Skip navigation


What is it?

Iodine is a chemical element. The body needs iodine but cannot make it. The needed iodine must come from the diet. As a rule, there is very little iodine in food, unless it has been added during processing, which is now the case with salt. Most of the world’s iodine is found in the ocean, where it is concentrated by sea life, especially seaweed.

The thyroid gland needs iodine to make hormones. If the thyroid doesn’t have enough iodine to do its job, feedback systems in the body cause the thyroid to work harder. This can cause an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), which becomes evident as a swollen neck.

Other consequences of not having enough iodine (iodine deficiency) are also serious. Iodine deficiency and the resulting low levels of thyroid hormone can cause women to stop ovulating, leading to infertility. Iodine deficiency can also lead to an autoimmune disease of the thyroid and may increase the risk of getting thyroid cancer. Some researchers think that iodine deficiency might also increase the risk of other cancers such as prostate, breast, endometrial, and ovarian cancer.

Iodine deficiency during pregnancy is serious for both the mother and the baby. It can lead to high blood pressure during pregnancy for the mother, and mental retardation for the baby. Iodine plays an important role in development of the central nervous system. In extreme cases, iodine deficiency can lead to cretinism, a disorder that involves severely stunted physical and mental growth.

Iodine deficiency is a common world health problem. The most recognized form of deficiency is goiter. Additionally, across the globe iodine deficiency is thought to be the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. Early in the twentieth century, iodine deficiency was common in the US and Canada, but the addition of iodine to salt has improved public health. The addition of iodine to salt is required in Canada. In the US, iodized salt is not required, but it is widely available. Researchers estimate that iodized salt is used regularly by about half the US population.

Iodine is used to prevent iodine deficiency and its consequences, including goiter. It is also used for treating a skin disease caused by a fungus (cutaneous sporotrichosis); treating fibrocystic breast disease; preventing breast cancer, eye disease, diabetes, and heart disease and stroke; and as an expectorant.

Iodine is also used to for radiation emergencies, to protect the thyroid gland against radioactive iodides. Potassium iodide tablets for use in a radiation emergency are available as FDA-approved products (ThyroShield, Iosat) and on the Internet as food supplements. Potassium iodide should only be used in a radiation emergency, not in advance of an emergency to prevent sickness.

Iodine is applied to the skin to kill germs, prevent soreness inside the mouth (mucositis) caused by chemotherapy, and treat diabetic ulcers.

Iodine is also used for water purification.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for IODINE are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Iodine deficiency. Taking iodine supplements, including iodized salt, is effective for preventing and treating iodine deficiencies.
  • Radiation exposure. Taking iodine by mouth is effective for protecting against exposure to radioactive iodides in a radiation emergency.
  • Thyroid conditions. Taking iodine by mouth can improve thyroid storm and hyperthyroidism. Also, taking iodized salt in addition to thyroxine after surgery for thyroid disease appears to reduce the size of the thyroid.
  • Leg ulcers. Research suggests that applying cadexomer iodine to venous leg ulcers along with compression for 4-6 weeks increases the healing rate. Also, applying povidone-iodine in addition to compression seems help heal leg ulcers and reduce the chance of a future infection.

Possibly effective for...

