URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/940.html


What is it?

Melatonin is a hormone found naturally in the body. Melatonin used as medicine is usually made synthetically in a laboratory. It is most commonly available in pill form, but melatonin is also available in forms that can be placed in the cheek or under the tongue. This allows the melatonin to be absorbed directly into the body.

People use melatonin to adjust the body’s internal clock. It is used for jet lag, for adjusting sleep-wake cycles in people whose daily work schedule changes (shift-work disorder), and for helping blind people establish a day and night cycle.

Melatonin is also used for the inability to fall asleep (insomnia); delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS); insomnia associated with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); insomnia due to certain high blood pressure medications called beta-blockers; and sleep problems in children with developmental disorders including autism, cerebral palsy, and intellectual disabilities. It is also used as a sleep aid after discontinuing the use of benzodiazepine drugs and to reduce the side effects of stopping smoking.

Some people use melatonin for Alzheimer’s disease, ringing in the ears, depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), fibromyalgia, migraine and other headaches, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), bone loss (osteoporosis), a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia (TD), epilepsy, as an anti-aging agent, for menopause, and for birth control.

Other uses include breast cancer, brain cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, head cancer, neck cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Melatonin is also used for some of the side effects of cancer treatment (chemotherapy) including weight loss, nerve pain, weakness, and a lowered number of clot-forming cells (thrombocytopenia).

It is also used to calm people before they are given anesthesia for surgery.

The forms of melatonin that can be absorbed through the cheek or under the tongue are used for insomnia, shift-work disorder, and to calm people before receiving anesthesia for surgery.

Sometimes people apply melatonin to the skin to protect against sunburn.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for MELATONIN are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Sleep disorders in blind people. Taking melatonin by mouth helps improve sleep disorders in blind children and adults.
  • Trouble falling asleep (delayed sleep phase syndrome). Taking melatonin by mouth appears to reduce the length of time needed to fall asleep in young adults and children who have trouble falling asleep. However, within one year of stopping treatment, this sleeping problem seems to return.
  • Sleeping problems in people with sleep-wake cycle disturbances. Taking melatonin by mouth is helpful for disturbed sleep-wake cycles in children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities, autism, and other central nervous system disorders. Melatonin also appears to shorten the time it takes for to children with developmental disabilities to fall asleep. In addition, melatonin appears to improve sleep quality in people with reduced rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep. Also, melatonin appears to reduce the time it takes to fall asleep and the number of sleep interruptions in elderly people with sleep-wake cycle disturbances and dementia.

Possibly effective for...

  • Withdrawal from drugs called benzodiazepines. Taking the controlled-release form of melatonin by mouth seems to help older people with insomnia related to withrdrawal from drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • High blood pressure. Taking the controlled-release form of melatonin before bedtime seems to lower blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
  • Insomnia. For primary insomnia (insomnia that is not attributable to a medical or environmental cause), melatonin seems to be able to shorten the amount of time it takes to fall asleep, but only by about 12 minutes, according to one research study. Melatonin does not appear to improve “sleep efficiency,” the percentage of time that a person actually spends sleeping during the time set aside for sleeping. Some people say melatonin makes them sleep better, even though tests do not agree. There is some evidence that melatonin is more likely to help older people than younger people or children. This may be because older people have less melatonin in their bodies to start with.
    There is some interest in finding out whether melatonin might help with “secondary insomnia.” This is trouble sleeping that is related to other conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease; depression; schizophrenia; hospitalization; and “ICU syndrome,” sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit. Research to date suggests that melatonin might not help to reduce the time it takes to fall asleep in secondary insomnia, but it might improve sleep efficiency.
  • Jet lag. Most research shows that melatonin can improve certain symptoms of jet lag such as alertness and movement coordination. Melatonin also seems to slightly improve other jet lag symptoms such as daytime sleepiness and tiredness. However, melatonin might not be effective for shortening the time it takes for people with jet lag to fall asleep.
  • Reducing anxiety before surgery. Melatonin used under the tongue seems to be as effective in reducing anxiety before surgery as midazolam, a conventional medication. It also seems to have fewer side effects in some people. Taking melatonin by mouth also seems to reduce anxiety before surgery, although some conflicting evidence exists.
  • Tumors. Taking high doses of melatonin with chemotherapy or other cancer treatments might reduce tumor size and improve survival rates in people with tumors.
  • Sunburn. Applying melatonin to the skin before sun exposure seems to prevent sunburn
  • Low blood platelets (thrombocytopenia). Taking melatonin by mouth can improve low blood platelet counts associated with cancer, cancer treatment, and other disorders.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Exercise performance. Taking melatonin one hour before resistance exercise does not seem to improve performance.
  • Infertility. Taking melatonin does not appear to improve fertility or pregnancy rates in women undergoing fertility treatments.
  • Adjusting sleep schedule in people who do shift work. Taking melatonin by mouth does not seem to improve sleeping problems in people who do shift work.

Likely ineffective for...

  • Depression. Although melatonin might improve sleeping problems in people with depression, it does not seem to improve depression itself. There is also some concern that melatonin might worsen symptoms in some people.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Age-related vision loss (age-related macular degeneration). Early research suggests that taking melatonin might delay the loss of vision in people with age-related vision loss.
  • Memory loss (dementia). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin does not improve behavior and symptoms in people with Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia. However, other evidence suggests that taking melatonin might reduce confusion and restlessness in people with dementia
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Limited research suggests that melatonin might reduce insomnia in children with ADHD who are taking stimulants. However, improved sleep does not seem to decrease symptoms of ADHD.
  • Enlarged prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia). Some research suggests that taking melatonin can reduce excessive urination at night in some men with enlarged prostate.
  • Insomnia caused by drugs called beta-blockers. There is early evidence that taking a melatonin supplement might decrease insomnia caused by drugs called beta-blockers.
  • Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking melatonin at bedtime increases sleep duration and reduces manic symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who also have insomnia.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Some early research suggests that taking melatonin in the evening might improve some symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome, including fatigue, concentration, and motivation. However, other early research suggests that taking melatonin by mouth does not improve CFS symptoms.
  • Lung disease (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin improves shortness of breath in people with COPD. However, it does not seem to improve lung function or exercise capacity.
  • An inflammatory disease called chronic sarcoidosis. Early research suggests that taking melatonin daily improves lung function and skin lesions in people with chronic sarcoidosis.
  • Cluster headache. Taking melatonin by mouth every evening might reduce the frequency of cluster headaches. However, other research suggests that it does not.
  • Delirium. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin nightly for 14 days reduces the risk of delirium in older people.
  • Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking melatonin nightly seems to reduce indigestion.
  • Nighttime bedwetting (enuresis). Early research suggests that taking melatonin before bed does not reduce the number of wet beds in children with nighttime bedwetting.
  • Fibromyalgia. Melatonin might decrease the severity of pain and stiffness in people with fibromyalgia.
  • Acid reflux disease. Taking melatonin daily at bedtime might improve symptoms of acid reflux, including heartburn. However, taking conventional medication seems to be more effective.
  • Stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori infection. Evidence suggests that taking melatonin together with the drug omeprazole improves healing in people with ulcers caused by H. pylori infection.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Early research suggests that taking melatonin might improve some, but not all, symptoms of IBS.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Limited research suggests that melatonin does not relieve menopausal symptoms. However, taking melatonin in combination with soy isoflavones might help psychological symptoms associated with menopause.
  • Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that taking melatonin reduces blood pressure as well as low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome.
  • Migraine headache. There is some evidence that taking melatonin before bed can prevent episodic migraine headache. When headaches do occur, they are milder and pass more quickly. However, other evidence shows that taking melatonin does not reduce the frequency of migraine attacks.
  • Mild problems with mental function. Taking a docosahexaeonic acid (DHA) mixture that contains melatonin and tryptophan appears to improve mental function, speech, and sensitively to smell in older people with some problems with mental function.
  • Withdrawal from nicotine. Taking melatonin 3.5 hours after nicotine withdrawal in smokers seems to reduce anxiety, restlessness, and cigarette cravings.
  • Liver disease (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin improves liver function in people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.
  • Recovery after surgery. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin the night before and 1 hour before undergoing surgery might reduce pain and drug use after surgery.
  • Prostate cancer. Taking melatonin by mouth together with conventional medications might reduce the growth of prostate cancer.
  • Acting out dreams while sleeping. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin before bed increases muscle paralysis during sleep in people with a sleep disorder that involves acting out dreams.
  • Restless leg syndrome. Early research suggests that taking melatonin before bedtime might make symptoms worse in people with restless leg syndrome.
  • Seizures. There is some evidence that taking melatonin at bedtime may reduce the number and length of seizures in children with epilepsy. However, other evidence suggests that it does not reduce seizures. Melatonin should be used cautiously, because melatonin may increase the number of seizures in some people.
  • Headache characterized by sudden sharp pain. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin daily might prevent sudden stabbing headaches.
  • Stress. There is some evidence that taking melatonin might improve memory while under stress.
  • Agitation caused by anesthesia drugs. Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin before anesthesia reduces agitation after surgery.
  • Movement disorder (tardive dyskinesia). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin by mouth decreases symptoms of a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. However, other evidence suggests that taking melatonin daily does not reduce involuntary movements.
  • Ringing in the ears (tinnitus). Some evidence suggests that taking melatonin at night reduces ringing in the ears and improves sleep quality. However, other research suggests that it does not reduce ear ringing.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Taking melatonin daily in combination with conventional medication seems to help control a type of inflammatory bowel disease called ulcerative colitis.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Birth control.
  • Aging.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate melatonin for these uses.

How does it work?

Melatonin’s main job in the body is to regulate night and day cycles or sleep-wake cycles. Darkness causes the body to produce more melatonin, which signals the body to prepare for sleep. Light decreases melatonin production and signals the body to prepare for being awake. Some people who have trouble sleeping have low levels of melatonin. It is thought that adding melatonin from supplements might help them sleep.

Are there safety concerns?

Melatonin is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth short-term or when applied to the skin.

Melatonin is POSSIBLY SAFE when used by mouth appropriately, long-term. Melatonin has been used safely for up to 2 years in some people. However, it can cause some side effects including headache, short-term feelings of depression, daytime sleepiness, dizziness, stomach cramps, and irritability. Do not drive or use machinery for four to five hours after taking melatonin.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Melatonin is POSSIBLY UNSAFE to use during pregnancy. Do not use it. Melatonin might also interfere with ovulation, making it more difficult to become pregnant.

Not enough is known about the safety of using melatonin when breast-feeding. It is best not to use it.

Infants and children: Melatonin should not be used in most children. It is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Because of its effects on other hormones, melatonin might interfere with development during adolescence.

Bleeding disorders: Melatonin might make bleeding worse in people with bleeding disorders.

High blood pressure: Melatonin can raise blood pressure in people who are taking certain medications to control blood pressure. Avoid using it.

Diabetes: Melatonin might increase blood sugar in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully, if you have diabetes and take melatonin.

Depression: Melatonin can make symptoms of depression worse.

Seizure disorders: Using melatonin might increase the risk of having a seizure.

Transplant recipients: Melatonin can increase immune function and might interfere with immunosuppressive therapy used by people receiving transplants.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
The body makes melatonin. Birth control pills seem to increase how much melatonin the body makes. Taking melatonin along with birth control pills might cause too much melatonin to be in the body.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Caffeine might increase or decrease melatonin levels in the body. When taken together with melatonin supplements, caffeine seems to increase melatonin levels.
Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
Taking fluvoxamine (Luvox) can increase the amount of melatonin that the body absorbs. Taking melatonin along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Melatonin might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking melatonin along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking melatonin, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include acetaminophen (Tylenol), amitriptyline (Elavil), clopidogrel (Plavix), clozapine (Clozaril), diazepam (Valium), estradiol, olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), propranolol (Inderal), ropinirole (Requip), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, verapamil (Calan, Covera-HS, Isoptin, Verelan), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Melatonin might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking melatonin along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking melatonin, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), carisoprodol (Soma), citalopram (Celexa), diazepam (Valium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec), phenytoin (Dilantin), warfarin, and many others.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
There is some concern that melatonin might increase or decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By affecting blood sugar, melatonin might decrease or increase the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs)
Melatonin might decrease blood pressure in healthy people. However, melatonin might make blood pressure worse in people who are already taking medications for high blood pressure. Do not take too much melatonin if you are taking medications for high blood pressure.

Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
Melatonin might increase the immune system. Taking melatonin along with medications that decrease the immune system might decrease the effectiveness of medications that decrease the immune system.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Medications that lower the seizure threshold
Melatonin might increase the frequency of seizures in some people, particularly children. Taking melatonin with drugs that lower the seizure threshold might increase the risk of a seizure.

