in rabbits. Pharmacology 2006;77:100-4. View abstract.
  493. Dehghani F, Merat A, Panjehshahin MR, Handjani F. Healing effect of garlic extract on warts and corns. Int J Dermatol 2005;44:612-5. View abstract.
  494. Meher S, Duley L. Garlic for preventing pre-eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD006065. View abstract.
  495. You WC, Brown LM, Zhang L, et al. Randomized double-blind factorial trial of three treatments to reduce the prevalence of precancerous gastric lesions. J Natl Cancer Inst 2006;98:974-83. View abstract.
  496. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62. View abstract.
  497. Evans V. Herbs and the brain: friend or foe? The effects of ginkgo and garlic on warfarin use. J Neurosci Nurs 2000;32:229-32. View abstract.
  498. Foster BC, Foster MS, Vandenhoek S, et al. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by garlic. J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2001;4:176-84. . View abstract.
  499. Carden SM, Good WV, Carden PA, Good RM. Garlic and the strabismus surgeon. Clin Experiment Ophthalmol 2002;30:303-4. View abstract.
  500. Farnsworth N, Bingel A, Cordell G, et al. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents I. J Pharm Sci 1975;64:535-98. View abstract.
  501. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;72:276-87.. View abstract.
  502. Josling P. Preventing the common cold with a garlic supplement: a double-blind, placebo-controlled survey. Adv Ther 2001;18:189-93. View abstract.
  503. Durak I, Yilmaz E, Devrim E, et al. Consumption of aqueous garlic extract leads to significant improvement in patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Nutr Res 2003;23:199-204.
  504. Markowitz JS, Devane CL, Chavin KD, et al. Effects of garlic (Allium sativum L.) supplementation on cytochrome P450 2D6 and 3A4 activity in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;74:170-7.. View abstract.
  505. Suzuki H, Rhim JH. Effect of samgyetang feeding on plasma lipids, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, and stress-induced gastric ulcers in mice. Nutr Res 2000;20:575-84.
  506. Hsing AW, Chokkalingam AP, Gao YT, et al. Allium vegetables and risk of prostate cancer: a population-based study. J Natl Cancer Inst 2002;94:1648-51.. View abstract.
  507. Sheela CG, Kumud K, Augusti KT. Anti-diabetic effects of onion and garlic sulfoxide amino acids in rats. Planta Med 1995;61:356-7.. View abstract.
  508. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on blood lipids, blood sugar, fibrinogen and fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1998;58:257-63.. View abstract.
  509. Sumioka I, Matsura T, Yamada K. Therapeutic effect of S-allylmercaptocysteine on acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;433:177-85.. View abstract.
  510. Gardner CD, Chatterjee LM, Carlson JJ. The effect of a garlic preparation on plasma lipid levels in moderately hypercholesterolemic adults. Atherosclerosis 2001;154:213-20. View abstract.
  511. Horie T, Awazu S, Itakura Y, Fuwa T. Alleviation by garlic of antitumor drug-induced damage to the intestine. J Nutr 2001;131:1071S-4S.. View abstract.
  512. Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiologic literature. J Nutr 2001;131:1032S-40S.. View abstract.
  513. Staba EJ, Lash L, Staba JE. A commentary on the effects of garlic extraction and formulation on product composition. J Nutr 2001;131:1118S-9S.. View abstract.
  514. Senapati SK, Dey S, Dwivedi SK, Swarup D. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract on tissue lead level in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;76:229-32.. View abstract.
  515. Ziaei S, Hantoshzadeh S, Rezasoltani P, Lamyian M. The effect of garlic tablet on plasma lipids and platelet aggregation in nulliparous pregnants at high risk of preeclampsia. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;99:201-6.. View abstract.
  516. Lau BH. Suppression of LDL oxidation by garlic. J Nutr 2001;131:985S-8S. View abstract.
  517. Yeh YY, Liu L. Cholesterol-lowering effect of garlic extracts and organosulfur compounds: human and animal studies. J Nutr 2001;131:989S-93S. View abstract.
  518. McHugh CP. Garlic as a tick repellent. JAMA 2001;285:41,42. View abstract.
  519. Ledezma E, Marcano K, Jorquera A. Efficacy of ajoene in the treatment of tinea pedis: A double-blind and comparative study with terbinafine. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:829-32. View abstract.