  • Catheter-related infection. Some evidence suggests that applying povidone-iodine reduces the risk of blood stream infections for people with hemodialysis catheters. However, other research suggests that applying povidone-iodine where a catheter is inserted does not reduce the risk of infection associated with using other types of catheters.
  • Conjunctivitis (pinkeye). Research suggests that povidone-iodine solutions are more effective than silver nitrate for decreasing the risk of pinkeye in newborns. However, it is not more effective than the medications erythromycin or chloramphenicol.
  • Foot ulcers in diabetes. Applying iodine to foot ulcers might be beneficial for people with foot ulcers related to diabetes.
  • Inflammation of the uterus (endometritis). Applying povidone-iodine solution to the vaginal area before a Cesarean delivery reduces the risk of the inflammation of the uterus.
  • Painful fibrous breast tissue (fibrocystic breast disease). Research shows that taking iodine, especially molecular iodine, reduces painful fibrous breast tissue.
  • Breast pain (mastalgia). Taking iodine tablets daily for 5 months reduces pain and tenderness in women with breast pain related to their menstrual cycle.
  • Soreness and swelling inside the mouth. Applying iodine to the skin seems to prevent soreness and swelling inside the mouth caused by chemotherapy.
  • Gum infection (periodontitis). Research suggests that rinsing with povidone-iodine during non-surgical treatments for gum infections (periodontitis) can help reduce the depth of infected gum pockets.
  • Surgery. Some research suggests that applying povidone-iodine during surgery reduces the risk of infections. However, povidone-iodine seems to be less effective than chlorhexidine at preventing infections at the surgical site.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Bleeding.Early research suggests that washing the tooth socket with povidone-iodine stops bleeding in more patients after having a tooth pulled compared to saline.
  • Chyle in the urine (chyluria). Early research suggests that using povidine-iodine in people with chyle in the urine undergoing a pelvic instillation sclerotherapy may be as effective as standard care.
  • Eye infection (corneal ulceration). Early evidence suggests that administering povidone-iodine in addition to standard antibiotic therapy does not improve vision in people with corneal ulcers.
  • Fungal skin condition (Cutaneous sporotrichosis). Potassium iodide is commonly used for cutaneous sporotrichosis. There are reports that taking potassium iodide by mouth alone or with another antifungal treatment is effective for most people with cutaneous sporotrichosis.
  • Pneumonia. Early research suggests that rinsing the throat with povidone-iodine decreases the risk of pneumonia in people with severe head trauma who are using a ventilator.
  • Wound healing. There is some interest in using iodine agents to promote wound healing. While there is some evidence that applying iodine to wounds is more effective than non-antiseptic dressings in reducing wound size, iodine seems to be less effective than antibiotics.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of iodine for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Iodine reduces thyroid hormone and can kill fungus, bacteria, and other microorganisms such as amoebas. A specific kind of iodine called potassium iodide is also used to treat (but not prevent) the effects of a radioactive accident.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Iodine is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth at recommended amounts or when applied to the skin appropriately using approved products.

Iodine can cause significant side effects in some people. Common side effects include nausea and stomach pain, runny nose, headache, metallic taste, and diarrhea.

In sensitive people, iodine can cause side effects including swelling of the lips and face (angioedema), severe bleeding and bruising, fever, joint pain, lymph node enlargement, allergic reactions including hives, and death.

Large amounts or long-term use of iodine are POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Adults should avoid prolonged use of doses higher than 1100 mcg per day (the upper tolerable limit, UL) without proper medical supervision. In children, doses should not exceed 200 mcg per day for children 1 to 3 years old, 300 mcg per day for children 4 to 8 years old, 600 mcg per day for children 9 to 13 years old, and 900 mcg per day for adolescents. These are the upper tolerable limits (UL).

In both children and adults, there is concern that higher intake can increase the risk of side effects such as thyroid problems. Iodine in larger amounts can cause metallic taste, soreness of teeth and gums, burning in mouth and throat, increased saliva, throat inflammation, stomach upset, diarrhea, wasting, depression, skin problems, and many other side effects.

When iodine is used directly on the skin, it can cause skin irritation, stains, allergic reactions, and other side effects. Be careful not to bandage or tightly cover areas that have been treated with iodine to avoid iodine burn.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Iodine is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth in recommended amounts or when applied to the skin appropriately using an approved product (2% solution). Iodine is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth in high doses. Do not take more than 1100 mcg of iodine per day if you are over 18 years old; do not take more than 900 mcg of iodine per day if you are 14 to 18 years old. Higher intake might cause thyroid problems.

Autoimmune thyroid disease: People with autoimmune thyroid disease may be especially sensitive to the harmful side effects of iodine.

A type of rash called dermatitis herpetiformis: Taking iodine can cause worsening of this rash.

Thyroid disorders, such as too little thyroid function (hypothyroidism), an enlarged thyroid gland (goiter), or a thyroid tumor: Prolonged use or high doses of iodine might make these conditions worse.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top


Do not take this combination.

Medications for an overactive thyroid (Antithyroid drugs)
Iodine can decrease thyroid function. Taking iodine along with medications for an overactive thyroid might decrease the thyroid too much. Do not take iodine supplements if you are taking medications for an overactive thyroid.