Some medications that lower seizure threshold include anesthetics (propofol, others), antiarrhythmics (mexiletine), antibiotics (amphotericin, penicillin, cephalosporins, imipenem), antidepressants (bupropion, others), antihistamines (cyproheptadine, others), immunosuppressants (cyclosporine), narcotics (fentanyl, others), stimulants (methylphenidate), theophylline, and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Melatonin might slow blood clotting. Taking melatonin along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Medications used to prevent seizures (Anticonvulsants)
Melatonin might increase the frequency of seizures in some people, particularly children with multiple neurological disorders. In theory, taking melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of medications used to prevent seizures.

Some medications used to prevent seizures include phenobarbital, primidone (Mysoline), valproic acid (Depakene), gabapentin (Neurontin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), phenytoin (Dilantin), and others.
Taking melatonin with methamphetamine might increase the effects and side effects of methamphetamine.
Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL)
Nifedipine GITS (Procardia XL) is used to lower blood pressure. Taking melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of nifedipine GITS for lowering blood pressure.
Sedative medications (Benzodiazepines)
Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Drugs that cause sleepiness and drowsiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some of these sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), and others.
Sedative medications (CNS depressants)
Melatonin might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking melatonin along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness.

Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.
Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
The body breaks down melatonin to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase how quickly the body gets rid of melatonin. Taking melatonin along with verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin.
Be watchful with this combination.
Flumazenil (Romazicon)
Flumazenil (Romazicon) might decrease the effects of melatonin. It is not yet clear why this interaction occurs. Taking flumazenil (Romazicon) along with melatonin might decrease the effectiveness of melatonin supplements.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Caffeine might increase or decrease melatonin levels in the body. When taken together with melatonin supplements, caffeine seems to increase melatonin levels.
Taking echinacea together with melatonin might have negative effects on immune function.
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood pressure
Melatonin might lower blood pressure. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that have this same effect might increase the risk of blood pressure dropping too low in some people. Some of these products include andrographis, casein peptides, cat's claw, coenzyme Q-10, fish oil, L-arginine, lycium, stinging nettle, theanine, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might lower seizure threshold
Melatonin might increase the risk for seizures in some people, particularly in children. Taking supplements that also lower seizure threshold with melatonin might increase the risk even more. Some of these supplements include butanediol (BD), cedar leaf, Chinese club moss, EDTA, folic acid, gamma butyrolactone (GBL), gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB), glutamine, huperzine A, hydrazine sulfate, hyssop oil, juniper, L-carnitine, rosemary, sage, wormwood, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Melatonin might increase the effect of herbs that slow blood clotting and might increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, willow, and others.
Herbs and supplements with sleep-promoting (sedative) properties
Using melatonin along with herbs that have sedative properties might increase the effects and side effects of melatonin. Some of these supplements include 5-HTP, calamus, California poppy, catnip, hops, Jamaican dogwood, kava, St. John's wort, skullcap, valerian, yerba mansa, and others.
St. John's wort
Taking St. John's wort increases melatonin levels in the body. In theory, taking St. John's wort with melatonin might increase both the effects and side effects of melatonin.
Vitamin B12
Taking vitamin B12 might reduce blood levels of melatonin.
Vitex agnus-castus
Taking vitex agnus-castus increases melatonin levels in the body. In theory, taking vitex agnus-castus with melatonin might increase both the effects and side effects of melatonin.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For insomnia:
    • 0.3-5 mg at bedtime is a typical dose.
    • In children with insomnia due to delayed sleep onset, melatonin 5 mg at 6:00 PM daily.
    • In children with developmental disorders (including cerebral palsy, autism, and intellectual disabilities), melatonin 5 mg at 8:00 PM daily. Both immediate-release and sustained-release preparations have been used.
  • For jet lag: 0.5-5 mg at bedtime is commonly taken on the arrival day at the destination, continuing for 2-5 days. Low doses of 0.5-3 mg are often used to avoid the hypnotic properties of the higher 4-5 mg doses.
  • For tardive dyskinesia (TD): 10 mg daily of a controlled-release formulation.
  • As treatment for solid tumors in combination with conventional therapy: 10-50 mg along with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or interleukin 2 (IL-2). Melatonin is typically started 7 days before the start of chemotherapy and continued throughout full treatment course.
  • For treatment of prostate cancer that has spread to other sites (metastatic cancer) and is resistant to triptorelin used alone: 20 mg taken daily has been used in combination with 3.75 mg of triptorelin injected into the muscle every 28 days.
  • For prevention and treatment of lowered clot-forming cells (thrombocytopenia) associated with cancer chemotherapy: 20 mg each evening.
  • For benzodiazepine withdrawal in elderly people with insomnia: 2 mg of controlled-release melatonin taken at bedtime for 6 weeks (the benzodiazepine dosage is reduced 50% during the second week, 75% during weeks 3 and 4, and stopped during weeks 5 and 6) and continued up to 6 months.
  • For prevention of cluster headache: an evening dose of 10 mg.
  • For reducing anxiety before surgery in adults: 0.05 mg/kg under the tongue.
  • For reducing nicotine withdrawal symptoms: 0.3 mg orally 3.5 hours after stopping smoking.

Other names

5-Methoxy-N-Acetyltryptamine, MEL, Melatonina, Mélatonine, MLT, N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, N-Acétyl-5-Méthoxytryptamine, Pineal Hormone.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


