What is it?
Lavender is used for restlessness, insomnia, nervousness, and depression. It is also used for a variety of digestive complaints including meteorism (abdominal swelling from gas in the intestinal or peritoneal cavity), loss of appetite, vomiting, nausea, intestinal gas (flatulence), and upset stomach.
Some people use lavender for painful conditions including migraine headaches, toothaches, sprains, nerve pain, sores, and joint pain. It is also used for acne and cancer, and to promote menstruation.
Lavender is applied to the skin for hair loss (alopecia areata) and pain, and to repel mosquitoes and other insects.
Some people add lavender to bathwater to treat circulation disorders and improve mental well being.
By inhalation, lavender is used as aromatherapy for insomnia, pain, and agitation related to dementia.
In foods and beverages, lavender is used as a flavor component.
In manufacturing, lavender is used in pharmaceutical products and as a fragrance ingredient in soaps, cosmetics, perfumes, potpourri, and decorations.
Lavender (scientific name Lavandula angustifolia) is commonly contaminated with related species, including Lavandula hybrida, which is a cross between Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula latifolia, from which lavandin oil is obtained.
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for LAVENDER are as follows:
Possibly effective for...
- Hair loss in a condition called alopecia areata. There is some evidence that applying lavender oil in combination with oils from thyme, rosemary, and cedarwood might improve hair growth by as much as 44% after 7 months of treatment.
- Anxiety. Some research shows that taking lavender oil by mouth for 6-10 weeks improves anxiety and sleep and prevents anxiety recurrence in people with mild-to-severe anxiety. However, lavender does not seem to be more effective than the anti-anxiety medication lorazepam (Ativan). So far, early studies disagree about the effectiveness of using lavender oil as aromatherapy for treating anxiety.
- Canker sores. Some research shows that applying two drops of lavender oil to the affected area three times daily can improve canker sore healing and reduce canker sore swelling and pain.
- Fall prevention. There is some evidence that attaching a pad with lavender oil onto the neckline of clothing reduces falls in nursing home residents.
- Pain after Cesarean section (C-section). Some research suggests that inhaling lavender essence while receiving pain killers intravenously (by IV) can help reduce pain in women after a C-section.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Cancer-related pain. Some research shows that using lavender oil for aromatherapy massage does not reduce pain in people with cancer-related pain.
- Dementia. Applying lavender oil to the collar of clothing or using lavender oil for aromatherapy massage does not seems to improve mental function in people with Alzheimer’s disease or dementia.
- Pain in the area between the vulva and anus in females (perineal pain). Most research shows that adding lavender oil to baths does not improve perineal pain. However, some evidence suggests that lavender oil baths might reduce perineal pain immediately after childbirth.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Agitation. There is conflicting evidence on the efficacy of lavender aromatherapy for agitation. Some evidence suggests that lavender aromatherapy improves agitation in people with Alzheimer’s disease, while other evidence shows no effect.
- Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). Early research shows that using a combination of lavender oil and other herbal essential oils for aromatherapy massage does not improve skin irritation in children with itchy and inflamed skin.
- Colic. Results from a small research study show that massaging a combination of lavender and almond oils into the belly of infants for 5-15 minutes at the onset of colic reduces crying time.
- Constipation. Early research shows that massaging a combination of lavender, lemon, rosemary, and cypress oils onto the stomach might improve symptoms of constipation.
- Depression. There are conflicting results regarding the effects of lavender oil aromatherapy for treating depression. Some research suggests that lavender oil aromatherapy massage does not improve depression in cancer patients. Other research shows that it might improve mood in women experiencing depression after childbirth (post-partum depression). Early research suggests that taking lavender oil by mouth for 6 weeks might improve depression in people with depression. Tincture of lavender appears to be slightly less effective than the medication imipramine (Tofranil) for treating depression, but taking the two in combination might improve the antidepressant effects of imipramine.
- Menstrual pain. Lavender oil massages might reduce pain associated with menstruation in young women better than regular massages.
- High blood pressure. Early research suggests that using an essential oil mixture of lavender, lemon, and ylang ylang as aromatherapy might reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
- Sleeplessness (insomnia). Early research suggests that using lavender oil in a vaporizer overnight, or on a gauze pad left beside the bed, might help some people with mild insomnia sleep better.