Some of these medications include methenamine mandelate (Methimazole), methimazole (Tapazole), potassium iodide (Thyro-Block), and others.


Be cautious with this combination.

Amiodarone (Cordarone)
Amiodarone (Cordarone) contains iodine. Taking iodine supplements along with amiodarone (Cordarone) might cause too much iodine in the blood. Too much iodine in the blood can cause side effects that affect the thyroid.

Large amounts of iodine can decrease thyroid function. Lithium can also decrease thyroid function. Taking iodine along with lithium might decrease the thyroid function too much. Do not take large amounts of iodine if you are taking lithium.

Medications for high blood pressure (ACE inhibitors)
Some medications for high blood pressure might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of potassium. Most iodide supplements contain potassium. Taking potassium iodide along with some medications for high blood pressure might cause too much potassium in the body. Do not take potassium iodide if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), ramipril (Altace), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs))
Some medications for high blood pressure might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of potassium. Most iodine supplements contain potassium. Taking potassium iodide along with some medications for high blood pressure might cause too much potassium in the body. Do not take potassium iodide if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

The ARBs include losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), irbesartan (Avapro), candesartan (Atacand), telmisartan (Micardis), and eprosartan (Teveten).

Water pills (Potassium-sparing diuretics)
Most iodine supplements contain potassium. Some "water pills" might also increase potassium in the body. Taking potassium iodide along with some "water pills" might cause too much potassium to be in the body. Do not take potassium iodide if you are taking "water pills" that increase potassium in the body.

Some "water pills" that increase potassium in the body include spironolactone (Aldactone), triamterene (Dyrenium), and amiloride (Midamor).

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with herbs and supplements.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Cruciferous vegetables
Gloitrogens, which are chemicals that are present in raw cruciferous vegetables, might interfere with how the thyroid absorbs iodine.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For radiation emergencies: potassium iodide (KI) should be taken just prior to, or as soon as possible after, exposure. Radiation is most harmful to pregnant or breastfeeding women and children, so KI is dosed according to amount of radiation exposure and age. Radiation exposure is measured in centigrays (cGy). For infants, babies, children, adolescents, and pregnant or breastfeeding women, KI is given if radiation exposure is 5 centigrays (cGy) or more. Tablets can be crushed and mixed with fruit juice, jam, milk, etc.
    • For birth through 1 month, the dose is 16 mg of KI;
    • For babies and children over 1 month through 3 years, 32 mg;
    • For children 3 to 12 years, 65 mg;
    • For adolescents 12 through 18 years, 65 mg or 120 mg if the adolescent is approaching adult size;
    • For pregnant or breastfeeding women, 120 mg.
    • For adults 18 to 40 years with exposure to 10 cGy or more, 130 mg of KI is given.
    • For adults over 40 years with exposure to 500 cGy or more, 130 mg of KI is given.
The National Institute of Medicine has set Adequate Intake (AI) of iodine for infants: 0 to 6 months, 110 mcg/day; 7 to 12 months, 130 mcg/day.

For children and adults, Recommended Dietary Amounts (RDA) have been set: children 1 to 8 years, 90 mcg/day; 9 to 13 years, 120 mcg/day; people age 14 and older, 150 mcg/day. For pregnant women, the RDA is 209 mcg/day, and breastfeeding women, 290 mcg/day.

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), the highest level of intake that is not likely to cause unwanted side effects, for iodine intake have been set: children 1 to 3 years, 200 mcg/day; 4 to 8 years, 300 mcg/day; 9 to 13 years, 600 mcg/day; 14 to 18 years (including pregnancy and breastfeeding), 900 mcg/day. For adults older than age 19 including pregnant and breastfeeding women, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level is 1100 mcg/day.