  520. Lamm DL, Riggs DR. The potential application of Allium sativum (garlic) for the treatment of bladder cancer. Urol Clin North Am 2000;27:157-62. View abstract.
  521. Ali M, Thomson M, Afzal M. Garlic and onions: their effect on eicosanoid metabolism and its clinical relevance. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2000;62:55-73. View abstract.
  522. Piscitelli SC, Burstein AH, Welden N, et al. The effect of garlic supplements on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir. Clin Infect Dis 2002;34:234-8. View abstract.
  523. Ackermann RT, Mulrow CD, Ramirez G, et al. Garlic shows promise for improving some cardiovascular risk factors. Arch Intern Med 2001;161:813-24. View abstract.
  524. Garlic: Effects on cardiovascular risks and disease, protective effects against cancer, and clinical adverse effects. Summary, evidence report/technol assessment: no 20. AHRQ Publ No. 01-E022, 2000;Oct. Agency for Healthcare Res and Quality. Rockville, MD.
  525. Stevinson C, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Garlic for treating hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 2000;133:420-9. View abstract.
  526. Bruynzeel DP. Bulb dermatitis. Dermatological problems in the flower bulb industries. Contact Dermatitis 1997;37:70-7. View abstract.
  527. Lee TY, Lam TH. Contact dermatitis due to topical treatment with garlic in Hong Kong. Contact Dermatitis 1991;24:193-6. View abstract.
  528. Cronin E. Dermatitis of the hands in caterers. Contact Dermatitis 1987;17:265-9. View abstract.
  529. Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. The effects of repeated exposure to garlic-flavored milk on the nursling's behavior. Pediatr Res 1993;34:805-8. View abstract.
  530. Mennella JA, Beauchamp GK. Maternal diet alters the sensory qualities of human milk and the nursling's behavior. Pediatrics 1991;88:737-44. View abstract.
  531. Mennella JA, Johnson A, Beauchamp GK. Garlic ingestion by pregnant women alters the odor of amniotic fluid. Chem Senses 1995;20:207-9. View abstract.
  532. Anibarro B, Fontela JL, De La Hoz F. Occupational asthma induced by garlic dust. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:734-8. View abstract.
  533. Ip C, Lisk DJ. Efficacy of cancer prevention by high-selenium garlic is primarily dependent on the action of selenium. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:2649-52. View abstract.
  534. Dirsch VM, Kiemer AK, Wagner H, Vollmar AM. Effect of allicin and ajoene, two compounds of garlic, on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Atherosclerosis 1998;139:333-9. View abstract.
  535. Pedraza-Chaverri J, Tapia E, Medina-Campos ON, et al. Garlic prevents hypertension induced by chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis. Life Sci 1998;62:71-7. View abstract.
  536. Qureshi AA, Din ZZ, Abuirmeileh N, et al. Suppression of avian hepatic lipid metabolism by solvent extracts of garlic: impact on serum lipids. J Nutr 1983;113:1746-55. View abstract.
  537. Gebhardt R, Beck H. Differential inhibitory effects of garlic-derived organosulfur compounds on cholesterol biosynthesis in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. Lipids 1996;31:1269-76. View abstract.
  538. Jepson RG, Kleijnen J, Leng GC. Garlic for peripheral arterial occlusive disease (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;:CD000095. View abstract.
  539. Sasaki J, Kita T, Ishita K, et al. Antibacterial activity of garlic powder against Escherichia coli O-157. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 1999;45:785-90. View abstract.
  540. Arora RC, Arora S. Comparative effect of clofibrate, garlic and onion on alimentary hyperlipemia. Atherosclerosis 1981;39:447-52. View abstract.
  541. Morris J, Burke V, Mori TA, et al. Effects of garlic extract on platelet aggregation: a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1995;22:414-7. View abstract.
  542. Ali M, Bordia T, Mustafa T. Effect of raw versus boiled aqueous extract of garlic and onion on platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1999;60:43-7. View abstract.
  543. Legnani C, Frascaro M, Guazzaloca G, et al. Effects of a dried garlic preparation on fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation in healthy subjects. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:119-22. View abstract.
  544. Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al. Effect of garlic on platelet aggregation in patients with increased risk of juvenile ischaemic attack. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993;45:333-6. View abstract.