- Lice. Early research suggests that applying a combination of lavender and tea tree oil to the skin helps kill lice eggs and reduce the number of live lice. It is unclear if the effects are caused by lavender alone or the combination of lavender and tea tree oil.
- Migraine. Early research suggests that rubbing 2 or 3 drops of lavender oil on the upper lip, so that the vapor is inhaled, might reduce migraine pain and nausea, and help stop the headache spreading.
- Ear infections. Early research suggests that administering ear drops containing lavender and other herbal extracts improves ear pain in people with ear infections. However, this herbal combination does not appear to be more effective than using a skin-numbing agent along with the antibiotic amoxicillin.
- General psychological well-being. Some research suggests that adding 3 mL of a 20% lavender oil and 80% grapeseed oil mixture to daily baths produces small improvements in mood, compared with baths containing grapeseed oil alone. However, other research suggests that adding lavender oil to aromatherapy massage does not improve well-being or quality of life in cancer patients.
- Wound healing. Early research suggests that using lavender oil as aromatherapy during bandage changes does not reduce pain in people with vascular wounds.
- Loss of appetite.
- Use as a mosquito repellent and insect repellent.
- Other conditions.
How does it work?
Are there safety concerns?
When taken by mouth, lavender can cause constipation, headache, and increased appetite. When applied to the skin, lavender can sometimes cause irritation.
Special precautions & warnings:Children: Applying products to the skin that contain lavender oil is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for young boys who have not yet reached puberty. Lavender oil seems to have hormone effects that could disrupt the normal hormones in a boy's body. In some cases, this has resulted in boys developing abnormal breast growth called gynecomastia. The safety of these products when used by young girls is not known.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking lavender if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Surgery: Lavender might slow down the central nervous system. If used in combination with anesthesia and other medications given during and after surgery, it might slow down the central nervous system too much. Stop using lavender at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.
Are there interactions with medications?
- Chloral Hydrate
- Chloral hydrate causes sleepiness and drowsiness. Lavender seems to increase the effects of chloral hydrate. Taking lavender along with chloral hydrate might cause too much sleepiness.
- Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
- Lavender might decrease blood pressure in some people. Taking lavender along with medications used for lowering high blood pressure might cause your blood pressure to go too low. Do not take too much lavender if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.
Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
- Sedative medications (Barbiturates)
- Lavender might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking lavender along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some sedative medications include amobarbital (Amytal), butabarbital (Butisol), mephobarbital (Mebaral), pentobarbital (Nembutal), phenobarbital (Luminal), secobarbital (Seconal), and others.
- Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)
- Lavender might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some of these sedative medications include lorazepam (Ativan), alprazolam (Xanax), diazepam (Valium), midazolam (Versed), and others.
- Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
- Lavender might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking lavender along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.
Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.
Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?
- Herbs and supplements that might cause sleepiness
- Lavender might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Using lavender along with other herbs and supplements with similar effects might cause too much sleepiness. Some of these supplements include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.
- Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
- Lavender might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have the same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
Are there interactions with foods?
- There are no known interactions with foods.
What dose is used?
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For bald spots (alopecia areata): one study used a combination of essential oils including 3 drops (108 mg) of lavender, 3 drops (114 mg) of rosemary, 2 drops (88 mg) of thyme, and 2 drops (94 mg) of cedarwood, all mixed with 3 mL jojoba oil and 20 mL grapeseed oil. Each night, the mixture is massaged into the scalp for 2 minutes with a warm towel placed around the head to increase absorption.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.
- Motomura N, Sakurai A, and Yotsuya Y. A psychophysiological study of lavender odorant. Memoirs of Osaka Kyoiku University, Series III 1999;47:281-287.
- Jager W, Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, and et al. Percutaneous absorption of lavender oil from massage oil. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1992;43:49-54.
- Cassella JP, Cassella S, Ashford R, and Siddals E. Antifungal activity of tea tree and lavender essential oils in the treatment of Trichophyton rubrum infection. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies 2001;6:74.
- Gross JJ, Levenson RW. Emotion elicitation using films. Int J Neurosci 1995;9:87-108.
- Kutlu, A. K. Yilmaz E. et al. Effects of aroma inhalation on examination anxiety. Teaching & Learning in Nursing 2008;3:125-130.
- Sgoutas-Emch, S. Fox T. Preston M. Brooks C. Serber E. Stress management: aromatherapy as an alternative. Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine 2001;5:90-95.