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  361. Dilek, M., Naziroglu, M., Baha, Oral H., Suat, Ovey, I, Kucukayaz, M., Mungan, M. T., Kara, H. Y., and Sutcu, R. Melatonin modulates hippocampus NMDA receptors, blood and brain oxidative stress levels in ovariectomized rats. J.Membr.Biol. 2010;233(1-3):135-142. View abstract.
  362. Sharma, S., Haldar, C., Chaube, S. K., Laxmi, T., and Singh, S. S. Long-term melatonin administration attenuates low-LET gamma-radiation-induced lymphatic tissue injury during the reproductively active and inactive phases of Indian palm squirrels (Funambulus pennanti). Br.J.Radiol. 2010;83:137-151. View abstract.
  363. Kaur, C., Sivakumar, V., and Ling, E. A. Melatonin protects periventricular white matter from damage due to hypoxia. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:185-193. View abstract.
  364. Hoppe, J. B., Frozza, R. L., Horn, A. P., Comiran, R. A., Bernardi, A., Campos, M. M., Battastini, A. M., and Salbego, C. Amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in organotypic culture is attenuated by melatonin: involvement of GSK-3beta, tau and neuroinflammation. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:230-238. View abstract.
  365. Tian, X. Z., Wen, Q., Shi, J. M., Liang, Wang, Zeng, S. M., Tian, J. H., Zhou, G. B., Zhu, S. E., and Liu, G. S. Effects of melatonin on in vitro development of mouse two-cell embryos cultured in HTF medium. Endocr.Res. 2010;35:17-23. View abstract.
  366. Sisecioglu, M., Cankaya, M., Gulcin, I., and Ozdemir, H. Interactions of melatonin and serotonin with lactoperoxidase enzyme. J.Enzyme Inhib.Med.Chem. 2010;25:779-783. View abstract.
  367. Ferrante, E., Rossi, P., Tassorelli, C., Lisotto, C., and Nappi, G. Focus on therapy of primary stabbing headache. J.Headache Pain 2010;11:157-160. View abstract.
  368. Hajak, G., Huether, G., Blanke, J., Blomer, M., Freyer, C., Poeggeler, B., Reimer, A., Rodenbeck, A., Schulz-Varszegi, M., and Ruther, E. The influence of intravenous L-tryptophan on plasma melatonin and sleep in men. Pharmacopsychiatry 1991;24:17-20. View abstract.
  369. Lopez-Munoz, F., Marin, F., and Alamo, C. [The historical background of the pineal gland: II. From the seat of the soul to a neuroendocrine organ]. Rev.Neurol. 1-16-2010;50:117-125. View abstract.
  370. Uluocak, N., Atilgan, D., Erdemir, F., Parlaktas, B. S., Yasar, A., Erkorkmaz, U., and Akbas, A. An animal model of ischemic priapism and the effects of melatonin on antioxidant enzymes and oxidative injury parameters in rat penis. Int.Urol.Nephrol. 2010;42:889-895. View abstract.
  371. Neri, G., De, Stefano A., Baffa, C., Kulamarva, G., Di, Giovanni P., Petrucci, G., Poliandri, A., Dispenza, F., Citraro, L., and Croce, A. Treatment of central and sensorineural tinnitus with orally administered Melatonin and Sulodexide: personal experience from a randomized controlled study. Acta Otorhinolaryngol.Ital. 2009;29:86-91. View abstract.
  372. Garcia, J. J., Pinol-Ripoll, G., Martinez-Ballarin, E., Fuentes-Broto, L., Miana-Mena, F. J., Venegas, C., Caballero, B., Escames, G., Coto-Montes, A., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Melatonin reduces membrane rigidity and oxidative damage in the brain of SAMP8 mice. Neurobiol.Aging 2011;32:2045-2054. View abstract.
  373. Kandil, T. S., Mousa, A. A., El-Gendy, A. A., and Abbas, A. M. The potential therapeutic effect of melatonin in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. BMC.Gastroenterol. 2010;10:7. View abstract.
  374. Esteban, S., Garau, C., Aparicio, S., Moranta, D., Barcelo, P., Fiol, M. A., and Rial, R. Chronic melatonin treatment and its precursor L-tryptophan improve the monoaminergic neurotransmission and related behavior in the aged rat brain. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:170-177. View abstract.
  375. Das, A., McDowell, M., Pava, M. J., Smith, J. A., Reiter, R. J., Woodward, J. J., Varma, A. K., Ray, S. K., and Banik, N. L. The inhibition of apoptosis by melatonin in VSC4.1 motoneurons exposed to oxidative stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, or TNF-alpha toxicity involves membrane melatonin receptors. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:157-169. View abstract.
  376. Azpeleta, C., Martinez-Alvarez, R. M., Delgado, M. J., Isorna, E., and De, Pedro N. Melatonin reduces locomotor activity and circulating cortisol in goldfish. Horm.Behav. 2010;57:323-329. View abstract.
  377. Mogulkoc, R. and Baltaci, A. K. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine. Regul.Pept. 4-9-2010;161(1-3):38-42. View abstract.
  378. Huang, S. H., Cao, X. J., Liu, W., Shi, X. Y., and Wei, W. Inhibitory effect of melatonin on lung oxidative stress induced by respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:109-116. View abstract.
  379. Suwanjang, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and Chetsawang, B. The protective effect of melatonin on methamphetamine-induced calpain-dependent death pathway in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:94-101. View abstract.
  380. Rodella, L. F., Filippini, F., Bonomini, F., Bresciani, R., Reiter, R. J., and Rezzani, R. Beneficial effects of melatonin on nicotine-induced vasculopathy. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:126-132. View abstract.
  381. Hill, S. M., Frasch, T., Xiang, S., Yuan, L., Duplessis, T., and Mao, L. Molecular mechanisms of melatonin anticancer effects. Integr.Cancer Ther. 2009;8:337-346. View abstract.
  382. Rahman, S. A., Kayumov, L., and Shapiro, C. M. Antidepressant action of melatonin in the treatment of Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome. Sleep Med. 2010;11:131-136. View abstract.
  383. Paulis, L., Pechanova, O., Zicha, J., Barta, A., Gardlik, R., Celec, P., Kunes, J., and Simko, F. Melatonin interactions with blood pressure and vascular function during L-NAME-induced hypertension. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:102-108. View abstract.
  384. Dong, W., Huang, F., Fan, W., Cheng, S., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., Shi, H., and He, H. Differential effects of melatonin on amyloid-beta peptide 25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in hippocampal neurons at different stages of culture. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:117-125. View abstract.
  385. Nishimura, J., Saegusa, Y., Dewa, Y., Jin, M., Kawai, M., Kemmochi, S., Harada, T., Hayashi, S. M., Shibutani, M., and Mitsumori, K. Antioxidant enzymatically modified isoquercitrin or melatonin supplementation reduces oxidative stress-mediated hepatocellular tumor promotion of oxfendazole in rats. Arch.Toxicol. 2010;84:143-153. View abstract.
  386. Bendz, L. M. and Scates, A. C. Melatonin treatment for insomnia in pediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Ann.Pharmacother. 2010;44:185-191. View abstract.
  387. Srivastava, R. K. and Krishna, A. Melatonin modulates glucose homeostasis during winter dormancy in a vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. Comp Biochem.Physiol A Mol.Integr.Physiol 2010;155:392-400. View abstract.
  388. de Castro-Silva, C., de Bruin, V. M., Cunha, G. M., Nunes, D. M., Medeiros, C. A., and de Bruin, P. F. Melatonin improves sleep and reduces nitrite in the exhaled breath condensate in cystic fibrosis--a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:65-71. View abstract.
  389. Song, Y. M. and Chen, M. D. Effects of melatonin administration on plasma leptin concentration and adipose tissue leptin secretion in mice. Acta Biol.Hung. 2009;60:399-407. View abstract.
  390. Paul, M. A., Miller, J. C., Gray, G. W., Love, R. J., Lieberman, H. R., and Arendt, J. Melatonin treatment for eastward and westward travel preparation. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2010;208:377-386. View abstract.
  391. Di Bella, G. and Colori, B. Complete objective response of neuroblastoma to biological treatment. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2009;30:437-449. View abstract.
  392. Flemstrom, G., Bengtsson, M. W., Makela, K., and Herzig, K. H. Effects of short-term food deprivation on orexin-A-induced intestinal bicarbonate secretion in comparison with related secretagogues. Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2010;198:373-380. View abstract.
  393. Radwan, P., Skrzydlo-Radomanska, B., Radwan-Kwiatek, K., Burak-Czapiuk, B., and Strzemecka, J. Is melatonin involved in the irritable bowel syndrome? J.Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 3:67-70. View abstract.
  394. Wirojanan, J., Jacquemont, S., Diaz, R., Bacalman, S., Anders, T. F., Hagerman, R. J., and Goodlin-Jones, B. L. The efficacy of melatonin for sleep problems in children with autism, fragile X syndrome, or autism and fragile X syndrome. J.Clin.Sleep Med. 4-15-2009;5:145-150. View abstract.
  395. Maldonado, M. D., Mora-Santos, M., Naji, L., Carrascosa-Salmoral, M. P., Naranjo, M. C., and Calvo, J. R. Evidence of melatonin synthesis and release by mast cells. Possible modulatory role on inflammation. Pharmacol.Res. 2010;62:282-287. View abstract.
  396. Sadowska-Woda, I., Wojcik, N., Karowicz-Bilinska, A., and Bieszczad-Bedrejczuk, E. Effect of selected antioxidants in beta-cyfluthrin-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes in vitro. Toxicol.In Vitro 2010;24:879-884. View abstract.
  397. Anderson, K. N. and Shneerson, J. M. Drug treatment of REM sleep behavior disorder: the use of drug therapies other than clonazepam. J.Clin.Sleep Med. 6-15-2009;5:235-239. View abstract.
  398. Chowdhury, V. S., Yamamoto, K., Ubuka, T., Bentley, G. E., Hattori, A., and Tsutsui, K. Melatonin stimulates the release of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone by the avian hypothalamus. Endocrinology 2010;151:271-280. View abstract.
  399. Liu, Y., Zhang, H., Zhang, L., Zhang, X., Xie, Y., and Zhao, W. Melatonin modulates acute testicular damage induced by carbon ions in mice. Pharmazie 2009;64:685-689. View abstract.
  400. Cernysiov, V., Gerasimcik, N., Mauricas, M., and Girkontaite, I. Regulation of T-cell-independent and T-cell-dependent antibody production by circadian rhythm and melatonin. Int.Immunol. 2010;22:25-34. View abstract.
  401. Murawska-Cialowicz, E., Jethon, Z., Magdalan, J., Januszewska, L., Podhorska-Okolow, M., Zawadzki, M., Sozanski, T., and Dziegiel, P. Effects of melatonin on lipid peroxidation and antioxidative enzyme activities in the liver, kidneys and brain of rats administered with benzo(a)pyrene. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2011;63(1-2):97-103. View abstract.
  402. Yang, F. L., Subeq, Y. M., Lee, C. J., Lee, R. P., Peng, T. C., and Hsu, B. G. Melatonin ameliorates hemorrhagic shock-induced organ damage in rats. J.Surg.Res. 5-15-2011;167:e315-e321. View abstract.
  403. Malekinejad, H., Farshid, A. A., and Mirzakhani, N. Liquorice plant extract reduces ochratoxin A-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2011;63(1-2):125-130. View abstract.
  404. Gagne, A. M., Danilenko, K. V., Rosolen, S. G., and Hebert, M. Impact of oral melatonin on the electroretinogram cone response. J.Circadian.Rhythms 2009;7:14. View abstract.
  405. Casao, A., Mendoza, N., Perez-Pe, R., Grasa, P., Abecia, J. A., Forcada, F., Cebrian-Perez, J. A., and Muino-Blanco, T. Melatonin prevents capacitation and apoptotic-like changes of ram spermatozoa and increases fertility rate. J.Pineal Res. 2010;48:39-46. View abstract.
  406. Venkataraman, P., Selvakumar, K., Krishnamoorthy, G., Muthusami, S., Rameshkumar, R., Prakash, S., and Arunakaran, J. Effect of melatonin on PCB (Aroclor 1254) induced neuronal damage and changes in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase-4 mRNA expression in cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of adult rats. Neurosci.Res. 2010;66:189-197. View abstract.
  407. Zhou, W., Wang, P., and Tao, L. Effect of melatonin on proliferation of neonatal cord blood mononuclear cells. World J.Pediatr. 2009;5:300-303. View abstract.
  408. Faigl, V., Keresztes, M., Kulcsar, M., Nagy, S., Keresztes, Z., Amiridis, G. S., Solti, L., Huszenicza, G., and Cseh, S. Testicular function and semen characteristics of Awassi rams treated with melatonin out of the breeding season. Acta Vet.Hung. 2009;57:531-540. View abstract.
  409. Srivastava, R. K. and Krishna, A. Melatonin affects steroidogenesis and delayed ovulation during winter in vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. J.Steroid Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2010;118(1-2):107-116. View abstract.
  410. Braam, W., Didden, R., Maas, A. P., Korzilius, H., Smits, M. G., and Curfs, L. M. Melatonin decreases daytime challenging behaviour in persons with intellectual disability and chronic insomnia. J.Intellect.Disabil.Res. 1-1-2010;54:52-59. View abstract.
  411. Xu, S., Zhou, Z., Zhang, L., Yu, Z., Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Wang, X., Li, M., Chen, Y., Chen, C., He, M., Zhang, G., and Zhong, M. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation induces oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA in primary cultured neurons. Brain Res. 1-22-2010;1311:189-196. View abstract.
  412. Yildirim, G., Attar, R., Ozkan, F., Kumbak, B., Ficicioglu, C., and Yesildaglar, N. The effects of letrozole and melatonin on surgically induced endometriosis in a rat model: a preliminary study. Fertil.Steril. 2010;93:1787-1792. View abstract.
  413. Rechcinski, T., Trzos, E., Wierzbowska-Drabik, K., Krzeminska-Pakula, M., and Kurpesa, M. Melatonin for nondippers with coronary artery disease: assessment of blood pressure profile and heart rate variability. Hypertens.Res. 2010;33:56-61. View abstract.
  414. Juszczak, M. and Boczek-Leszczyk, E. Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor activation stimulates oxytocin release from the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system while melatonin inhibits this process. Brain Res.Bull. 1-15-2010;81:185-190. View abstract.