  545. Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Jung EM, et al. Effects of garlic coated tablets in peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Clin Investig 1993;71:383-6. View abstract.
  546. Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J, eds. Herbal Medicine Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications, 2000.
  547. Chutani SK, Bordia A. The effect of fried versus raw garlic on fibrinolytic activity in man. Atherosclerosis 1981;38:417-21. View abstract.
  548. Koscielny J, Klussendorf D, Latza R, et al. The antiatherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum. Atherosclerosis 1999;144:237-49. View abstract.
  549. Breithaupt-Grogler K, Ling M, Boudoulas H, Belz GG. Protective effect of chronic garlic intake on elastic properties of aorta in the elderly. Circulation 1997;96:2649-55. View abstract.
  550. McCrindle BW, Helden E, Conner WT. Garlic extract therapy in children with hypercholesterolemia. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998;152:1089-94. View abstract.
  551. Neil HA, Silagy CA, Lancaster T, et al. Garlic powder in the treatment of moderate hyperlipidaemia: a controlled trial and meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1996;30:329-34. View abstract.
  552. Luley C, Lehmann-Leo W, Moller B, et al. Lack of efficacy of dried garlic in patients with hyperlipoproteinemia. Arzneimittelforschung 1986;36:766-8. View abstract.
  553. Simons LA, Balasubramaniam S, von Konigsmark M, et al. On the effect of garlic on plasma lipids and lipoproteins in mild hypercholesterolaemia. Atherosclerosis 1995;113:219-25. View abstract.
  554. Superko HR, Krauss RM. Garlic powder, effect on plasma lipids, postprandial lipemia, low-density lipoprotein particle size, high-density lipoprotein subclass distribution and lipoprotein(a). J Am Coll Cardiol 2000;35:321-6. View abstract.
  555. Kenzelmann R, Kade F. Limitation of the deterioration of lipid parameters by a standardized garlic-ginkgo combination product. A multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1993;43:978-81. View abstract.
  556. Morcos NC. Modulation of lipid profile by fish oil and garlic combination. J Natl Med Assoc 1997;89:673-8. View abstract.
  557. Adler AJ, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:445-50. View abstract.
  558. Warshafsky S, Kamer RS, Sivak SL. Effect of garlic on total serum cholesterol. A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:599-605. View abstract.
  559. Vorberg G, Schneider B. Therapy with garlic: results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Br J Clin Pract Symp Suppl 1990;69:7-11. View abstract.
  560. Silagy C, Neil A. Garlic as a lipid lowering agent--a meta-analysis. J R Coll Physicians Lond 1994;28:39-45. View abstract.
  561. Rotzsch W, Richter V, Rassoul F, Walper A. [Postprandial lipemia under treatment with Allium sativum. Controlled double-blind study of subjects with reduced HDL2-cholesterol]. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:1223-7. View abstract.
  562. Mader FH. Treatment of hyperlipidaemia with garlic-powder tablets. Evidence from the German Association of General Practitioners' multicentric placebo-controlled double-blind study. Arzneimittelforschung 1990;40:1111-6. View abstract.
  563. Jain AK, Vargas R, Gotzkowsky S, McMahon FG. Can garlic reduce levels of serum lipids? A controlled clinical study. Am J Med 1993;94:632-5. View abstract.
  564. Holzgartner H, Schmidt U, Kuhn U. Comparison of the efficacy and tolerance of a garlic preparation vs. bezafibrate. Arzneimittelforschung 1992;42:1473-7. View abstract.
  565. Mostafa MG, Mima T, Ohnishi ST, Mori K. S-allylcysteine ameliorates doxorubicin toxicity in the heart and liver in mice. Planta Med 2000;66:148-51. View abstract.
  566. Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement intake, and female breast carcinoma incidence. Breast Cancer Res Treat 1995;33:163-70. View abstract.
  567. Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement use, and the risk of lung carcinoma in The Netherlands. Cancer Res 1994;54:6148-53. View abstract.
  568. Key TJ, Silcocks PB, Davey GK, et al. A case-control study of diet and prostate cancer. Br J Cancer 1997;76:678-87. View abstract.
  569. Takezaki T, Gao CM, Ding JH, et al. Comparative study of lifestyles of residents in high and low risk areas for gastric cancer in Jiangsu Province, China; with special reference to allium vegetables. J Epidemiol 1999;9:297-305. View abstract.