- Ripple GH, Gould MN, Stewart JA, and et al. Phase I clinical trial of perillyl alcohol administered daily. Clin Cancer Res 1998;4:1159-1164. View abstract.
- Lantry LE, Zhang Z, Gao F, and et al. Chemopreventive effect of perillyl alcohol on 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1- (3-pyridyl)-1-butanone induced tumorigenesis in (C3H/HeJ X A/J)F1 mouse lung. J Cell Biochem Suppl 1997;27:20-25. View abstract.
- Zweibel J, Ho P, Sepelak SB, and et al. Clinical trials referral resource. Clinical trials with perillyl alcohol. Oncology (Huntingt) 1997;11:1817, 1820. View abstract.
- Nelson RR. In-vitro activities of five plant essential oils against methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. J Antimicrob Chemother 1997;40:305-307. View abstract.
- Fulton GJ, Barber L, Svendsen E, and et al. Oral monoterpene therapy (perillyl alcohol) reduces vein graft intimal hyperplasia. J Surg Res 1997;69:128-134. View abstract.
- Burke YD, Stark MJ, Roach SL, and et al. Inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth by the dietary isoprenoids farnesol and geraniol. Lipids 1997;32:151-156. View abstract.
- Reddy, B. S., Wang, C. X., Samaha, H., Lubet, R., Steele, V. E., Kelloff, G. J., and Rao, C. V. Chemoprevention of colon carcinogenesis by dietary perillyl alcohol. Cancer Res 2-1-1997;57:420-425. View abstract.
- Ziegler, J. Raloxifene, retinoids, and lavender: "me too" tamoxifen alternatives under study. J Natl.Cancer Inst 8-21-1996;88:1100-1102. View abstract.
- Buckle J. Aromatherapy. NursTimes 5-19-1993;89:32-35. View abstract.
- Yamada K, Kimaki Y, and Ashida Y. Anticonvulsive effects of inhaling lavender oil vapour. Biol Pharm Bull 1994;17:359-360. View abstract.
- Ren, Z. and Gould, M. N. Inhibition of ubiquinone and cholesterol synthesis by the monoterpene perillyl alcohol. Cancer Lett 1-30-1994;76(2-3):185-190. View abstract.
- Dale, A. and Cornwell, S. The role of lavender oil in relieving perineal discomfort following childbirth: a blind randomized clinical trial. J Adv Nurs. 1994;19:89-96. View abstract.
- Rademaker M. Allergic contact dermatitis from lavender fragrance in Difflam gel. Contact Dermatitis 1994;31:58-59. View abstract.
- Haag, J. D. and Gould, M. N. Mammary carcinoma regression induced by perillyl alcohol, a hydroxylated analog of limonene. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol 1994;34:477-483. View abstract.
- Dunn C, Sleep J, and Collett D. Sensing an improvement: an experimental study to evaluate the use of aromatherapy, massage and periods of rest in an intensive care unit. J Adv Nurs 1995;21:34-40. View abstract.
- Mills, J. J., Chari, R. S., Boyer, I. J., Gould, M. N., and Jirtle, R. L. Induction of apoptosis in liver tumors by the monoterpene perillyl alcohol. Cancer Res 3-1-1995;55:979-983. View abstract.
- Cornwell S and Dale A. Lavender oil and perineal repair. Mod Midwife 1995;5:31-33. View abstract.
- Hardy M, Kirk-Smith MD, and Stretch DD. Replacement of drug treatment for insomnia by ambient odour. Lancet 9-9-1995;346:701. View abstract.
- Elisabetsky, E., Marschner, J., and Souza, D. O. Effects of Linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex. Neurochem.Res 1995;20:461-465. View abstract.
- Clegg, R. J., Middleton, B., Bell, G. D., and White, D. A. The mechanism of cyclic monoterpene inhibition of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3- methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase in vivo in the rat. J Biol Chem 3-10-1982;257:2294-2299. View abstract.
- Elegbede, J. A., Elson, C. E., Qureshi, A., Tanner, M. A., and Gould, M. N. Inhibition of DMBA-induced mammary cancer by the monoterpene d-limonene. Carcinogenesis 1984;5:661-664. View abstract.
- Atanassova-Shopova S and Roussinov KS. On certain central neurotropic effects of lavender essential oil. Izv Inst Fiziol (Sofiia) 1970;13:69-77. View abstract.