Other names

Return to top
Atomic number 53, Cadexomer Iodine, Diatomic Iodine, I2, Iode, Iode de Cadexomer, Iode Diatomique, Iode Moléculaire, Iode Mono-atomique, Iode de Povidone, Iode de Sodium, Iodide, Iodized Salt, Iodure, Iodure de Potassium, Iodure de Potassium en Solution Saturée, Iodure de Sodium, KI, Lugol’s Solution, Molecular Iodine, Monoatomic Iodine, Numéro atomique 53, Periodate de Sodium, Potassium Iodide, Povidone Iodine, Saturated Solution Potassium Iodide, Sel Iodé, Sodium Iodide, Sodium Iodine, Sodium Periodate, Solution de Lugol, SSKI, Yodo.


Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (


Return to top
To see all references for the Iodine page, please go to

  1. Parker, M. C., Ashby, E. C., Nicholls, M. W., Dowding, C. H., and Brookes, J. C. Povidone-iodine bowel irrigation before resection of colorectal carcinoma. Ann R.Coll.Surg Engl. 1985;67:227-228. View abstract.
  2. Anderman, S., Jaschevatzky, O. E., Ellenbogen, A., and Grunstein, S. Urinary tract infection after bladder irrigation with povidone-iodine in vaginal surgery. Lancet 8-2-1986;2:294. View abstract.
  3. Lee, I., Agarwal, R. K., Lee, B. Y., Fishman, N. O., and Umscheid, C. A. Systematic review and cost analysis comparing use of chlorhexidine with use of iodine for preoperative skin antisepsis to prevent surgical site infection. Infect.Control Hosp.Epidemiol. 2010;31:1219-1229. View abstract.
  4. Fournel, I., Tiv, M., Soulias, M., Hua, C., Astruc, K., and Aho Glele, L. S. Meta-analysis of intraoperative povidone-iodine application to prevent surgical-site infection. Br J Surg 2010;97:1603-1613. View abstract.
  5. Noorani, A., Rabey, N., Walsh, S. R., and Davies, R. J. Systematic review and meta-analysis of preoperative antisepsis with chlorhexidine versus povidone-iodine in clean-contaminated surgery. Br J Surg 2010;97:1614-1620. View abstract.
  6. Darling, E. K. and McDonald, H. A meta-analysis of the efficacy of ocular prophylactic agents used for the prevention of gonococcal and chlamydial ophthalmia neonatorum. J Midwifery Womens Health 2010;55:319-327. View abstract.
  7. Vermeulen, H., Westerbos, S. J., and Ubbink, D. T. Benefit and harm of iodine in wound care: a systematic review. J Hosp.Infect. 2010;76:191-199. View abstract.
  8. Haas, D. M., Morgan Al, Darei S., and Contreras, K. Vaginal preparation with antiseptic solution before cesarean section for preventing postoperative infections. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2010;:CD007892. View abstract.
  9. O'Meara, S., Al-Kurdi, D., Ologun, Y., and Ovington, L. G. Antibiotics and antiseptics for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2010;:CD003557. View abstract.
  10. Sahrmann, P., Puhan, M. A., Attin, T., and Schmidlin, P. R. Systematic review on the effect of rinsing with povidone-iodine during nonsurgical periodontal therapy. J Periodontal Res 2010;45:153-164. View abstract.
  1. Al-Farsi, S., Oliva, M., Davidson, R., Richardson, S. E., and Ratnapalan, S. Periurethral cleaning prior to urinary catheterization in children: sterile water versus 10% povidone-iodine. Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2009;48:656-660. View abstract.
  2. Phitayakorn, R. and McHenry, C. R. Follow-up after surgery for benign nodular thyroid disease: evidence-based approach. World J Surg 2008;32:1374-1384. View abstract.
  3. Webster, J. and Alghamdi, A. A. Use of plastic adhesive drapes during surgery for preventing surgical site infection. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2007;:CD006353. View abstract.
  4. Teng, W., Shan, Z., Teng, X., Guan, H., Li, Y., Teng, D., Jin, Y., Yu, X., Fan, C., Chong, W., Yang, F., Dai, H., Yu, Y., Li, J., Chen, Y., Zhao, D., Shi, X., Hu, F., Mao, J., Gu, X., Yang, R., Tong, Y., Wang, W., Gao, T., and Li, C. Effect of iodine intake on thyroid diseases in China. N Engl.J Med 6-29-2006;354:2783-2793. View abstract.