  415. Myslobodsky, M. The paradox of caffeine-zolpidem interaction: a network analysis. Curr.Drug Targets. 2009;10:1009-1020. View abstract.
  416. Ortega-Gutierrez, S., Lopez-Vicente, M., Lostale, F., Fuentes-Broto, L., Martinez-Ballarin, E., and Garcia, J. J. Protective effect of melatonin against mitomycin C-induced genotoxic damage in peripheral blood of rats. J.Biomed.Biotechnol. 2009;2009:791432. View abstract.
  417. Manda, K. and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin maintains adult hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions after irradiation. Prog.Neurobiol. 1-11-2010;90:60-68. View abstract.
  418. Di, Bella G. and Madarena, M. Complete objective response of oesophageal squamocellular carcinoma to biological treatment. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2009;30:312-321. View abstract.
  419. Sonmez, M. F., Narin, F., and Balcioglu, E. Melatonin and vitamin C attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress in aorta. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;105:410-415. View abstract.
  420. Danielczyk, K. and Dziegiel, P. [MT1 melatonin receptors and their role in the oncostatic action of melatonin]. Postepy Hig.Med.Dosw.(Online.) 2009;63:425-434. View abstract.
  421. Franca, E. L., Feliciano, N. D., Silva, K. A., Ferrari, C. K., and Honorio-Franca, A. C. Modulatory role of melatonin on superoxide release by spleen macrophages isolated from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2009;110:517-522. View abstract.
  422. Geihs, M. A., Vargas, M. A., Maciel, F. E., Caldas, S. S., Cruz, B. P., Primel, E. G., Monserrat, J. M., and Nery, L. E. Effect of melatonin in the antioxidant defense system in the locomotor muscles of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata (Decapoda, Brachyura). Gen.Comp Endocrinol. 3-1-2010;166:72-82. View abstract.
  423. Wang, X. The antiapoptotic activity of melatonin in neurodegenerative diseases. CNS.Neurosci.Ther. 2009;15:345-357. View abstract.
  424. Shieh, J. M., Wu, H. T., Cheng, K. C., and Cheng, J. T. Melatonin ameliorates high fat diet-induced diabetes and stimulates glycogen synthesis via a PKCzeta-Akt-GSK3beta pathway in hepatic cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:339-344. View abstract.
  425. Kim, T. H., Jung, J. A., Kim, G. D., Jang, A. H., Ahn, H. J., Park, Y. S., and Park, C. S. Melatonin inhibits the development of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:324-329. View abstract.
  426. Shi, J. M., Tian, X. Z., Zhou, G. B., Wang, L., Gao, C., Zhu, S. E., Zeng, S. M., Tian, J. H., and Liu, G. S. Melatonin exists in porcine follicular fluid and improves in vitro maturation and parthenogenetic development of porcine oocytes. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:318-323. View abstract.
  427. Carbajo-Pescador, S., Martin-Renedo, J., Garcia-Palomo, A., Tunon, M. J., Mauriz, J. L., and Gonzalez-Gallego, J. Changes in the expression of melatonin receptors induced by melatonin treatment in hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:330-338. View abstract.
  428. Saxena, G., Bharti, S., Kamat, P. K., Sharma, S., and Nath, C. Melatonin alleviates memory deficits and neuronal degeneration induced by intracerebroventricular administration of streptozotocin in rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2010;94:397-403. View abstract.
  429. Cemek, M., Emin, Buyukokuroglu M., Yurumez, Y., Yavuz, Y., Aslan, A., Buyukben, A., and Aymelek, F. Tissue trace and major element levels in organophosphate insecticide fenthion (Lebaycid) toxicity in rats: prophylactic and therapeutic effect of exogenous melatonin. Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf 2010;73:206-212. View abstract.
  430. Borah, A. and Mohanakumar, K. P. Melatonin inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine production in the brain to protect against experimental parkinsonism in rodents. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:293-300. View abstract.
  431. Izykowska, I., Cegielski, M., Gebarowska, E., Podhorska-Okolow, M., Piotrowska, A., Zabel, M., and Dziegiel, P. Effect of melatonin on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts subjected to UVA and UVB radiation In vitro. In Vivo 2009;23:739-745. View abstract.
  432. Izykowska, I., Gebarowska, E., Cegielski, M., Podhorska-Okolow, M., Piotrowska, A., Zabel, M., and Dziegiel, P. Effect of melatonin on melanoma cells subjected to UVA and UVB radiation in In vitro studies. In Vivo 2009;23:733-738. View abstract.
  433. Jagota, A. and Kalyani, D. Effect of melatonin on age induced changes in daily serotonin rhythms in suprachiasmatic nucleus of male Wistar rat. Biogerontology. 2010;11:299-308. View abstract.
  434. Spuch, C., Antequera, D., Isabel Fernandez-Bachiller, M., Isabel Rodriguez-Franco, M., and Carro, E. A new tacrine-melatonin hybrid reduces amyloid burden and behavioral deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Neurotox.Res. 2010;17:421-431. View abstract.
  435. Martinez-Campa, C., Gonzalez, A., Mediavilla, M. D., Alonso-Gonzalez, C., Alvarez-Garcia, V., Sanchez-Barcelo, E. J., and Cos, S. Melatonin inhibits aromatase promoter expression by regulating cyclooxygenases expression and activity in breast cancer cells. Br.J.Cancer 11-3-2009;101:1613-1619. View abstract.
  436. Olivier, P., Fontaine, R. H., Loron, G., Van, Steenwinckel J., Biran, V., Massonneau, V., Kaindl, A., Dalous, J., Charriaut-Marlangue, C., Aigrot, M. S., Pansiot, J., Verney, C., Gressens, P., and Baud, O. Melatonin promotes oligodendroglial maturation of injured white matter in neonatal rats. PLoS.One. 2009;4:e7128. View abstract.
  437. Badoe, E. V. Classical Rett Syndrome in a Ghanaian child: a case report. West Afr.J.Med. 2009;28:134-136. View abstract.
  438. Becker, P. M. and Sattar, M. Treatment of sleep dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. Curr.Treat.Options.Neurol. 2009;11:349-357. View abstract.
  439. Nierenberg, A. A. Low-dose buspirone, melatonin and low-dose bupropion added to mood stabilizers for severe treatment-resistant bipolar depression. Psychother.Psychosom. 2009;78:391-393. View abstract.
  440. Yurtcu, M., Abasiyanik, A., Bicer, S., and Avunduk, M. C. Efficacy of antioxidant treatment in the prevention of testicular atrophy in experimental testicular torsion. J.Pediatr.Surg. 2009;44:1754-1758. View abstract.
  441. Kuehn, C. C., Rodrigues Oliveira, L. G., Santos, C. D., Ferreira, D. S., Alonso Toldo, M. P., de, Albuquerque S., and do Prado, J. C. J. Melatonin and dehydroepiandrosterone combination: does this treatment exert a synergistic effect during experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection? J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:253-259. View abstract.
  442. Radogna, F., Nuccitelli, S., Mengoni, F., and Ghibelli, L. Neuroprotection by melatonin on astrocytoma cell death. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:509-513. View abstract.
  443. Paternoster, L., Radogna, F., Accorsi, A., Cristina, Albertini M., Gualandi, G., and Ghibelli, L. Melatonin as a modulator of apoptosis in B-lymphoma cells. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2009;1171:345-349. View abstract.
  444. Santello, F. H., Del Vecchio, Filipin M., Caetano, L. C., Brazao, V., Caetano, L. N., Dos Santos, C. D., Alonso Toldo, M. P., and do Prado, J. C. J. Influence of melatonin therapy and orchiectomy on T cell subsets in male Wistar rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:271-276. View abstract.
  445. Kumar, A. and Singh, A. Possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in protective effect of melatonin against sleep deprivation-induced behaviour modification and oxidative damage in mice. Fundam.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;23:439-448. View abstract.
  446. Lin, G. J., Huang, S. H., Chen, Y. W., Hueng, D. Y., Chien, M. W., Chia, W. T., Chang, D. M., and Sytwu, H. K. Melatonin prolongs islet graft survival in diabetic NOD mice. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:284-292. View abstract.
  447. Agrawal, R., Tyagi, E., Shukla, R., and Nath, C. A study of brain insulin receptors, AChE activity and oxidative stress in rat model of ICV STZ induced dementia. Neuropharmacology 2009;56:779-787. View abstract.
  448. Daglioglu, E., Serdar, Dike M., Kilinc, K., Erdogan, D., Take, G., Ergungor, F., Okay, O., and Biyikli, Z. Neuroprotective effect of melatonin on experimental peripheral nerve injury: an electron microscopic and biochemical study. Cent.Eur.Neurosurg. 2009;70:109-114. View abstract.
  449. Pan, L., Fu, J. H., Xue, X. D., Xu, W., Zhou, P., and Wei, B. Melatonin protects against oxidative damage in a neonatal rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. World J.Pediatr. 2009;5:216-221. View abstract.
  450. Billiard, M. REM sleep behavior disorder and narcolepsy. CNS.Neurol.Disord.Drug Targets. 2009;8:264-270. View abstract.
  451. Hutton, L. C., Abbass, M., Dickinson, H., Ireland, Z., and Walker, D. W. Neuroprotective properties of melatonin in a model of birth asphyxia in the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus). Dev.Neurosci. 2009;31:437-451. View abstract.
  452. Odaci, E. and Kaplan, S. Chapter 16: Melatonin and nerve regeneration. Int.Rev.Neurobiol. 2009;87:317-335. View abstract.
  453. Gomez-Moreno, G., Guardia, J., Ferrera, M. J., Cutando, A., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin in diseases of the oral cavity. Oral Dis. 2010;16:242-247. View abstract.
  454. McIntyre, I. M., Norman, T. R., Burrows, G. D., and Armstrong, S. M. Melatonin supersensitivity to dim light in seasonal affective disorder. Lancet 2-24-1990;335:488. View abstract.
  455. Tapias, V., Cannon, J. R., and Greenamyre, J. T. Melatonin treatment potentiates neurodegeneration in a rat rotenone Parkinson's disease model. J.Neurosci.Res. 2-1-2010;88:420-427. View abstract.
  456. Sonmez, M. F., Narin, F., Akkus, D., and Ozdamar, S. Effect of melatonin and vitamin C on expression of endothelial NOS in heart of chronic alcoholic rats. Toxicol.Ind.Health 2009;25:385-393. View abstract.
  457. Alonso-Vale, M. I., Peres, S. B., Vernochet, C., Farmer, S. R., and Lima, F. B. Adipocyte differentiation is inhibited by melatonin through the regulation of C/EBPbeta transcriptional activity. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:221-227. View abstract.
  458. Pan, L., Xu, W., Fu, J. H., and Xue, X. D. [Effect of melatonin on hyperoxia-induced oxidant/antioxidant imbalance in the lung of neonatal rats with chronic lung disease]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2009;11:581-584. View abstract.
  459. Tajes, M., Gutierrez-Cuesta, J., Ortuno-Sahagun, D., Camins, A., and Pallas, M. Anti-aging properties of melatonin in an in vitro murine senescence model: involvement of the sirtuin 1 pathway. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:228-237. View abstract.
  460. Cruz, A., Tasset, I., Ramirez, L. M., Arjona, A., Segura, J., Tunez, I., Montilla, P., Muntane, J., and Padillo, F. J. Effect of melatonin on myocardial oxidative stress induced by experimental obstructive jaundice. Rev.Esp.Enferm.Dig. 2009;101:460-463. View abstract.
  461. Reiter, R. J., Paredes, S. D., Manchester, L. C., and Tan, D. X. Reducing oxidative/nitrosative stress: a newly-discovered genre for melatonin. Crit Rev.Biochem.Mol.Biol. 2009;44:175-200. View abstract.
  462. Zeman, M., Szantoova, K., Stebelova, K., Mravec, B., and Herichova, I. Effect of rhythmic melatonin administration on clock gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the heart of hypertensive TGR(mRen2)27 rats. J.Hypertens.Suppl 2009;27:S21-S26. View abstract.
  463. Martin, V., Garcia-Santos, G., Rodriguez-Blanco, J., Casado-Zapico, S., Sanchez-Sanchez, A., Antolin, I., Medina, M., and Rodriguez, C. Melatonin sensitizes human malignant glioma cells against TRAIL-induced cell death. Cancer Lett. 1-28-2010;287:216-223. View abstract.
  464. Terron, M. P., Delgado, J., Paredes, S. D., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., and Rodriguez, A. B. Effect of melatonin and tryptophan on humoral immunity in young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). Exp.Gerontol. 2009;44:653-658. View abstract.
  465. Zarazaga, L. A., Gatica, M. C., Celi, I., Guzman, J. L., and Malpaux, B. Effect of melatonin implants on sexual activity in Mediterranean goat females without separation from males. Theriogenology 10-15-2009;72:910-918. View abstract.
  466. Jung, K. H., Hong, S. W., Zheng, H. M., Lee, D. H., and Hong, S. S. Melatonin downregulates nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 and nuclear factor-kappaB during prevention of oxidative liver injury in a dimethylnitrosamine model. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:173-183. View abstract.
  467. Samantaray, S., Das, A., Thakore, N. P., Matzelle, D. D., Reiter, R. J., Ray, S. K., and Banik, N. L. Therapeutic potential of melatonin in traumatic central nervous system injury. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:134-142. View abstract.
  468. Veneroso, C., Tunon, M. J., Gonzalez-Gallego, J., and Collado, P. S. Melatonin reduces cardiac inflammatory injury induced by acute exercise. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:184-191. View abstract.
  469. Chang, H. M., Wu, U. I., and Lan, C. T. Melatonin preserves longevity protein (sirtuin 1) expression in the hippocampus of total sleep-deprived rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:211-220. View abstract.
  470. Ashrafi, M. R., Mohammadi, M., Tafarroji, J., Shabanian, R., Salamati, P., and Zamani, G. R. Melatonin versus chloral hydrate for recording sleep EEG. Eur.J.Paediatr.Neurol. 2010;14:235-238. View abstract.