- Gabbrielli G, Loggini F, Cioni PL, and et al. Activity of lavandino essential oil against non-tubercular opportunistic rapid grown mycobacteria. Pharmacol Res Commun 1988;20 Suppl 5:37-40. View abstract.
- Brandao FM. Occupational allergy to lavender oil. Contact Dermatitis 1986;15:249-250. View abstract.
- Guillemain J, Rousseau A, and Delaveau P. [Neurodepressive effects of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill]. Ann Pharm Fr 1989;47:337-343. View abstract.
- Gamez MJ, Jimenez J, Navarro C, and et al. Study of the essential oil of Lavandula dentata L. Pharmazie 1990;45:69-70. View abstract.
- Apay, S. E., Arslan, S., Akpinar, R. B., and Celebioglu, A. Effect of aromatherapy massage on dysmenorrhea in Turkish students. Pain Manag.Nurs. 2012;13:236-240. View abstract.
- Posadzki, P., Alotaibi, A., and Ernst, E. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series. Int J Risk Saf Med. 1-1-2012;24:147-161. View abstract.
- Shimizu M, Shogawa H, Matsuzawa T, and et al. Anti-inflammatory constituents of topically applied crude drugs. IV. Constituents and anti-inflammatory effect of Paraguayan crude drug "alhucema" (Lavandula latifolia Vill.). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1990;38:2283-2284. View abstract.
- Conrad, P. and Adams, C. The effects of clinical aromatherapy for anxiety and depression in the high risk postpartum woman - a pilot study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18:164-168. View abstract.
- Djenane, D., Aider, M., Yanguela, J., Idir, L., Gomez, D., and Roncales, P. Antioxidant and antibacterial effects of Lavandula and Mentha essential oils in minced beef inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus during storage at abuse refrigeration temperature. Meat.Sci 2012;92:667-674. View abstract.
- Sakamoto, Y., Ebihara, S., Ebihara, T., Tomita, N., Toba, K., Freeman, S., Arai, H., and Kohzuki, M. Fall prevention using olfactory stimulation with lavender odor in elderly nursing home residents: a randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr.Soc 2012;60:1005-1011. View abstract.
- Sayorwan, W., Siripornpanich, V., Piriyapunyaporn, T., Hongratanaworakit, T., Kotchabhakdi, N., and Ruangrungsi, N. The effects of lavender oil inhalation on emotional states, autonomic nervous system, and brain electrical activity. J Med Assoc Thai. 2012;95:598-606. View abstract.
- Altaei, D. T. Topical lavender oil for the treatment of recurrent aphthous ulceration. Am J Dent 2012;25:39-43. View abstract.
- Uehleke, B., Schaper, S., Dienel, A., Schlaefke, S., and Stange, R. Phase II trial on the effects of Silexan in patients with neurasthenia, post-traumatic stress disorder or somatization disorder. Phytomedicine. 6-15-2012;19(8-9):665-671. View abstract.
- Perry, R., Terry, R., Watson, L. K., and Ernst, E. Is lavender an anxiolytic drug? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Phytomedicine. 6-15-2012;19(8-9):825-835. View abstract.
- Cetinkaya, B. and Basbakkal, Z. The effectiveness of aromatherapy massage using lavender oil as a treatment for infantile colic. Int J Nurs.Pract. 2012;18:164-169. View abstract.
- Ou, M. C., Hsu, T. F., Lai, A. C., Lin, Y. T., and Lin, C. C. Pain relief assessment by aromatic essential oil massage on outpatients with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized, double-blind clinical trial. J Obstet.Gynaecol.Res 2012;38:817-822. View abstract.
- El-Alfy, A. T., Abourashed, E. A., and Matsumoto, R. R. Nature against depression. Curr Med Chem 2012;19:2229-2241. View abstract.
- Hadi, N. and Hanid, A. A. Lavender essence for post-cesarean pain. Pak.J Biol.Sci 6-1-2011;14:664-667. View abstract.
- Sheikhan, F., Jahdi, F., Khoei, E. M., Shamsalizadeh, N., Sheikhan, M., and Haghani, H. Episiotomy pain relief: Use of Lavender oil essence in primiparous Iranian women. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2012;18:66-70. View abstract.
- Jones, C. The efficacy of lavender oil on perineal trauma: a review of the evidence. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17:215-220. View abstract.