  5. Kumar, B. P., Maddi, A., Ramesh, K. V., Baliga, M. J., Rao, S. N., and Meenakshi. Is povidone-iodine a hemostyptic? A clinical study. Int J Oral Maxillofac.Surg 2006;35:765-766. View abstract.
  6. Seguin, P., Tanguy, M., Laviolle, B., Tirel, O., and Malledant, Y. Effect of oropharyngeal decontamination by povidone-iodine on ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with head trauma. Crit Care Med 2006;34:1514-1519. View abstract.
  7. Qian, M., Wang, D., Watkins, W. E., Gebski, V., Yan, Y. Q., Li, M., and Chen, Z. P. The effects of iodine on intelligence in children: a meta-analysis of studies conducted in China. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr 2005;14:32-42. View abstract.
  8. Katz, J., Khatry, S. K., Thapa, M. D., Schein, O. D., Kimbrough, Pradhan E., LeClerq, S. C., and West, K. P., Jr. A randomised trial of povidone-iodine to reduce visual impairment from corneal ulcers in rural Nepal. Br J Ophthalmol. 2004;88:1487-1492. View abstract.
  9. Goel, S., Mandhani, A., Srivastava, A., Kapoor, R., Gogoi, S., Kumar, A., and Bhandari, M. Is povidone iodine an alternative to silver nitrate for renal pelvic instillation sclerotherapy in chyluria? BJU.Int 2004;94:1082-1085. View abstract.
  10. Strippoli, G. F., Tong, A., Johnson, D., Schena, F. P., and Craig, J. C. Antimicrobial agents for preventing peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2004;:CD004679. View abstract.
  11. Aminorroaya, A., Rohani, S., Sattari, G., Haghighi, S., and Amini, M. Iodine repletion, thyrotoxicosis and atrial fibrillation in Isfahan, Iran. Ann Saudi.Med 2004;24:13-17. View abstract.
  12. Edwards, P. S., Lipp, A., and Holmes, A. Preoperative skin antiseptics for preventing surgical wound infections after clean surgery. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2004;:CD003949. View abstract.
  13. Kessler, J. H. The effect of supraphysiologic levels of iodine on patients with cyclic mastalgia. Breast J 2004;10:328-336. View abstract.
  14. Angermayr, L. and Clar, C. Iodine supplementation for preventing iodine deficiency disorders in children. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2004;:CD003819. View abstract.
  15. Wu, T., Liu, G. J., Li, P., and Clar, C. Iodised salt for preventing iodine deficiency disorders. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2002;:CD003204. View abstract.
  16. Chaiyakunapruk, N., Veenstra, D. L., Lipsky, B. A., and Saint, S. Chlorhexidine compared with povidone-iodine solution for vascular catheter-site care: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 6-4-2002;136:792-801. View abstract.
  17. Mermel, L. A. Prevention of intravascular catheter-related infections. Ann Intern Med 3-7-2000;132:391-402. View abstract.
  18. Capen, C. C. Mechanisms of chemical injury of thyroid gland. Prog Clin Biol Res 1994;387:173-191. View abstract.
  19. Gol'dshtein, L. M. and Tkach, V. E. [Exacerbation of Duhring's herpetiform dermatitis in a nursing infant undergoing angina treatment with an iodine preparation]. Vestn.Dermatol.Venerol. 1987;:60-61. View abstract.
  20. Furnee, C. A., West, C. E., van der Haar, F., and Hautvast, J. G. Effect of intestinal parasite treatment on the efficacy of oral iodized oil for correcting iodine deficiency in schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;66:1422-1427. View abstract.
  21. PL Detail-Document: Potassium iodide: frequently asked questions. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. March, 2011.
  22. PL Detail-Document: Potassium iodide for thyroid protection against nuclear radiation. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter. March, 2011.
  23. Sterling JB, Heymann WR. Potassium iodide in dermatology: a 19th century drug for the 21st century-uses, pharmacology, adverse effects, and contraindications. J Am Acad Dermatol 2000;43:691-7. View abstract.
  24. Cuadros RG, Vidotto V, Bruatto M. Sporotrichosis in the metropolitan area of Cusco, Peru, and in its region. Mycoses 1990;33:231-40. View abstract.