  570. You WC, Blot WJ, Chang YS, et al. Allium vegetables and reduced risk of stomach cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:162-4. View abstract.
  571. You WC, Zhang L, Gail MH, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. Int J Epidemiol 1998;27:941-4. View abstract.
  572. Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. A prospective cohort study on the relationship between onion and leek consumption, garlic supplement use and the risk of colorectal carcinoma in The Netherlands. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:477-84. View abstract.
  573. Le Marchand L, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, et al. Dietary fiber and colorectal cancer risk. Epidemiology 1997;8:658-65. View abstract.
  574. Witte JS, Longnecker MP, Bird CL, et al. Relation of vegetable, fruit, and grain consumption to colorectal adenomatous polyps. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:1015-25. View abstract.
  575. Steinmetz KA, Kushi LH, Bostick RM, et al. Vegetables, fruit, and colon cancer in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 1994;139:1-15. View abstract.
  576. Weber ND, Andersen DO, North JA, et al. In vitro virucidal effects of Allium sativum (garlic) extract and compounds. Planta Med 1992;58:417-23. View abstract.
  577. Ankri S, Mirelman D. Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes Infect 1999;1:125-9. View abstract.
  578. Ledezma E, Lopez JC, Marin P, et al. Ajoene in the topical short-term treatment of tinea cruris and tinea corporis in humans. Randomized comparative study with terbinafine. Arzneimittelforschung 1999;49:544-7. View abstract.
  579. Ledezma E, DeSousa L, Jorquera A, et al. Efficacy of ajoene, an organosulphur derived from garlic, in the short-term therapy of tinea pedis. Mycoses 1996;39:393-5. View abstract.
  580. Calvet X, Carod C, Gene E. Re: Peppers at treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:820-1. View abstract.
  581. O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Maslin DJ. Activities of Garlic Oil, Garlic Powder, and Their Diallyl Constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000;66:2269-73. View abstract.
  582. Aydin A, Ersoz G, Tekesin O, et al. Garlic oil and Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:563-4. View abstract.
  583. Ernst E. Is garlic an effective treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection? Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2484-5. View abstract.
  584. Graham DY, Anderson SY, Lang T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:1200-2. View abstract.
  585. Steiner M, Li W. Aged garlic extract, a modulator of cardiovascular risk factors: a dose-finding study on the effects of AGE on platelet functions. J Nutr 2001;131:980S-4S. View abstract.
  586. O'Gara EA, Hill DJ, Maslin DJ. Activities of Garlic Oil, Garlic Powder, and Their Diallyl Constituents against Helicobacter pylori. Appl Environ Microbiol 2000;66:2269-73. View abstract.
  587. Sato T, Miyata G. The Nutraceutical Benefit, Part IV: Garlic. Nutrition 2000;16:787-8. View abstract.
  588. Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:1047-52. View abstract.
  589. Bloch AS. Pushing the Envelope of Nutrition Support: Complementary Therapies. Nutrition 2000;16:236-9. View abstract.
  590. Stjernberg L, Berglund J. Garlic as an Insect Repellant. JAMA 2000;284:831. View abstract.
  591. Fernandez-Vozmediano JM, Armario-Hita JC, Manrique-Plaza A. Allergic contact dermatitis from diallyl disulfide. Contact Dermatitis 2000;42:108-9. View abstract.
  592. Siegel G, Klubendorf D. The anti-atherosclerotic effect of Allium sativum: Statistics re-evaluated. Atherosclerosis 2000;150:437-8. View abstract.
  593. Zhang XH, Lowe D, Giles P, et al. Gender may affect the action of garlic oil on plasma cholesterol and glucose levels of normal subjects. J Nutr 2001;131:1471-8. View abstract.
  594. Rahman K, Billington D. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humans. J Nutr 2000;130:2662-5. View abstract.
  595. Adler A, Holub BJ. Effect of garlic and fish-oil supplementation on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in hypercholesterolemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:445-50. View abstract.
  596. Horie T, Matsumoto H, Kasagi M, et al. Protective effect of aged garlic extract on the small intestinal damage of rats induced by methotrexate administration. Planta Med 1999;65:545-8. View abstract.
  597. Gwilt PR, Lear CL, Tempero MA, et al. The effect of garlic extract on human metabolism of acetaminophen. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1994;3:155-60. View abstract.