- Kim, S., Kim, H. J., Yeo, J. S., Hong, S. J., Lee, J. M., and Jeon, Y. The effect of lavender oil on stress, bispectral index values, and needle insertion pain in volunteers. J Altern Complement Med 2011;17:823-826. View abstract.
- Grunebaum, L. D., Murdock, J., Castanedo-Tardan, M. P., and Baumann, L. S. Effects of lavender olfactory input on cosmetic procedures. J Cosmet.Dermatol 2011;10:89-93. View abstract.
- Chung, M. and Choi, E. [A comparison between effects of aroma massage and meridian massage on constipation and stress in women college students]. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2011;41:26-35. View abstract.
- Dwyer, A. V., Whitten, D. L., and Hawrelak, J. A. Herbal medicines, other than St. John's Wort, in the treatment of depression: a systematic review. Altern Med Rev. 2011;16:40-49. View abstract.
- Kasper, S., Gastpar, M., Muller, W. E., Volz, H. P., Moller, H. J., Dienel, A., and Schlafke, S. Efficacy and safety of silexan, a new, orally administered lavender oil preparation, in subthreshold anxiety disorder - evidence from clinical trials. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):547-556. View abstract.
- Vakilian, K., Atarha, M., Bekhradi, R., and Chaman, R. Healing advantages of lavender essential oil during episiotomy recovery: a clinical trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2011;17:50-53. View abstract.
- Cha, J. H., Lee, S. H., and Yoo, Y. S. [Effects of aromatherapy on changes in the autonomic nervous system, aortic pulse wave velocity and aortic augmentation index in patients with essential hypertension]. J Korean Acad Nurs. 2010;40:705-713. View abstract.
- Shimada, K., Fukuda, S., Maeda, K., Kawasaki, T., Kono, Y., Jissho, S., Taguchi, H., Yoshiyama, M., and Yoshikawa, J. Aromatherapy alleviates endothelial dysfunction of medical staff after night-shift work: preliminary observations. Hypertens.Res 2011;34:264-267. View abstract.
- Woronuk, G., Demissie, Z., Rheault, M., and Mahmoud, S. Biosynthesis and therapeutic properties of Lavandula essential oil constituents. Planta Med 2011;77:7-15. View abstract.
- Tsang, H. W. and Ho, T. Y. A systematic review on the anxiolytic effects of aromatherapy on rodents under experimentally induced anxiety models. Rev.Neurosci. 2010;21:141-152. View abstract.
- Kasper, S., Gastpar, M., Muller, W. E., Volz, H. P., Moller, H. J., Dienel, A., and Schlafke, S. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of 'subsyndromal' anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2010;25:277-287. View abstract.
- Jimbo, D., Kimura, Y., Taniguchi, M., Inoue, M., and Urakami, K. Effect of aromatherapy on patients with Alzheimer's disease. Psychogeriatrics. 2009;9:173-179. View abstract.
- Kritsidima, M., Newton, T., and Asimakopoulou, K. The effects of lavender scent on dental patient anxiety levels: a cluster randomised-controlled trial. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010;38:83-87. View abstract.
- Woelk, H. and Schlafke, S. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:94-99. View abstract.
- Braden, R., Reichow, S., and Halm, M. A. The use of the essential oil lavandin to reduce preoperative anxiety in surgical patients. J Perianesth.Nurs. 2009;24:348-355. View abstract.
- Bradley, B. F., Brown, S. L., Chu, S., and Lea, R. W. Effects of orally administered lavender essential oil on responses to anxiety-provoking film clips. Hum.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:319-330. View abstract.
- Hoya, Y., Matsumura, I., Fujita, T., and Yanaga, K. The use of nonpharmacological interventions to reduce anxiety in patients undergoing gastroscopy in a setting with an optimal soothing environment. Gastroenterol.Nurs. 2008;31:395-399. View abstract.
- Xu, F., Uebaba, K., Ogawa, H., Tatsuse, T., Wang, B. H., Hisajima, T., and Venkatraman, S. Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia. J Altern.Complement Med. 2008;14:947-956. View abstract.
- Fujii, M., Hatakeyama, R., Fukuoka, Y., Yamamoto, T., Sasaki, R., Moriya, M., Kanno, M., and Sasaki, H. Lavender aroma therapy for behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia patients. Geriatr.Gerontol.Int 2008;8:136-138. View abstract.