  471. Maciel, F. E., Ramos, B. P., Geihs, M. A., Vargas, M. A., Cruz, B. P., Meyer-Rochow, V. B., Vakkuri, O., Allodi, S., Monserrat, J. M., and Nery, L. E. Effects of melatonin in connection with the antioxidant defense system in the gills of the estuarine crab Neohelice granulata. Gen.Comp Endocrinol. 1-15-2010;165:229-236. View abstract.
  472. Stepien, A., Moskwa-Fortuna, A., Wisniewska-Jarosinska, M., Harasiuk, A., and Chojnacki, J. [Melatonin secretion and metabolism in patients with irritable bowel syndrome]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26:440-443. View abstract.
  473. Klupinska, G., Poplawski, T., Smigielski, J., Blasiak, J., and Chojnacki, J. [The effect of melatonin on oxidative DNA damage in gastric mucosa cells of patients with functional dyspepsia]. Pol.Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26:366-369. View abstract.
  474. Bazwinsky-Wutschke, I., Muhlbauer, E., Wolgast, S., and Peschke, E. Transcripts of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinases are changed after forskolin- or IBMX-induced insulin secretion due to melatonin treatment of rat insulinoma beta-cells (INS-1). Horm.Metab Res. 2009;41:805-813. View abstract.
  475. Simon Padilla, O. J., De Linares Del, Rio C., Godden, P., Granizo, E., Pinilla, M., and Rodriguez, C. [Use of combined treatment with melatonin and clomethiazole in circadian rhythm sleep disorder in the elderly with dementia]. Rev.Esp.Geriatr.Gerontol. 2009;44:233-234. View abstract.
  476. Fukai, S. and Akishita, M. [Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones]. Nihon Rinsho 2009;67:1396-1401. View abstract.
  477. Paredes, S. D., Bejarano, I., Terron, M. P., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin and tryptophan counteract lipid peroxidation and modulate superoxide dismutase activity in ringdove heterophils in vivo. Effect of antigen-induced activation and age. Age (Dordr.) 2009;31:179-188. View abstract.
  478. Neri, G., Baffa, C., De, Stefano A., Poliandri, A., Kulamarva, G., Di, Giovanni P., Petrucci, A. G., Castriotta, A., Citraro, L., Cerrone, D., D' Orazio, F., and Croce, A. Management of tinnitus: oral treatment with melatonin and sulodexide. J.Biol.Regul.Homeost.Agents 2009;23:103-110. View abstract.
  479. Luthringer, R., Muzet, M., Zisapel, N., and Staner, L. The effect of prolonged-release melatonin on sleep measures and psychomotor performance in elderly patients with insomnia. Int.Clin.Psychopharmacol. 2009;24:239-249. View abstract.
  480. Tsiligianni, T., Valasi, I., Cseh, S., Vainas, E., Faigl, V., Samartzi, F., Papanikolaou, T., Dovolou, E., and Amiridis, G. S. Effects of melatonin treatment on follicular development and oocyte quality in Chios ewes - short communication. Acta Vet.Hung. 2009;57:331-335. View abstract.
  481. Carretero, M., Escames, G., Lopez, L. C., Venegas, C., Dayoub, J. C., Garcia, L., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Long-term melatonin administration protects brain mitochondria from aging. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:192-200. View abstract.
  482. Shang, Y., Xu, S. P., Wu, Y., Jiang, Y. X., Wu, Z. Y., Yuan, S. Y., and Yao, S. L. Melatonin reduces acute lung injury in endotoxemic rats. Chin Med.J.(Engl.) 6-20-2009;122:1388-1393. View abstract.
  483. Jang, S. S., Kim, W. D., and Park, W. Y. Melatonin exerts differential actions on X-ray radiation-induced apoptosis in normal mice splenocytes and Jurkat leukemia cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:147-155. View abstract.
  484. Laughlin, G. A., Loucks, A. B., and Yen, S. S. Marked augmentation of nocturnal melatonin secretion in amenorrheic athletes, but not in cycling athletes: unaltered by opioidergic or dopaminergic blockade. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:1321-1326. View abstract.
  485. Park, J. W., Hwang, M. S., Suh, S. I., and Baek, W. K. Melatonin down-regulates HIF-1 alpha expression through inhibition of protein translation in prostate cancer cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:415-421. View abstract.
  486. Tahan, V., Atug, O., Akin, H., Eren, F., Tahan, G., Tarcin, O., Uzun, H., Ozdogan, O., Tarcin, O., Imeryuz, N., Ozguner, F., Celikel, C., Avsar, E., and Tozun, N. Melatonin ameliorates methionine- and choline-deficient diet-induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:401-407. View abstract.
  487. Bejarano, I., Redondo, P. C., Espino, J., Rosado, J. A., Paredes, S. D., Barriga, C., Reiter, R. J., Pariente, J. A., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin induces mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in human myeloid HL-60 cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:392-400. View abstract.
  488. Berlinguer, F., Leoni, G. G., Succu, S., Spezzigu, A., Madeddu, M., Satta, V., Bebbere, D., Contreras-Solis, I., Gonzalez-Bulnes, A., and Naitana, S. Exogenous melatonin positively influences follicular dynamics, oocyte developmental competence and blastocyst output in a goat model. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:383-391. View abstract.
  489. Ozacmak, V. H., Barut, F., and Ozacmak, H. S. Melatonin provides neuroprotection by reducing oxidative stress and HSP70 expression during chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in ovariectomized rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:156-163. View abstract.
  490. Kain, Z. N., MacLaren, J. E., Herrmann, L., Mayes, L., Rosenbaum, A., Hata, J., and Lerman, J. Preoperative melatonin and its effects on induction and emergence in children undergoing anesthesia and surgery. Anesthesiology 2009;111:44-49. View abstract.
  491. Taylor, F. R. Headache prevention with complementary and alternative medicine. Headache 2009;49:966-968. View abstract.
  492. Velarde, E., Alonso-Gomez, A. L., Azpeleta, C., Isorna, E., and Delgado, M. J. Melatonin attenuates the acetylcholine-induced contraction in isolated intestine of a teleost fish. J.Comp Physiol B 2009;179:951-959. View abstract.
  493. Sheth, D. S., Tajuddin, N. F., and Druse, M. J. Antioxidant neuroprotection against ethanol-induced apoptosis in HN2-5 cells. Brain Res. 8-18-2009;1285:14-21. View abstract.
  494. Olcese, J. M., Cao, C., Mori, T., Mamcarz, M. B., Maxwell, A., Runfeldt, M. J., Wang, L., Zhang, C., Lin, X., Zhang, G., and Arendash, G. W. Protection against cognitive deficits and markers of neurodegeneration by long-term oral administration of melatonin in a transgenic model of Alzheimer disease. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:82-96. View abstract.
  495. Nah, S. S., Won, H. J., Park, H. J., Ha, E., Chung, J. H., Cho, H. Y., and Baik, H. H. Melatonin inhibits human fibroblast-like synoviocyte proliferation via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase/P21(CIP1)/P27(KIP1) pathways. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:70-74. View abstract.
  496. Todisco, M. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia: long-lasting remission with combination of cyclophosphamide, somatostatin, bromocriptine, retinoids, melatonin, and ACTH. Cancer Biother.Radiopharm. 2009;24:353-355. View abstract.
  497. Gimenez, F., Stornelli, M. C., Tittarelli, C. M., Savignone, C. A., Dorna, I. V., de la Sota, R. L., and Stornelli, M. A. Suppression of estrus in cats with melatonin implants. Theriogenology 9-1-2009;72:493-499. View abstract.
  498. Magnanou, E., Attia, J., Fons, R., Boeuf, G., and Falcon, J. The timing of the shrew: continuous melatonin treatment maintains youthful rhythmic activity in aging Crocidura russula. PLoS.One. 2009;4:e5904. View abstract.
  499. Joo, S. S. and Yoo, Y. M. Melatonin induces apoptotic death in LNCaP cells via p38 and JNK pathways: therapeutic implications for prostate cancer. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:8-14. View abstract.
  500. Ganguly, K. and Swarnakar, S. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and -3 in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced acute gastric ulcers in mice: regulation by melatonin. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:43-55. View abstract.
  501. Girgert, R., Hanf, V., Emons, G., and Grundker, C. Membrane-bound melatonin receptor MT1 down-regulates estrogen responsive genes in breast cancer cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:23-31. View abstract.
  502. Arrebola, F. A., Abecia, J. A., Forcada, F., Garcia, A., Martin, R. A., and Mesa, O. Effects of annual rainfall and farm on lamb production after treatment with melatonin implants in Merino sheep: a 4-year study. N.Z.Vet.J. 2009;57:141-145. View abstract.
  503. Cetin, Y., Sagcan, S., Gungor, O., Ozyurtlu, N., and Uslu, B. A. Effects of CIDR-G and melatonin implants, and their combination on the efficacy of oestrus induction and fertility of Kilis goats. Reprod.Domest.Anim 2009;44:659-662. View abstract.
  504. Ozdemir, F., Deniz, O., Kaynar, K., Arslan, M., Kavgaci, H., Yildiz, B., and Aydin, F. The effects of melatonin on human hepatoma (Hep G2) cell line. Bratisl.Lek.Listy 2009;110:276-279. View abstract.
  505. Piasek, A., Bartoszek, A., and Namiesnik, J. [Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy]. Postepy Hig.Med.Dosw.(Online.) 2009;63:142-158. View abstract.
  506. Renuka, K. and Joshi, B. N. Melatonin-induced changes in ovarian function in the freshwater fish Channa punctatus (Bloch) held in long days and continuous light. Gen.Comp Endocrinol. 1-1-2010;165:42-46. View abstract.
  507. Hoebert, M., van der Heijden, K. B., van Geijlswijk, I. M., and Smits, M. G. Long-term follow-up of melatonin treatment in children with ADHD and chronic sleep onset insomnia. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:1-7. View abstract.
  508. Dauchy, R. T., Blask, D. E., Dauchy, E. M., Davidson, L. K., Tirrell, P. C., Greene, M. W., Tirrell, R. P., Hill, C. R., and Sauer, L. A. Antineoplastic effects of melatonin on a rare malignancy of mesenchymal origin: melatonin receptor-mediated inhibition of signal transduction, linoleic acid metabolism and growth in tissue-isolated human leiomyosarcoma xenografts. J.Pineal Res. 2009;47:32-42. View abstract.
  509. Bekyarova, G., Galunska, B., Ivanova, D., and Yankova, T. Effect of melatonin on burn-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. Burns 2009;35:863-868. View abstract.
  510. Huang, J. Y., Hong, Y. T., and Chuang, J. I. Fibroblast growth factor 9 prevents MPP+-induced death of dopaminergic neurons and is involved in melatonin neuroprotection in vivo and in vitro. J.Neurochem. 2009;109:1400-1412. View abstract.
  511. Sood, M. R. Treatment approaches to irritable bowel syndrome. Pediatr.Ann. 2009;38:272-276. View abstract.
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  513. Koch, B. C., Nagtegaal, J. E., Kerkhof, G. A., and Ter Wee, P. M. Circadian sleep-wake rhythm disturbances in end-stage renal disease. Nat.Rev.Nephrol. 2009;5:407-416. View abstract.
  514. Assayed, M. E. and Abd El-Aty, A. M. Protection of rat chromosomes by melatonin against gamma radiation-induced damage. Mutat.Res. 2009;677(1-2):14-20. View abstract.
  515. Gingerich, S., Wang, X., Lee, P. K., Dhillon, S. S., Chalmers, J. A., Koletar, M. M., and Belsham, D. D. The generation of an array of clonal, immortalized cell models from the rat hypothalamus: analysis of melatonin effects on kisspeptin and gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone neurons. Neuroscience 9-15-2009;162:1134-1140. View abstract.
  516. Radogna, F., Sestili, P., Martinelli, C., Paolillo, M., Paternoster, L., Albertini, M. C., Accorsi, A., Gualandi, G., and Ghibelli, L. Lipoxygenase-mediated pro-radical effect of melatonin via stimulation of arachidonic acid metabolism. Toxicol.Appl.Pharmacol. 7-15-2009;238:170-177. View abstract.
  517. Galli-Carminati, G., Deriaz, N., and Bertschy, G. Melatonin in treatment of chronic sleep disorders in adults with autism: a retrospective study. Swiss.Med.Wkly. 5-16-2009;139(19-20):293-296. View abstract.
  518. Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Manchester, L. C., Paredes, S. D., Mayo, J. C., and Sainz, R. M. Melatonin and reproduction revisited. Biol.Reprod. 2009;81:445-456. View abstract.
  519. Jung-Hynes, B. and Ahmad, N. SIRT1 controls circadian clock circuitry and promotes cell survival: a connection with age-related neoplasms. FASEB J. 2009;23:2803-2809. View abstract.
  520. Tapias, V., Escames, G., Lopez, L. C., Lopez, A., Camacho, E., Carrion, M. D., Entrena, A., Gallo, M. A., Espinosa, A., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Melatonin and its brain metabolite N-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine prevent mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase induction in parkinsonian mice. J.Neurosci.Res. 2009;87:3002-3010. View abstract.
  521. Kulkarni, S. K. and Dhir, A. Current investigational drugs for major depression. Expert.Opin.Investig.Drugs 2009;18:767-788. View abstract.
  522. Ramirez-Rodriguez, G., Klempin, F., Babu, H., Benitez-King, G., and Kempermann, G. Melatonin modulates cell survival of new neurons in the hippocampus of adult mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 2009;34:2180-2191. View abstract.
  523. Baeza, I., Alvarado, C., Alvarez, P., Salazar, V., Castillo, C., Ariznavarreta, C., Fdez-Tresguerres, J. A., and De la Fuente, M. Improvement of leucocyte functions in ovariectomised aged rats after treatment with growth hormone, melatonin, oestrogens or phyto-oestrogens. J.Reprod.Immunol. 2009;80(1-2):70-79. View abstract.
  524. Rai, S., Haldar, C., and Singh, R. Modulation of immunity in young-adult and aged squirrel, Funambulus pennanti by melatonin and p-chlorophenylalanine. Immun.Ageing 2009;6:5. View abstract.
  525. Venkataraman, P., Krishnamoorthy, G., Selvakumar, K., and Arunakaran, J. Oxidative stress alters creatine kinase system in serum and brain regions of polychlorinated biphenyl (Aroclor 1254)-exposed rats: protective role of melatonin. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;105:92-97. View abstract.