  598. Wang BH, Zuzel KA, Rahman K, Billington D. Treatment with aged garlic extract protects against bromobenzene toxicity to precision cut rat liver slices. Toxicology 1999;132:215-25. View abstract.
  599. Zhang Y, Moriguchi T, Saito H, Nishiyama N. Functional relationship between age-related immunodeficiency and learning deterioration. Eur J Neurosci 1998;10:3869-75. View abstract.
  600. Sigounas G, Hooker J, Anagnostou A, Steiner M. S-allylmercaptocysteine inhibits cell proliferation and reduces the viability of erythroleukemia, breast, and prostate cancer cell lines. Nutr Cancer 1997;27:186-91. View abstract.
  601. Ide N, Lau BH. Aged garlic extract attenuates intracellular oxidative stress. Phytomedicine 1999;6:125-31. View abstract.
  602. Efendy JL, Simmons DL, Campbell GR, Campbell JH. The effect of the aged garlic extract, 'Kyolic', on the development of experimental atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 1997;132:37-42. View abstract.
  603. Moriguchi T, Saito H, Nishiyama N. Aged garlic extract prolongs longevity and improves spatial memory deficit in senescence-accelerated mouse. Biol Pharm Bull 1996;19:305-7. View abstract.
  604. Imai J, Ide N, Nagae S, et al. Antioxidant and radical scavenging effects of aged garlic extract and its constituents. Planta Med 1994;60:417-20. View abstract.
  605. Munday JS, James KA, Fray LM, et al. Daily supplementation with aged garlic extract, but not raw garlic, protects low density lipoprotein against in vitro oxidation. Atherosclerosis 1999;143:399-404. View abstract.
  606. Lau BS, Lam F, Wang-Cheng R. Effect of an odor-modified garlic preparation on blood lipids. Nutr Res 1987;7:139-49.
  607. Steiner M, Lin RS. Changes in platelet function and susceptibility of lipoproteins to oxidation associated with administration of aged garlic extract. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1998;31:904-8. View abstract.
  608. Steiner M, Khan AH, Holbert D, Lin RI. A double-blind crossover study in moderately hypercholesterolemic men that compared the effect of aged garlic extract and placebo administration on blood lipids. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:866-70. View abstract.
  609. Ide N, Lau BH. Garlic compounds protect vascular endothelial cells from oxidized low density lipoprotein-induced injury. J Pharm Pharmacol 1997;49:908-11. View abstract.
  610. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA. Clinical assessment of potential cytochrome P450-mediated herb-drug interactions. AAPS Ann Mtg & Expo Indianapolis, IN: 2000; Oct 29 - Nov 2:presentation #3460.
  611. Berthold HK, Sudhop T, von Bergmann K. Effect of a garlic oil preparation on serum lipoproteins and cholesterol metabolism. JAMA 1998;279:1900-2. View abstract.
  612. Isaacsohn JL, Moser M, Stein EA, et al. Garlic powder and plasma lipids and lipoproteins, a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1189-94. View abstract.
  613. Sunter WH. Warfarin and garlic. Pharm J 1991;246:722.
  614. Burnham BE. Garlic as a possible risk for postoperative bleeding. Plast Reconstr Surg 1995;95:213. View abstract.
  615. Rose KD, et al. Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with associated platelet dysfunction from excessive garlic ingestion: a case report. Neurosurg 1990;26:880-2. View abstract.
  616. Garty BZ. Garlic burns. Pediatrics 1993;91:658-9. View abstract.
  617. Anon. Zinc for the common cold. Med Lett Drugs Ther 1997;39:9-10.
  618. Auer W, Eiber A, Hertkorn E, et al. Hypertension and hyperlipidaemia: garlic helps in mild cases. Br J Clin Pract Suppl 1990;69:3-6. View abstract.
  619. McMahon FG, Vargas R. Can garlic lower blood pressure? A pilot study. Pharmacotherapy 1993;13:406-7. View abstract.
  620. Silagy CA, Neil HA. A meta-analysis of the effect of garlic on blood pressure. J Hypertens 1994;12:463-8. View abstract.
  621. Adams ME. Hype about glucosamine. Lancet 1999;354:353-4. View abstract.
  622. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, Goldberg A, eds. American Herbal Products Association's Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, LLC 1997.
  623. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  624. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  625. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 02/14/2015

Page last updated: 20 March 2015