- Toda, M. and Morimoto, K. Effect of lavender aroma on salivary endocrinological stress markers. Arch.Oral Biol. 2008;53:964-968. View abstract.
- Ostermann, T., Blaser, G., Bertram, M., Michalsen, A., Matthiessen, P. F., and Kraft, K. Effects of rhythmic embrocation therapy with solum oil in chronic pain patients: a prospective observational study. Clin J Pain 2008;24:237-243. View abstract.
- Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, and et al. Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Z Naturforsch.[C.] 1991;46(11-12):1067-1072. View abstract.
- Howard, S. and Hughes, B. M. Expectancies, not aroma, explain impact of lavender aromatherapy on psychophysiological indices of relaxation in young healthy women. Br J Health Psychol. 2008;13(Pt 4):603-617. View abstract.
- Duan, X., Tashiro, M., Wu, D., Yambe, T., Wang, Q., Sasaki, T., Kumagai, K., Luo, Y., Nitta, S., and Itoh, M. Autonomic nervous function and localization of cerebral activity during lavender aromatic immersion. Technol Health Care 2007;15:69-78. View abstract.
- Muzzarelli, L., Force, M., and Sebold, M. Aromatherapy and reducing preprocedural anxiety: A controlled prospective study. Gastroenterol Nurs 2006;29:466-471. View abstract.
- Rho, K. H., Han, S. H., Kim, K. S., and Lee, M. S. Effects of aromatherapy massage on anxiety and self-esteem in korean elderly women: a pilot study. Int J Neurosci. 2006;116:1447-1455. View abstract.
- Imura, M., Misao, H., and Ushijima, H. The psychological effects of aromatherapy-massage in healthy postpartum mothers. J Midwifery Womens Health 2006;51:e21-e27. View abstract.
- Yip, Y. B. and Tse, S. H. An experimental study on the effectiveness of acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for sub-acute, non-specific neck pain in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2006;12:18-26. View abstract.
- Goel, N., Kim, H., and Lao, R. P. An olfactory stimulus modifies nighttime sleep in young men and women. Chronobiol.Int 2005;22:889-904. View abstract.
- D'Auria, F. D., Tecca, M., Strippoli, V., Salvatore, G., Battinelli, L., and Mazzanti, G. Antifungal activity of Lavandula angustifolia essential oil against Candida albicans yeast and mycelial form. Med Mycol. 2005;43:391-396. View abstract.
- Lehrner, J., Marwinski, G., Lehr, S., Johren, P., and Deecke, L. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav 9-15-2005;86(1-2):92-95. View abstract.
- Kane, F. M., Brodie, E. E., Coull, A., Coyne, L., Howd, A., Milne, A., Niven, C. C., and Robbins, R. The analgesic effect of odour and music upon dressing change. Br.J Nurs. 10-28-2004;13:S4-12. View abstract.
- Gedney, J. J., Glover, T. L., and Fillingim, R. B. Sensory and affective pain discrimination after inhalation of essential oils. Psychosom.Med. 2004;66:599-606. View abstract.
- Heuberger, E., Redhammer, S., and Buchbauer, G. Transdermal absorption of (-)-linalool induces autonomic deactivation but has no impact on ratings of well-being in humans. Neuropsychopharmacology 2004;29:1925-1932. View abstract.
- Yip, Y. B. and Tse, S. H. The effectiveness of relaxation acupoint stimulation and acupressure with aromatic lavender essential oil for non-specific low back pain in Hong Kong: a randomised controlled trial. Complement Ther.Med. 2004;12:28-37. View abstract.
- Soden, K., Vincent, K., Craske, S., Lucas, C., and Ashley, S. A randomized controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting. Palliat.Med 2004;18:87-92. View abstract.
- BROWN, S. A. Biosynthesis of coumarin and herniarin in lavender. Science 9-21-1962;137:977-978. View abstract.
- Louis, M. and Kowalski, S. D. Use of aromatherapy with hospice patients to decrease pain, anxiety, and depression and to promote an increased sense of well-being. Am.J Hosp.Palliat.Care 2002;19:381-386. View abstract.
- Holmes, C., Hopkins, V., Hensford, C., MacLaughlin, V., Wilkinson, D., and Rosenvinge, H. Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2002;17:305-308. View abstract.