  526. Wisessmith, W., Phansuwan-Pujito, P., Govitrapong, P., and Chetsawang, B. Melatonin reduces induction of Bax, caspase and cell death in methamphetamine-treated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cultured cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:433-440. View abstract.
  527. Braam, W., Smits, M. G., Didden, R., Korzilius, H., van Geijlswijk, I. M., and Curfs, L. M. Exogenous melatonin for sleep problems in individuals with intellectual disability: a meta-analysis. Dev.Med.Child Neurol. 2009;51:340-349. View abstract.
  528. Guo, J. F. and Yao, B. Z. [Serum melatonin levels in children with epilepsy or febrile seizures]. Zhongguo Dang.Dai Er.Ke.Za Zhi. 2009;11:288-290. View abstract.
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  530. Limousin, N., Dehais, C., Gout, O., Heran, F., Oudiette, D., and Arnulf, I. A brainstem inflammatory lesion causing REM sleep behavior disorder and sleepwalking (parasomnia overlap disorder). Sleep Med. 2009;10:1059-1062. View abstract.
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  532. Benitez-King, G., Soto-Vega, E., and Ramirez-Rodriguez, G. Melatonin modulates microfilament phenotypes in epithelial cells: implications for adhesion and inhibition of cancer cell migration. Histol.Histopathol. 2009;24:789-799. View abstract.
  533. Ritzenthaler, T., Nighoghossian, N., Berthiller, J., Schott, A. M., Cho, T. H., Derex, L., Brun, J., Trouillas, P., and Claustrat, B. Nocturnal urine melatonin and 6-sulphatoxymelatonin excretion at the acute stage of ischaemic stroke. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:349-352. View abstract.
  534. Kedziora-Kornatowska, K., Szewczyk-Golec, K., Kozakiewicz, M., Pawluk, H., Czuczejko, J., Kornatowski, T., Bartosz, G., and Kedziora, J. Melatonin improves oxidative stress parameters measured in the blood of elderly type 2 diabetic patients. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:333-337. View abstract.
  535. Gogenur, I., Kucukakin, B., Bisgaard, T., Kristiansen, V., Hjortso, N. C., Skene, D. J., and Rosenberg, J. The effect of melatonin on sleep quality after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1152-1156. View abstract.
  536. Ismail, S. A. and Mowafi, H. A. Melatonin provides anxiolysis, enhances analgesia, decreases intraocular pressure, and promotes better operating conditions during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Anesth.Analg. 2009;108:1146-1151. View abstract.
  537. Vazquez, M. I., Forcada, F., Casao, A., Abecia, J. A., Sosa, C., and Palacin, I. Undernutrition and exogenous melatonin can affect the in vitro developmental competence of ovine oocytes on a seasonal basis. Reprod.Domest.Anim 2010;45:677-684. View abstract.
  538. Potter, M., Moses, A., and Wozniak, J. Alternative treatments in pediatric bipolar disorder. Child Adolesc.Psychiatr.Clin.N.Am. 2009;18:483-514, xi. View abstract.
  539. Kaji, H., Inukai, Y., Maiguma, T., Ono, H., Teshima, D., Hiramoto, K., and Makino, K. Radical scavenging activity of bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids and traditional prophylactics against chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis. J.Clin.Pharm.Ther. 2009;34:197-205. View abstract.
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  543. Maity, P., Bindu, S., Dey, S., Goyal, M., Alam, A., Pal, C., Reiter, R., and Bandyopadhyay, U. Melatonin reduces indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal cell apoptosis by preventing mitochondrial oxidative stress and the activation of mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:314-323. View abstract.
  544. Tamura, E. K., Cecon, E., Monteiro, A. W., Silva, C. L., and Markus, R. P. Melatonin inhibits LPS-induced NO production in rat endothelial cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:268-274. View abstract.
  545. Ersahin, M., Toklu, H. Z., Cetinel, S., Yuksel, M., Yegen, B. C., and Sener, G. Melatonin reduces experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage-induced oxidative brain damage and neurological symptoms. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:324-332. View abstract.
  546. Paredes, S. D., Marchena, A. M., Bejarano, I., Espino, J., Barriga, C., Rial, R. V., Reiter, R. J., and Rodriguez, A. B. Melatonin and tryptophan affect the activity-rest rhythm, core and peripheral temperatures, and interleukin levels in the ringdove: changes with age. J.Gerontol.A Biol.Sci.Med.Sci. 2009;64:340-350. View abstract.
  547. Tajes, Orduna M., Pelegri, Gabalda C., Vilaplana, Hortensi J., Pallas, Lliberia M., and Camins, Espuny A. An evaluation of the neuroprotective effects of melatonin in an in vitro experimental model of age-induced neuronal apoptosis. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:262-267. View abstract.
  548. Regodon, S., del Prado, Miguez M., Jardin, I., Lopez, J. J., Ramos, A., Paredes, S. D., and Rosado, J. A. Melatonin, as an adjuvant-like agent, enhances platelet responsiveness. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:275-285. View abstract.
  549. Grant, S. G., Melan, M. A., Latimer, J. J., and Witt-Enderby, P. A. Melatonin and breast cancer: cellular mechanisms, clinical studies and future perspectives. Expert.Rev.Mol.Med. 2009;11:e5. View abstract.
  550. Cucina, A., Proietti, S., D'Anselmi, F., Coluccia, P., Dinicola, S., Frati, L., and Bizzarri, M. Evidence for a biphasic apoptotic pathway induced by melatonin in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:172-180. View abstract.
  551. Regodon, S., Ramos, A., Morgado, S., Tarazona, R., Martin-Palomino, P., Rosado, J. A., and Miguez, Mdel P. Melatonin enhances the immune response to vaccination against A1 and C strains of Dichelobacter nodosus. Vaccine 3-4-2009;27:1566-1570. View abstract.
  552. Bharti, V. K. and Srivastava, R. S. Fluoride-induced oxidative stress in rat's brain and its amelioration by buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) pineal proteins and melatonin. Biol.Trace Elem.Res. 2009;130:131-140. View abstract.
  553. Gehrman, P. R., Connor, D. J., Martin, J. L., Shochat, T., Corey-Bloom, J., and Ancoli-Israel, S. Melatonin fails to improve sleep or agitation in double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of institutionalized patients with Alzheimer disease. Am.J.Geriatr.Psychiatry 2009;17:166-169. View abstract.
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  555. Takasaki, A., Tamura, H., Taniguchi, K., Asada, H., Taketani, T., Matsuoka, A., Yamagata, Y., Shimamura, K., Morioka, H., and Sugino, N. Luteal blood flow and luteal function. J.Ovarian.Res. 2009;2:1. View abstract.
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  559. Caballero, B., Vega-Naredo, I., Sierra, V., Huidobro-Fernandez, C., Soria-Valles, C., De Gonzalo-Calvo, D., Tolivia, D., Pallas, M., Camins, A., Rodriguez-Colunga, M. J., and Coto-Montes, A. Melatonin alters cell death processes in response to age-related oxidative stress in the brain of senescence-accelerated mice. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:106-114. View abstract.
  560. Esposito, E., Genovese, T., Caminiti, R., Bramanti, P., Meli, R., and Cuzzocrea, S. Melatonin reduces stress-activated/mitogen-activated protein kinases in spinal cord injury. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:79-86. View abstract.
  561. Koch, B. C., Nagtegaal, J. E., Hagen, E. C., van der Westerlaken, M. M., Boringa, J. B., Kerkhof, G. A., and Ter Wee, P. M. The effects of melatonin on sleep-wake rhythm of daytime haemodialysis patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study (EMSCAP study). Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2009;67:68-75. View abstract.
  562. Lahiri, S., Singh, P., Singh, S., Rasheed, N., Palit, G., and Pant, K. K. Melatonin protects against experimental reflux esophagitis. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:207-213. View abstract.
  563. Pei, M., He, F., Wei, L., and Rawson, A. Melatonin enhances cartilage matrix synthesis by porcine articular chondrocytes. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:181-187. View abstract.
  564. Kongsuphol, P., Mukda, S., Nopparat, C., Villarroel, A., and Govitrapong, P. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced deactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling to induce autophagy in SK-N-SH cells. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:199-206. View abstract.
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  566. Huang, L. T., Tiao, M. M., Tain, Y. L., Chen, C. C., and Hsieh, C. S. Melatonin ameliorates bile duct ligation-induced systemic oxidative stress and spatial memory deficits in developing rats. Pediatr.Res. 2009;65:176-180. View abstract.
  567. Cagnacci, A., Elliott, J. A., and Yen, S. S. Amplification of pulsatile LH secretion by exogenous melatonin in women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1991;73:210-212. View abstract.
  568. Tanaka, T., Yasui, Y., Tanaka, M., Tanaka, T., Oyama, T., and Rahman, K. M. Melatonin suppresses AOM/DSS-induced large bowel oncogenesis in rats. Chem.Biol.Interact. 1-27-2009;177:128-136. View abstract.
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  570. Caumo, W., Levandovski, R., and Hidalgo, M. P. Preoperative anxiolytic effect of melatonin and clonidine on postoperative pain and morphine consumption in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J.Pain 2009;10:100-108. View abstract.
  571. Luchetti, F., Betti, M., Canonico, B., Arcangeletti, M., Ferri, P., Galli, F., and Papa, S. ERK MAPK activation mediates the antiapoptotic signaling of melatonin in UVB-stressed U937 cells. Free Radic.Biol.Med. 2-1-2009;46:339-351. View abstract.
  572. Rimmele, U., Spillmann, M., Bartschi, C., Wolf, O. T., Weber, C. S., Ehlert, U., and Wirtz, P. H. Melatonin improves memory acquisition under stress independent of stress hormone release. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2009;202:663-672. View abstract.
  573. Greenlee, H., Hershman, D. L., and Jacobson, J. S. Use of antioxidant supplements during breast cancer treatment: a comprehensive review. Breast Cancer Res.Treat. 2009;115:437-452. View abstract.
  574. Ramadan, T. A., Taha, T. A., Samak, M. A., and Hassan, A. Effectiveness of exposure to longday followed by melatonin treatment on semen characteristics of Damascus male goats during breeding and non-breeding seasons. Theriogenology 2009;71:458-468. View abstract.
  575. Mowafi, H. A. and Ismail, S. A. Melatonin improves tourniquet tolerance and enhances postoperative analgesia in patients receiving intravenous regional anesthesia. Anesth.Analg. 2008;107:1422-1426. View abstract.
  576. Korkmaz, A., Tamura, H., Manchester, L. C., Ogden, G. B., Tan, D. X., and Reiter, R. J. Combination of melatonin and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist induces apoptosis in a breast cancer cell line. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:115-116. View abstract.
  577. Manda, K., Ueno, M., and Anzai, K. Cranial irradiation-induced inhibition of neurogenesis in hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice: attenuation by melatonin pretreatment. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:71-78. View abstract.
  578. Ma, J., Shaw, V. E., and Mitrofanis, J. Does melatonin help save dopaminergic cells in MPTP-treated mice? Parkinsonism.Relat Disord. 2009;15:307-314. View abstract.
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  586. Lee, S., Jadhav, V., Ayer, R. E., Rojas, H., Hyong, A., Lekic, T., Tang, J., and Zhang, J. H. Dual effects of melatonin on oxidative stress after surgical brain injury in rats. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:43-48. View abstract.
  587. Sarabia, L., Maurer, I., and Bustos-Obregon, E. Melatonin prevents damage elicited by the organophosphorous pesticide diazinon on mouse sperm DNA. Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf 2009;72:663-668. View abstract.
  588. Sarabia, L., Maurer, I., and Bustos-Obregon, E. Melatonin prevents damage elicited by the organophosphorous pesticide diazinon on the mouse testis. Ecotoxicol.Environ.Saf 2009;72:938-942. View abstract.
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  590. Manjunatha, B. M., Devaraj, M., Gupta, P. S., Ravindra, J. P., and Nandi, S. Effect of taurine and melatonin in the culture medium on buffalo in vitro embryo development. Reprod.Domest.Anim 2009;44:12-16. View abstract.
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  593. Ortiz-Lopez, L., Morales-Mulia, S., Ramirez-Rodriguez, G., and Benitez-King, G. ROCK-regulated cytoskeletal dynamics participate in the inhibitory effect of melatonin on cancer cell migration. J.Pineal Res. 2009;46:15-21. View abstract.
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  596. Srinivasan, V., Spence, D. W., Pandi-Perumal, S. R., Trakht, I., and Cardinali, D. P. Jet lag: therapeutic use of melatonin and possible application of melatonin analogs. Travel.Med Infect.Dis. 2008;6(1-2):17-28. View abstract.
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  599. Braam, W., Didden, R., Smits, M., and Curfs, L. Melatonin treatment in individuals with intellectual disability and chronic insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled study. J Intellect.Disabil.Res 2008;52(Pt 3):256-264. View abstract.
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  614. Vissers, F. H., Knipschild, P. G., and Crebolder, H. F. Is melatonin helpful in stopping the long-term use of hypnotics? A discontinuation trial. Pharm.World Sci. 2007;29:641-646. View abstract.
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  618. Forrest, C. M., Mackay, G. M., Stoy, N., Stone, T. W., and Darlington, L. G. Inflammatory status and kynurenine metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis treated with melatonin. Br.J Clin Pharmacol 2007;64:517-526. View abstract.