  25. Houh W, Chung SR, Ro BI. Itraconazole in the treatment of sporotrichosis: a Korean experience. Trop Doct 1995;25:107-9. View abstract.
  26. Arora U, Aggarwal A, Arora RK. Sporotrichosis in Amritsar--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbio 2003;46:442-3. View abstract.
  27. Shinogi T, Misago N, Narisawa Y. Cutaneous sporotrichosis with refractory and reinfectious lesions in a healthy female. J Dermatol 2004;31:492-6. View abstract.
  28. Mahajan VK, Sharma NL, Sharma RC, et al. Cutaneous sporotrichosis in Himachal Pradesh, India. Mycoses 2005;48:25-31. View abstract.
  29. Bonifaz A, Saúl A, Paredes-Solis V, et al. Sporotrichosis in childhood: clinical and therapeutic experience in 25 patients. Pediatr Dermatol 2007;24:369-72. View abstract.
  30. Agarwal S, Gopal K, Umesh, Kumar B. Sporotrichosis in Uttarakhand (India): a report of nine cases. Int J Dermatol 2008;47:367-71. View abstract.
  31. Mahajan VK, Sharma NL, Shanker V, et al. Cutaneous sporotrichosis: unusual clinical presentations. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2010;76:276-80. View abstract.
  32. Kwangsukstith C, Vanittanakom N, Khanjanasthiti P, Uthammachai C. Cutaneous sporotrichosis in Thailand: first reported case. Mycoses 1990;33:513-7. View abstract.
  33. Koc AN, Uksal U, Oymak O. Case report. Successfully treated subcutaneous infection with Sporothrix schenckii in Turkey. Mycoses 2001;44:330-3. View abstract.
  34. Coskun B, Saral Y, Akpolat N, et al. Sporotrichosis successfully treated with terbinafine and potassium iodide: case report and review of the literature. Mycopathologia 2004;158:53-6. View abstract.
  35. Sandhu K, Gupta S. Potassium iodide remains the most effective therapy for cutaneous sporotrichosis. J Dermatolog Treat 2003;14:200-2. View abstract.
  36. Cabezas C, Bustamante B, Holgado W, Begue RE. Treatment of cutaneous sporotrichosis with one daily dose of potassium iodide. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1996;15:352-4. View abstract.
  37. Xue SL, Li L. Oral potassium iodide for the treatment of sporotrichosis. Mycopathologia 2009;167:355-6. View abstract.
  38. Xue S, Gu R, Wu T, et al. Oral potassium iodide for the treatment of sporotrichosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;:CD006136. View abstract.
  39. Patrick L. Iodine: Deficiency and therapeutic considerations. Altern Med Rev 2008;13:116-27. View abstract.
  40. Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. Guidance. Potassium iodide as a thyroid blocking agent in radiation emergencies. Food and Drug Administration December 2001. Available at:
  41. World Health Organization. Guidelines for Iodine Prophylaxis following Nuclear Accidents. Available at: Information_resources/on_line_radiation.htm. (Accessed 11 January 2002).
  42. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2002. Available at:
  43. Potassium iodide for nuclear exposure. Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter 2001;17:171214.
  44. Apelqvist J, Ragnarson Tennvall G. Cavity foot ulcers in diabetic patients: a comparative study of cadexomer iodine ointment and standard treatment. An economic analysis alongside a clinical trial. Acta Derm Venereol 1996;76:231-5. View abstract.
  45. Rahn R, Adamietz IA, Boettcher HD, et al. Povidone-iodine to prevent mucositis in patients during antineoplastic radiochemotherapy. Dermatology 1997;195(Suppl 2):57-61. View abstract.
  46. Adamietz IA, Rahn R, Bottcher HD, et al. Prophylaxis with povidone-iodine against induction of oral mucositis by radiochemotherapy. Support Care Cancer 1998;6:373-7. View abstract.
  47. Ghent WR, Eskin BA, Low DA, Hill LP. Iodine replacement in fibrocystic disease of the breast. Can J Surg 1993;36:453-60. View abstract.
  48. Goodman GA, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed.
  49. McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 10/02/2014

Page last updated: 10 December 2014