- Motomura, N., Sakurai, A., and Yotsuya, Y. Reduction of mental stress with lavender odorant. Percept.Mot.Skills 2001;93:713-718. View abstract.
- Itai T, Amayasu H, Kuribayashi M, and et al. Psychological effects of aromatherapy on chronic hemodialysis patients. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2000;54:393-397. View abstract.
- Anderson C, Lis-Balchin M, and Kirk-Smith M. Evaluation of massage with essential oils on childhood atopic eczema. Phytother Res 2000;14:452-456. View abstract.
- Saeki Y. The effect of foot-bath with or without the essential oil of lavender on the autonomic nervous system: a randomized trial. Complement Ther Med 2000;8:2-7. View abstract.
- Ripple, G. H., Gould, M. N., Arzoomanian, R. Z., Alberti, D., Feierabend, C., Simon, K., Binger, K., Tutsch, K. D., Pomplun, M., Wahamaki, A., Marnocha, R., Wilding, G., and Bailey, H. H. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of perillyl alcohol administered four times a day. Clin Cancer Res 2000;6:390-396. View abstract.
- Ghelardini C, Galeotti N, Salvatore G, and et al. Local anaesthetic activity of the essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia. Planta Med 1999;65:700-703. View abstract.
- Hohmann, J., Zupko, I., Redei, D., Csanyi, M., Falkay, G., Mathe, I., and Janicsak, G. Protective effects of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, Melissa Officinalis and Lavandula angustifolia and their constituents against enzyme-dependent and enzyme-independent lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1999;65:576-578. View abstract.
- Lis-Balchin, M. and Hart, S. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia P. Miller). Phytother Res 1999;13:540-542. View abstract.
- Coulson IH and Khan AS. Facial 'pillow' dermatitis due to lavender oil allergy. Contact Dermatitis 1999;41:111. View abstract.
- Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, and et al. Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness and math computations. Int J Neurosci. 1998;96(3-4):217-224. View abstract.
- Lee, S. Y. [The effect of lavender aromatherapy on cognitive function, emotion, and aggressive behavior of elderly with dementia]. Taehan Kanho.Hakhoe.Chi 2005;35:303-312. View abstract.
- Schaller M and Korting HC. Allergic airborne contact dermatitis from essential oils used in aromatherapy. Clin Exp Dermatol 1995;20:143-145. View abstract.
- Hur, M. H., Oh, H., Lee, M. S., Kim, C., Choi, A. N., and Shin, G. R. Effects of aromatherapy massage on blood pressure and lipid profile in korean climacteric women. Int J Neurosci. 2007;117:1281-1287. View abstract.
- Sakamoto, R., Minoura, K., Usui, A., Ishizuka, Y., and Kanba, S. Effectiveness of aroma on work efficiency: lavender aroma during recesses prevents deterioration of work performance. Chem Senses 2005;30:683-691. View abstract.
- Dimpfel, W., Pischel, I., and Lehnfeld, R. Effects of lozenge containing lavender oil, extracts from hops, lemon balm and oat on electrical brain activity of volunteers. Eur.J Med Res 9-29-2004;9:423-431. View abstract.
- Kim, M. J., Nam, E. S., and Paik, S. I. [The effects of aromatherapy on pain, depression, and life satisfaction of arthritis patients]. Taehan Kanho.Hakhoe.Chi 2005;35:186-194. View abstract.
- Sterer, N., Nuas, S., Mizrahi, B., Goldenberg, C., Weiss, E. I., Domb, A., and Davidi, M. P. Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation. J Dent. 2008;36:535-539. View abstract.
- Lis-Balchin, M. and Hart, S. A preliminary study of the effect of essential oils on skeletal and smooth muscle in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 1997;58:183-187. View abstract.
- Rychlik, M. Quantification of free coumarin and its liberation from glucosylated precursors by stable isotope dilution assays based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric detection. J Agric.Food Chem 2-13-2008;56:796-801. View abstract.
- Sarrell, E. M., Cohen, H. A., and Kahan, E. Naturopathic treatment for ear pain in children. Pediatrics 2003;111(5 Pt 1):e574-e579. View abstract.
- Posadzki, P., Watson, L. K., and Ernst, E. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews. Clin Med 2013;13:7-12. View abstract.