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  621. Lissoni, P. Biochemotherapy with standard chemotherapies plus the pineal hormone melatonin in the treatment of advanced solid neoplasms. Pathol.Biol.(Paris) 2007;55(3-4):201-204. View abstract.
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  623. Berk, L., Berkey, B., Rich, T., Hrushesky, W., Blask, D., Gallagher, M., Kudrimoti, M., McGarry, R. C., Suh, J., and Mehta, M. Randomized phase II trial of high-dose melatonin and radiation therapy for RPA class 2 patients with brain metastases (RTOG 0119). Int.J Radiat.Oncol.Biol.Phys. 7-1-2007;68:852-857. View abstract.
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  627. Komarov, F. I., Raikhlin, N. T., Rapoport, S. I., Malinovskaia, N. K., Voznesenskaia, L. A., and Rumiantseva, A. I. [Irritated bowel syndrome: clinicomorphological aspects of treatment with melaxen]. Klin.Med.(Mosk) 2006;84:30-36. View abstract.
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  629. Ernst, E., Schmidt, K., and Baum, M. Complementary/Alternative therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials and a critique of current terminology. Breast J 2006;12:526-530. View abstract.
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  633. Todisco, M. Relapse of high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplantation: a case successfully treated with cyclophosphamide plus somatostatin, bromocriptine, melatonin, retinoids, and ACTH. Am J Ther 2006;13:556-557. View abstract.
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  646. Weekley, L. B. Melatonin-induced relaxation of rat aorta: interaction with adrenergic agonists. J Pineal Res 1991;11:28-34. View abstract.
  647. Capuzzo, M., Zanardi, B., Schiffino, E., Buccoliero, C., Gragnaniello, D., Bianchi, S., and Alvisi, R. Melatonin does not reduce anxiety more than placebo in the elderly undergoing surgery. Anesth.Analg. 2006;103:121-3, table. View abstract.
  648. Sury, M. R. and Fairweather, K. The effect of melatonin on sedation of children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Br.J Anaesth. 2006;97:220-225. View abstract.
  649. Wyatt, J. K., Dijk, D. J., Ritz-de Cecco, A., Ronda, J. M., and Czeisler, C. A. Sleep-facilitating effect of exogenous melatonin in healthy young men and women is circadian-phase dependent. Sleep 5-1-2006;29:609-618. View abstract.
  650. Gubin, D. G., Gubin, G. D., Waterhouse, J., and Weinert, D. The circadian body temperature rhythm in the elderly: effect of single daily melatonin dosing. Chronobiol.Int. 2006;23:639-658. View abstract.
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  657. Jansen, S. L., Forbes, D. A., Duncan, V., and Morgan, D. G. Melatonin for cognitive impairment. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;:CD003802. View abstract.
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  768. Arias, J., Melean, E., Valero, N., Pons, H., Chacin-Bonilla, L., Larreal, Y., and Bonilla, E. [Effect of melatonin on lymphocyte proliferation and production of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) in mice splenocytes]. Invest Clin 2003;44:41-50. View abstract.
  769. Chen, Z., Chua, C. C., Gao, J., Hamdy, R. C., and Chua, B. H. Protective effect of melatonin on myocardial infarction. Am.J Physiol Heart Circ.Physiol 2003;284:H1618-H1624. View abstract.
  770. Bordet, R., Devos, D., Brique, S., Touitou, Y., Guieu, J. D., Libersa, C., and Destee, A. Study of circadian melatonin secretion pattern at different stages of Parkinson's disease. Clin Neuropharmacol. 2003;26:65-72. View abstract.
  771. Karasek, M., Gruszka, A., Lawnicka, H., Kunert-Radek, J., and Pawlikowski, M. Melatonin inhibits growth of diethylstilbestrol-induced prolactin-secreting pituitary tumor in vitro: possible involvement of nuclear RZR/ROR receptors. J Pineal Res 2003;34:294-296. View abstract.
  772. Gulcin, I., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., and Kufrevioglu, O. I. Metal chelating and hydrogen peroxide scavenging effects of melatonin. J Pineal Res 2003;34:278-281. View abstract.
  773. Lopez-Burillo, S., Tan, D. X., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., Manchester, L. C., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin, xanthurenic acid, resveratrol, EGCG, vitamin C and alpha-lipoic acid differentially reduce oxidative DNA damage induced by Fenton reagents: a study of their individual and synergistic actions. J Pineal Res 2003;34:269-277. View abstract.
  774. Chen, J. C., Ng, C. J., Chiu, T. F., and Chen, H. M. Altered neutrophil apoptosis activity is reversed by melatonin in liver ischemia-reperfusion. J Pineal Res 2003;34:260-264. View abstract.
  775. Tan, D. X., Hardeland, R., Manchester, L. C., Poeggeler, B., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., and Reiter, R. J. Mechanistic and comparative studies of melatonin and classic antioxidants in terms of their interactions with the ABTS cation radical. J Pineal Res 2003;34:249-259. View abstract.
  776. Ivanenko, A., Crabtree, V. M., Tauman, R., and Gozal, D. Melatonin in children and adolescents with insomnia: a retrospective study. Clin Pediatr.(Phila) 2003;42:51-58. View abstract.
  777. Todisco, M., Casaccia, P., and Rossi, N. Severe bleeding symptoms in refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a case successfully treated with melatonin. Am.J Ther 2003;10:135-136. View abstract.
  778. Delagrange, P., Atkinson, J., Boutin, J. A., Casteilla, L., Lesieur, D., Misslin, R., Pellissier, S., Penicaud, L., and Renard, P. Therapeutic perspectives for melatonin agonists and antagonists. J Neuroendocrinol. 2003;15:442-448. View abstract.
  779. Baskett, J. J., Broad, J. B., Wood, P. C., Duncan, J. R., Pledger, M. J., English, J., and Arendt, J. Does melatonin improve sleep in older people? A randomised crossover trial. Age Ageing 2003;32:164-170. View abstract.
  780. Sainz, R. M., Mayo, J. C., Tan, D. X., Lopez-Burillo, S., Natarajan, M., and Reiter, R. J. Antioxidant activity of melatonin in Chinese hamster ovarian cells: changes in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 3-14-2003;302:625-634. View abstract.
  781. Taysi, S., Koc, M., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., Altinkaynak, K., and Sahin, Y. N. Melatonin reduces lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide during irradiation-induced oxidative injury in the rat liver. J Pineal Res 2003;34:173-177. View abstract.
  782. Dericks-Tan, J. S., Schwinn, P., and Hildt, C. Dose-dependent stimulation of melatonin secretion after administration of agnus castus. Exp.Clin Endocrinol.Diabetes 2003;111:44-46. View abstract.
  783. Dziegiel, P., Surowiak, P., Rabczynski, J., and Zabel, M. Effect of melatonin on cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin on myocardium and on transplantable Morris hepatoma in rats. Pol.J Pathol. 2002;53:201-204. View abstract.
  784. Mayo, J. C., Tan, D. X., Sainz, R. M., Natarajan, M., Lopez-Burillo, S., and Reiter, R. J. Protection against oxidative protein damage induced by metal-catalyzed reaction or alkylperoxyl radicals: comparative effects of melatonin and other antioxidants. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 3-17-2003;1620(1-3):139-150. View abstract.
  785. Ardura, J., Gutierrez, R., Andres, J., and Agapito, T. Emergence and evolution of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in children. Horm.Res 2003;59:66-72. View abstract.
  786. Zhou, Y. H., Huo, Z. Y., and Qiu, X. C. [Inhibitory effect of melatonin on morphine withdrawal syndromes and the content of NO in plasma and brain tissue in morphine dependent mice]. Yao Xue.Xue.Bao. 2002;37:175-177. View abstract.
  787. Buxton, O. M., Lee, C. W., L'Hermite-Baleriaux, M., Turek, F. W., and Van Cauter, E. Exercise elicits phase shifts and acute alterations of melatonin that vary with circadian phase. Am.J Physiol Regul.Integr.Comp Physiol 2003;284:R714-R724. View abstract.
  788. Pei, Z., Fung, P. C., and Cheung, R. T. Melatonin reduces nitric oxide level during ischemia but not blood-brain barrier breakdown during reperfusion in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. J Pineal Res 2003;34:110-118. View abstract.
  789. Chung, S. Y. and Han, S. H. Melatonin attenuates kainic acid-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration and oxidative stress through microglial inhibition. J Pineal Res 2003;34:95-102. View abstract.
  790. Cardinali, D. P., Ladizesky, M. G., Boggio, V., Cutrera, R. A., and Mautalen, C. Melatonin effects on bone: experimental facts and clinical perspectives. J Pineal Res 2003;34:81-87. View abstract.
  791. Naidu, P. S., Singh, A., Kaur, P., Sandhir, R., and Kulkarni, S. K. Possible mechanism of action in melatonin attenuation of haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav 2003;74:641-648. View abstract.
  792. Wang, F., Li, J., Wu, C., Yang, J., Xu, F., and Zhao, Q. The GABA(A) receptor mediates the hypnotic activity of melatonin in rats. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav 2003;74:573-578. View abstract.
  793. Doyle, S. E., Grace, M. S., McIvor, W., and Menaker, M. Circadian rhythms of dopamine in mouse retina: the role of melatonin. Vis.Neurosci. 2002;19:593-601. View abstract.
  794. Singh, P., Bhargava, V. K., and Garg, S. K. Effect of melatonin and beta-carotene on indomethacin induced gastric mucosal injury. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;46:229-234. View abstract.
  795. Fowler, G., Daroszewska, M., and Ingold, K. U. Melatonin does not "directly scavenge hydrogen peroxide": demise of another myth. Free Radic.Biol.Med 1-1-2003;34:77-83. View abstract.
  796. Tan, D. X., Manchester, L. C., Hardeland, R., Lopez-Burillo, S., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin: a hormone, a tissue factor, an autocoid, a paracoid, and an antioxidant vitamin. J Pineal Res 2003;34:75-78. View abstract.
  797. Kaptanoglu, E., Palaoglu, S., Demirpence, E., Akbiyik, F., Solaroglu, I., and Kilinc, A. Different responsiveness of central nervous system tissues to oxidative conditions and to the antioxidant effect of melatonin. J Pineal Res 2003;34:32-35. View abstract.
  798. Gwayi, N. and Bernard, R. T. The effects of melatonin on sperm motility in vitro in Wistar rats. Andrologia 2002;34:391-396. View abstract.
  799. Serfaty, M., Kennell-Webb, S., Warner, J., Blizard, R., and Raven, P. Double blind randomised placebo controlled trial of low dose melatonin for sleep disorders in dementia. Int J Geriatr.Psychiatry 2002;17:1120-1127. View abstract.
  800. Todisco, M. and Rossi, N. Melatonin for refractory idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a report of 3 cases. Am.J Ther 2002;9:524-526. View abstract.
  801. Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Sainz, R. M., Mayo, J. C., and Lopez-Burillo, S. Melatonin: reducing the toxicity and increasing the efficacy of drugs. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2002;54:1299-1321. View abstract.
  802. Bothorel, B., Barassin, S., Saboureau, M., Perreau, S., Vivien-Roels, B., Malan, A., and Pevet, P. In the rat, exogenous melatonin increases the amplitude of pineal melatonin secretion by a direct action on the circadian clock. Eur.J Neurosci. 2002;16:1090-1098. View abstract.
  803. Rufo-Campos, M. [Melatonin and epilepsy]. Rev Neurol. 2002;35 Suppl 1:S51-S58. View abstract.
  804. Montilla-Lopez, P., Munoz-Agueda, M. C., Feijoo, Lopez M., Munoz-Castaneda, J. R., Bujalance-Arenas, I., and Tunez-Finana, I. Comparison of melatonin versus vitamin C on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in Alzheimer's disease induced by okadaic acid in neuroblastoma cells. Eur.J Pharmacol. 9-20-2002;451:237-243. View abstract.
  805. Fischer, T. W., Scholz, G., Knoll, B., Hipler, U. C., and Elsner, P. Melatonin suppresses reactive oxygen species in UV-irradiated leukocytes more than vitamin C and trolox. Skin Pharmacol.Appl.Skin Physiol 2002;15:367-373. View abstract.
  806. Adams, J. D., Jr., Yang, J., Mishra, L. C., and Singh, B. B. Effects of ashwagandha in a rat model of stroke. Altern Ther Health Med 2002;8:18-19. View abstract.
  807. Bilici, D., Akpinar, E., and Kiziltunc, A. Protective effect of melatonin in carrageenan-induced acute local inflammation. Pharmacol.Res 2002;46:133-139. View abstract.
  808. Gulcin, I., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., Oktay, M., and Kufrevioglu, O. I. On the in vitro antioxidative properties of melatonin. J Pineal Res 2002;33:167-171. View abstract.
  809. Dillon, D. C., Easley, S. E., Asch, B. B., Cheney, R. T., Brydon, L., Jockers, R., Winston, J. S., Brooks, J. S., Hurd, T., and Asch, H. L. Differential expression of high-affinity melatonin receptors (MT1) in normal and malignant human breast tissue. Am.J Clin Pathol. 2002;118:451-458. View abstract.
  810. Edwards, R. B., Manzana, E. J., and Chen, W. J. Melatonin (an antioxidant) does not ameliorate alcohol-induced Purkinje cell loss in the developing cerebellum. Alcohol Clin Exp.Res 2002;26:1003-1009. View abstract.
  811. Blask, D. E., Dauchy, R. T., Sauer, L. A., Krause, J. A., and Brainard, G. C. Light during darkness, melatonin suppression and cancer progression. Neuroendocrinol.Lett. 2002;23 Suppl 2:52-56. View abstract.
  812. Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Cheve, G., Gozzo, A., Tailleux, A., Guilloz, V., Caisey, S., Teissier, E., Fruchart, J. C., Delattre, J., Jore, D., Lesieur, D., Duriez, P., and Gardes-Albert, M. Melatonin related compounds inhibit lipid peroxidation during copper or free radical-induced LDL oxidation. J Pineal Res 2002;33:109-117. View abstract.
  813. Dziegiel, P., Suder, E., Surowiak, P., Jethon, Z., Rabczynski, J., Januszewska, L., Sopel, M., and Zabel, M. Role of exogenous melatonin in reducing the nephrotoxic effect of daunorubicin and doxorubicin in the rat. J Pineal Res 2002;33:95-100. View abstract.
