Skip navigation


What is it?

Ginger is an herb. The rhizome (underground stem) is used as a spice and also as a medicine. It can be used fresh, dried and powdered, or as a juice or oil.

Ginger is commonly used to treat various types of “stomach problems,” including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, nausea caused by cancer treatment, nausea and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite.

Other uses include pain relief from arthritis or muscle soreness, menstrual pain, upper respiratory tract infections, cough, and bronchitis. Ginger is also sometimes used for chest pain, low back pain, and stomach pain.

Some people pour the fresh juice on their skin to treat burns. The oil made from ginger is sometimes applied to the skin to relieve pain.

In foods and beverages, ginger is used as a flavoring agent.

In manufacturing, ginger is used as for fragrance in soaps and cosmetics.

One of the chemicals in ginger is also used as an ingredient in laxative, anti-gas, and antacid medications.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GINGER are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Nausea and vomiting following surgery. Most clinical research shows that taking 1 gram of ginger one hour before surgery seems to reduce nausea and vomiting during the first 24 hours after surgery. One study found ginger reduced nausea and vomiting by 38%. Also, applying ginger oil to patients’ wrists before surgery seems to prevent nausea in about 80% of patients. However, ginger might not reduce nausea and vomiting in the period 3-6 hours after surgery.
  • Dizziness. Taking ginger seems to reduce the symptoms of dizziness, including nausea.
  • Menstrual pain. Some research shows that ginger can reduce symptoms of menstrual pain in some women when taken during menstruation. One study shows that taking a specific ginger extract (Zintoma, Goldaru) 250 mg four times daily for 3 days at the beginning of the menstrual period reduces pain symptoms in as many as 62% of people. It seems to work about as well as the medications ibuprofen or mefenamic acid.
  • Arthritis. Some research shows that taking ginger can modestly reduce pain in some people with a form of arthritis called “osteoarthritis.” One study shows that taking a specific ginger extract (Zintona EC) 250 mg four times daily reduced arthritis pain in the knee after 3 months of treatment. Another study shows that using a different ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a ginger with alpinia also reduces pain upon standing, pain after walking, and stiffness. Some research has compared ginger to medications such as ibuprofen. In one study, a specific ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) did not work as well as taking ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily for reducing arthritis pain. But in another study, taking ginger extract 500 mg twice daily worked about as well as ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily for hip and knee pain related to arthritis. In another study, a specific ginger extract combined with glucosamine (Zinaxin glucosamine, EV ext-35) worked as well as the anti-inflamatory medication diclofenac slow release 100 mg daily plus glucosamine sulfate 1 gram daily. Research also suggests that massage therapy using an oil containing ginger and orange seems to reduce short-term stiffness and pain in people with knee pain.
  • Preventing morning sickness (discuss the possible risks with your healthcare provider). Ginger seems to reduce nausea and vomiting in some pregnant women. But taking any herb or medication during pregnancy is a big decision. Before taking ginger, be sure to discuss the possible risks with your healthcare provider.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Preventing motion sickness and seasickness. Some people say they feel better after taking ginger before travel, but research findings have been inconsistent. Some research shows no benefit for reducing symptoms of motion sickness or seasickness. However, one study suggests that ginger is more effective than dimenhydrinate, an anti-nausea drug, at reducing stomach related to motion sickness. Another study suggests that taking 1-2 grams of ginger increases the time before nausea starts and reduces the severity of nausea.
  • Weight loss. Research suggests that taking a supplement containing ginger, rhubarb, astragalus, red sage, turmeric, and gallic acid (Number Ten) daily for 8 weeks does not increase weight loss or reduce body weight in people who are overweight.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Sudden respiratory system failure (Acute respiratory distress syndrome). Research suggests that administering 120 mg of ginger extract daily for 21 days increases the number of days without ventilator support, the amount of nutrients consumed, and reduces the time spent in intensive care units in people with sudden respiratory system a failure. However, ginger extract does not seem to affect death rates in people with this condition.
  • Alcohol hangover. Early research suggests that taking a combination of ginger, pith of Citrus tangerine, and brown sugar before drinking decreases symptoms of alcohol hangovers, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of ginger for nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy for cancer. Some evidence suggests that taking ginger by mouth might help reduce nausea caused by chemotherapy. However, other evidence suggests that adding ginger is no more effective than standard anti-nausea treatments alone.
  • Upset stomach (dyspepsia). Evidence suggests that taking a single dose of 1.2 grams of ginger root powder 1 hour before eating speeds up how quickly food empties out of the some in people with dyspepsia.
  • High cholesterol. Evidence suggests that taking 1 gram ginger capsules three times daily for 45 days lowers triglyceride and cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
  • Speeding up labor. Early evidence suggests that bathing in water containing ginger oil does not shorten the length of labor.
  • Migraine headache. Evidence suggests that taking a combination of ginger and feverfew might reduce the length and intensity of migraine pain. However, it is not clear if the effects are from ginger, feverfew or the combination.
  • Muscle pain after exercise. There is contradictory evidence about whether ginger helps for muscle pain caused by exercise.
  • Recovery after surgery. Evidence suggests that inhaling and applying a combination of lavender and ginger oils to the skin before surgery does not reduce distress in children after surgery.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is some early evidence that ginger might be helpful for decreasing joint pain in people with RA.
  • Trouble swallowing. Evidence suggests that spraying a product containing ginger and clematix root (Tongyan) to the back of the throat improves trouble swallowing in stroke victims. However, it is not beneficial in people with less severe problems swallowing.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Colds.
  • Flu.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate ginger for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Ginger contains chemicals that may reduce nausea and inflammation. Researchers believe the chemicals work primarily in the stomach and intestines, but they may also work in the brain and nervous system to control nausea.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Ginger is LIKELY SAFE for most people. Some people can have mild side effects including heartburn, diarrhea, and general stomach discomfort. Some women have reported extra menstrual bleeding while taking ginger.