- Gray, S. G. and Clair, A. A. Influence of aromatherapy on medication administration to residential-care residents with dementia and behavioral challenges. Am J Alzheimers.Dis.Other Demen. 2002;17:169-174. View abstract.
- Hongratanaworakit, T. Aroma-therapeutic effects of massage blended essential oils on humans. Nat.Prod.Commun. 2011;6:1199-1204. View abstract.
- Chang, S. Y. [Effects of aroma hand massage on pain, state anxiety and depression in hospice patients with terminal cancer]. Taehan Kanho.Hakhoe.Chi 2008;38:493-502. View abstract.
- Reddy, K. K., Grossman, L., and Rogers, G. S. Common complementary and alternative therapies with potential use in dermatologic surgery: risks and benefits. J Am Acad Dermatol 2013;68:e127-e135. View abstract.
- Nord D, Belew J. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2009;24:307-12. View abstract.
- Kang HY, Na SS and Kim YK. [Effects of oral care with essential oil on improvement in oral health status of hospice patients]. J Korean Acad Nurs 2010;40:473-481. View abstract.
- Barker SC and Altman PM. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product. BMC Dermatol 2010;10:6. View abstract.
- Barker SC and Altman PM. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocation" pediculicide. BMC Dermatol 2011;11:14. View abstract.
- Burnett KM, Solterbeck LA, Strapp CM. Scent and mood state following an anxiety-provoking task. Psychol Rep 2004;95:707-22. View abstract.
- McCaffrey R, Thomas DJ, Kinzelman AO. The effects of lavender and rosemary essential oils on test-taking anxiety among graduate nursing students. Holist Nurs Pract 2009;23:88-93. View abstract.
- Moss M, Cook J, Wesnes K, Duckett P. Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults. Int J Neurosci 2003;113:15-38. View abstract.
- Sasannejad P, Saeedi M, Shoeibi A, et al. Lavender essential oil in the treatment of migraine headache: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur Neurol 2012;67:288-91. View abstract.
- Hirokawa K, Nishimoto T, Taniguchi T. Effects of lavender aroma on sleep quality in healthy Japanese students. Perceptual and Motor Skills 2012;114:111-22. View abstract.
- Lewith GT, Godfrey AD, Prescott P. A single-blinded, randomized pilot study evaluating the aroma of Lavandula augustifolia as a treatment for mild insomnia. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:631-7. View abstract.
- Lin PW, Chan W, Ng BF, Lam LC. Efficacy of aromatherapy (Lavandula angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: a cross-over randomized trial. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry 2007;22:405-10. View abstract.
- Morris N. The effects of lavender (Lavendula angustifolium) baths on psychological well-being: two exploratory randomised control trials. Complement Ther Med 2002;10:223-8. View abstract.
- Liu G, Oettel K, Bailey H, et al. Phase II trial of perillyl alcohol (NSC 641066) administered daily in patients with metastatic androgen independent prostate cancer. Invest New Drugs 2003;21:367-72. View abstract.
- Henley DV, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Eng J Med 2007;356:479-85. View abstract.
- Hajhashemi V, Ghannadi A, Sharif B. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the leaf extracts and essential oil of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. J Ethnopharmacol 2003;89:67-71. View abstract.
- Lynn A, Hovanec L, Brandt J. A Controlled Trial of Aromatherapy for Agitation in Nursing Home Patients with Dementia. J Alt Comp Med 2004;431-7. View abstract.
- Graham PH, Browne L, Cox H, Graham J. Inhalation aromatherapy during radiotherapy: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized trial. J Clin Oncol 2003;21:2372-6. View abstract.
- Varma S, Blackford S, Statham BN, Blackwell A. Combined contact allergy to tea tree oil and lavender oil complicating chronic vulvovaginitis. Contact Dermatitis 2000;42:309-10. View abstract.
- Akhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Fotouhi A, et al. Comparison of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. tincture and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2003;27:123-7. View abstract.
- Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51. View abstract.
- Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
- Hay IC, Jamieson M, Ormerod AD. Randomized trial of aromatherapy. Successful treatment for alopecia areata. Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1349-52. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:184.108.40.206.13&idno=21
- Smith DS, Helzner EC, Nuttall CE Jr, et al. Failure of zinc gluconate in treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:646-8. View abstract.
- Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.
- Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. Terry C. Telger, transl. 3rd ed. Berlin, GER: Springer, 1998.
- The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.
- Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
- Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
- Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.