  814. Valenti, S. and Giusti, M. Melatonin participates in the control of testosterone secretion from rat testis: an overview of our experience. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;966:284-289. View abstract.
  815. Antolin, I., Mayo, J. C., Sainz, R. M., del Brio, Mde L., Herrera, F., Martin, V., and Rodriguez, C. Protective effect of melatonin in a chronic experimental model of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res 7-12-2002;943:163-173. View abstract.
  816. Koyama, H., Nakade, O., Takada, Y., Kaku, T., and Lau, K. H. Melatonin at pharmacologic doses increases bone mass by suppressing resorption through down-regulation of the RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation and activation. J Bone Miner.Res 2002;17:1219-1229. View abstract.
  817. Srivastava, A. K., Gupta, S. K., Jain, S., and Gupta, Y. K. Effect of melatonin and phenytoin on an intracortical ferric chloride model of posttraumatic seizures in rats. Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2002;24:145-149. View abstract.
  818. Reiter, R. J. and Tan, D. X. Melatonin: an antioxidant in edible plants. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci. 2002;957:341-344. View abstract.
  819. Allegra, M., Gentile, C., Tesoriere, L., and Livrea, M. A. Protective effect of melatonin against cytotoxic actions of malondialdehyde: an in vitro study on human erythrocytes. J Pineal Res 2002;32:187-193. View abstract.
  820. Pita, M. L., Hoyos, M., Martin-Lacave, I., Osuna, C., Fernandez-Santos, J. M., and Guerrero, J. M. Long-term melatonin administration increases polyunsaturated fatty acid percentage in plasma lipids of hypercholesterolemic rats. J Pineal Res 2002;32:179-186. View abstract.
  821. Pei, Z., Pang, S. F., and Cheung, R. T. Pretreatment with melatonin reduces volume of cerebral infarction in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model. J Pineal Res 2002;32:168-172. View abstract.
  822. Pappolla, M. A., Simovich, M. J., Bryant-Thomas, T., Chyan, Y. J., Poeggeler, B., Dubocovich, M., Bick, R., Perry, G., Cruz-Sanchez, F., and Smith, M. A. The neuroprotective activities of melatonin against the Alzheimer beta- protein are not mediated by melatonin membrane receptors. J Pineal Res 2002;32:135-142. View abstract.
  823. Abilio, V. C., Vera, J. A., Jr., Ferreira, L. S., Duarte, C. R., Carvalho, R. C., Grassl, C., Martins, C. R., Torres-Leite, D., Bignotto, M., Tufik, S., Ribeiro, Rde A., and Frussa-Filho, R. Effects of melatonin on orofacial movements in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2002;161:340-347. View abstract.
  824. Johnson, K., Page, A., Williams, H., Wassemer, E., and Whitehouse, W. The use of melatonin as an alternative to sedation in uncooperative children undergoing an MRI examination. Clin Radiol. 2002;57:502-506. View abstract.
  825. Lewy, A. J., Emens, J. S., Sack, R. L., Hasler, B. P., and Bernert, R. A. Low, but not high, doses of melatonin entrained a free-running blind person with a long circadian period. Chronobiol.Int 2002;19:649-658. View abstract.
  826. Luboshitzky, R., Shen-Orr, Z., Nave, R., Lavi, S., and Lavie, P. Melatonin administration alters semen quality in healthy men. J Androl 2002;23:572-578. View abstract.
  827. Tailleux, A., Torpier, G., Bonnefont-Rousselot, D., Lestavel, S., Lemdani, M., Caudeville, B., Furman, C., Foricher, R., Gardes-Albert, M., Lesieur, D., Rolando, C., Teissier, E., Fruchart, J. C., Clavey, V., Fievet, C., and Duriez, P. Daily melatonin supplementation in mice increases atherosclerosis in proximal aorta. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 5-10-2002;293:1114-1123. View abstract.
  828. Ross, C., Davies, P., and Whitehouse, W. Melatonin treatment for sleep disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disorders: an observational study. Dev Med Child Neurol 2002;44:339-344. View abstract.
  829. Koc, M., Buyukokuroglu, M. E., and Taysi, S. The effect of melatonin on peripheral blood cells during total body irradiation in rats. Biol.Pharm Bull. 2002;25:656-657. View abstract.
  830. Sewerynek, E. Melatonin and the cardiovascular system. Neuroendocrinol.Lett 2002;23 Suppl 1:79-83. View abstract.
  831. Lewinski, A. and Karbownik, M. REVIEW. Melatonin and the thyroid gland. Neuroendocrinol.Lett 2002;23 Suppl 1:73-78. View abstract.
  832. Cardinali, D. P., Brusco, L. I., Liberczuk, C., and Furio, A. M. The use of melatonin in Alzheimer's disease. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2002;23 Suppl 1:20-23. View abstract.
  833. Kvetnoy, I. M., Ingel, I. E., Kvetnaia, T. V., Malinovskaya, N. K., Rapoport, S. I., Raikhlin, N. T., Trofimov, A. V., and Yuzhakov, V. V. Gastrointestinal melatonin: cellular identification and biological role. Neuroendocrinol.Lett. 2002;23:121-132. View abstract.
  834. Bhattacharya, S. K., Bhattacharya, D., Sairam, K., and Ghosal, S. Effect of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides on a rat model of tardive dyskinesia. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:167-170. View abstract.
  835. Bilici, D., Suleyman, H., Banoglu, Z. N., Kiziltunc, A., Avci, B., Ciftcioglu, A., and Bilici, S. Melatonin prevents ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage possibly due to its antioxidant effect. Dig.Dis.Sci. 2002;47:856-861. View abstract.
  836. Gupta, Y. K., Chaudhary, G., and Sinha, K. Enhanced protection by melatonin and meloxicam combination in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of acute ischemic stroke in rat. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;80:210-217. View abstract.
  837. Calvo, J. R., Guerrero, J. M., Osuna, C., Molinero, P., and Carrillo-Vico, A. Melatonin triggers Crohn's disease symptoms. J Pineal Res 2002;32:277-278. View abstract.
  838. Munoz-Hoyos, A., Heredia, F., Moreno, F., Garcia, J. J., Molina-Carballo, A., Escames, G., and Acuna-Castroviejo, D. Evaluation of plasma levels of melatonin after midazolam or sodium thiopental anesthesia in children. J Pineal Res 2002;32:253-256. View abstract.
  839. Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Manchester, L. C., and El Sawi, M. R. Melatonin reduces oxidant damage and promotes mitochondrial respiration: implications for aging. Ann.N.Y.Acad.Sci 2002;959:238-250. View abstract.
  840. Feng, Y., Zhang, L. X., and Chao, D. M. [Role of melatonin in spatial learning and memory in rats and its mechanism]. Sheng Li Xue.Bao. 2-25-2002;54:65-70. View abstract.
  841. Dziegiel, P., Jethon, Z., Suder, E., Sopel, M., Rabczynski, J., Surowiak, P., and Zabel, M. Role of exogenous melatonin in reducing the cardiotoxic effect of daunorubicin and doxorubicin in the rat. Exp.Toxicol.Pathol. 2002;53:433-439. View abstract.
  842. Cuzzocrea, S. and Reiter, R. J. Pharmacological actions of melatonin in acute and chronic inflammation. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002;2:153-165. View abstract.
  843. Acuna, C. D., Escames, G., Carazo, A., Leon, J., Khaldy, H., and Reiter, R. J. Melatonin, mitochondrial homeostasis and mitochondrial-related diseases. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002;2:133-151. View abstract.
  844. Blask, D. E., Sauer, L. A., and Dauchy, R. T. Melatonin as a chronobiotic/anticancer agent: cellular, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of action and their implications for circadian-based cancer therapy. Curr.Top.Med Chem. 2002;2:113-132. View abstract.
  845. Awney, H. A., Attih, A. M., Habib, S. L., and Mostafa, M. H. Effect of melatonin on the production of microsomal hydrogen peroxide and cytochrome P-450 content in rat treated with aflatoxin B. Toxicology 3-20-2002;172:143-148. View abstract.
  846. Mohanan, P. V. and Yamamoto, H. A. Preventive effect of melatonin against brain mitochondria DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and seizures induced by kainic acid. Toxicol.Lett. 3-24-2002;129(1-2):99-105. View abstract.
  847. Arslan, S. O., Zerin, M., Vural, H., and Coskun, A. The effect of melatonin on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats. J Pineal Res 2002;32:21-25. View abstract.
  848. Wirz-Justice, A., Werth, E., Renz, C., Muller, S., and Krauchi, K. No evidence for a phase delay in human circadian rhythms after a single morning melatonin administration. J Pineal Res 2002;32:1-5. View abstract.
  849. Beloosesky, Y., Grinblat, J., Laudon, M., Grosman, B., Streifler, J. Y., and Zisapel, N. Melatonin rhythms in stroke patients. Neurosci.Lett. 2-15-2002;319:103-106. View abstract.
  850. Iuvone, P. M., Brown, A. D., Haque, R., Weller, J., Zawilska, J. B., Chaurasia, S. S., Ma, M., and Klein, D. C. Retinal melatonin production: role of proteasomal proteolysis in circadian and photic control of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase. Invest Ophthalmol.Vis.Sci. 2002;43:564-572. View abstract.
  851. Hanania, M. and Kitain, E. Melatonin for treatment and prevention of postoperative delirium. Anesth.Analg. 2002;94:338-9, table. View abstract.
  852. Pei, Z., Ho, H. T., and Cheung, R. T. Pre-treatment with melatonin reduces volume of cerebral infarction in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion stroke model in the rat. Neurosci.Lett. 2-1-2002;318:141-144. View abstract.
  853. Gitto, E., Karbownik, M., Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Cuzzocrea, S., Chiurazzi, P., Cordaro, S., Corona, G., Trimarchi, G., and Barberi, I. Effects of melatonin treatment in septic newborns. Pediatr Res 2001;50:756-760. View abstract.
  854. Sharkey, K. M., Fogg, L. F., and Eastman, C. I. Effects of melatonin administration on daytime sleep after simulated night shift work. J Sleep Res 2001;10:181-192. View abstract.
  855. Wakatsuki, A., Okatani, Y., Ikenoue, N., Shinohara, K., Watanabe, K., and Fukaya, T. Melatonin protects against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced inhibition of nitric oxide production in human umbilical artery. J Pineal Res 2001;31:281-288. View abstract.
  856. Granzotto, M., Rapozzi, V., Decorti, G., and Giraldi, T. Effects of melatonin on doxorubicin cytotoxicity in sensitive and pleiotropically resistant tumor cells. J Pineal Res 2001;31:206-213. View abstract.
  857. Harris, A. S., Burgess, H. J., and Dawson, D. The effects of day-time exogenous melatonin administration on cardiac autonomic activity. J Pineal Res 2001;31:199-205. View abstract.
  858. Gagnier, J. J. The therapeutic potential of melatonin in migraines and other headache types. Altern Med Rev 2001;6:383-389. View abstract.
  859. Rivkees, S. A. Arrhythmicity in a child with septo-optic dysplasia and establishment of sleep-wake cyclicity with melatonin. J Pediatr 2001;139:463-465. View abstract.
  860. Sjoblom, M., Jedstedt, G., and Flemstrom, G. Peripheral melatonin mediates neural stimulation of duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. J Clin Invest 2001;108:625-633. View abstract.
  861. Suhner, A., Schlagenhauf, P., Hofer, I., Johnson, R., Tschopp, A., and Steffen, R. Effectiveness and tolerability of melatonin and zolpidem for the alleviation of jet lag. Aviat.Space Environ.Med. 2001;72:638-646. View abstract.
  862. Reiter, R. J., Acuna-Castroviejo, D., Tan, D. X., and Burkhardt, S. Free radical-mediated molecular damage. Mechanisms for the protective actions of melatonin in the central nervous system. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2001;939:200-215. View abstract.
  863. Karasek, M., Kowalski, A. J., and Zylinska, K. Serum melatonin circadian profile in women suffering from the genital tract cancers. Neuroendocrinol.Lett 2000;21:109-113. View abstract.
  864. Kulman, G., Lissoni, P., Rovelli, F., Roselli, M. G., Brivio, F., and Sequeri, P. Evidence of pineal endocrine hypofunction in autistic children. Neuro.Endocrinol.Lett. 2000;21:31-34. View abstract.
  865. Satomura, T., Sakamoto, T., Shirakawa, S., Tsutsumi, Y., Mukai, M., Ohyama, T., Uchimura, N., and Maeda, H. Hypnotic action of melatonin during daytime administration and its comparison with triazolam. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:303-304. View abstract.
  866. Kitajima, T., Kanbayashi, T., Saitoh, Y., Ogawa, Y., Sugiyama, T., Kaneko, Y., Sasaki, Y., Aizawa, R., and Shimisu, T. The effects of oral melatonin on the autonomic function in healthy subjects. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:299-300. View abstract.
  867. Takeuchi, N., Uchimura, N., Hashizume, Y., Mukai, M., Etoh, Y., Yamamoto, K., Kotorii, T., Ohshima, H., Ohshima, M., and Maeda, H. Melatonin therapy for REM sleep behavior disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2001;55:267-269. View abstract.
  868. Kim, B. C., Shon, B. S., Ryoo, Y. W., Kim, S. P., and Lee, K. S. Melatonin reduces X-ray irradiation-induced oxidative damages in cultured human skin fibroblasts. J Dermatol Sci 2001;26:194-200. View abstract.
  869. Johnson, S. Micronutrient accumulation and depletion in schizophrenia, epilepsy, autism and Parkinson's disease? Med Hypotheses 2001;56:641-645. View abstract.
  870. Norman, T. R., Piccolo, J., Voudouris, N., and Burrows, G. D. The effect of single oral doses of zopiclone on nocturnal melatonin secretion in healthy male volunteers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol Psychiatry 2001;25:825-833. View abstract.
  871. Ninomiya, T., Iwatani, N., Tomoda, A., and Miike, T. Effects of exogenous melatonin on pituitary hormones in humans. Clin Physiol 2001;21:292-299. View abstract.
  872. Goh, V. H., Tong, T. Y., Lim, C. L., Low, E. C., and Lee, L. K. Effects of one night of sleep deprivation on hormone profiles and performance efficiency. Mil.Med 2001;166:427-431. View abstract.
  873. Dai, J., Ram, P. T., Yuan, L., Spriggs, L. L., and Hill, S. M. Transcriptional repression of RORalpha activity in human breast cancer cells by melatonin. Mol.Cell Endocrinol 5-15-2001;176(1-2):111-120. View abstract.
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Last reviewed - 02/15/2015