When ginger is applied to the skin, it may cause irritation.

Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy: Using ginger during pregnancy is controversial. There is some concern that ginger might affect fetal sex hormones. There is also a report of miscarriage during week 12 of pregnancy in a woman who used ginger for morning sickness. However, studies in pregnant women suggest that ginger can be used safely for morning sickness without harm to the baby. The risk for major malformations in infants of women taking ginger does not appear to be higher than the usual rate of 1% to 3%. Also there doesn’t appear to be an increased risk of early labor or low birth weight. There is some concern that ginger might increase the risk of bleeding, so some experts advise againsting using it close to your delivery date. As with any medication given during pregnancy, it’s important to weigh the benefit against the risk. Before using ginger during pregnancy, talk it over with your healthcare provider.

Breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the safety of using ginger during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and don’t use it.

Bleeding disorders: Taking ginger might increase your risk of bleeding.

Diabetes: Ginger might lower your blood sugar. As a result, your diabetes medications might need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.

Heart conditions: High doses of ginger might worsen some heart conditions.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top


Do not take this combination.

Taking ginger along with nifedipne might slow blood clotting and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.


Be cautious with this combination.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Ginger might slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Phenprocoumon is used in Europe to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with phenprocoumon might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your phenprocoumon might need to be changed.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.


Be watchful with this combination.

Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
Ginger might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. Taking ginger along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase the side effects of cyclosporine.

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Ginger might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking ginger along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.

Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers)
Ginger might reduce blood pressure in a way that is similar to some medications for blood pressure and heart disease. Taking ginger along with these medications might cause your blood pressure to drop too low or cause an irregular heartbeat.

Some medications for high blood pressure and heart disease include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.

Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Ginger can increase how much metronidazole (Flagyl) the body absorbs. Taking ginger along with metronidazole (Flagyl) might increase the side effects of metronidazole.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Ginger might lower blood sugar. Using ginger along with other herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar might lower blood sugar too much. Herbs that might lower blood sugar include devil's claw, fenugreek, guar gum, Panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and others.

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using ginger along with herbs that might slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, turmeric, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For morning sickness: 250 mg ginger 4 times daily.
  • For postoperative nausea and vomiting: 1-2 grams powdered ginger root one hour before induction of anesthesia.
  • For arthritis: Many different ginger extract products have been used in studies. The dosing used differs depending on the product taken. One ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) 170 mg three times daily has been used. Another extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a gingert with an alpinia, 255 mg twice daily has also been used. Another ginger extract (Zintona EC) 250 mg four times daily has also been used.

Other names

Return to top
African Ginger, Amomum Zingiber, Ardraka, Black Ginger, Cochin Ginger, Gan Jiang, Gingembre, Gingembre Africain, Gingembre Cochin, Gingembre Indien, Gingembre Jamaïquain, Gingembre Noir, Ginger Essential Oil, Ginger Root, Huile Essentielle de Gingembre, Imber, Indian Ginger, Jamaica Ginger, Jengibre, Jiang, Kankyo, Kanshokyo, Nagara, Race Ginger, Racine de Gingembre, Rhizoma Zingiberi, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Shen Jiang, Sheng Jiang, Shoga, Shokyo, Shunthi, Srungavera, Sunth, Sunthi, Vishvabheshaja, Zingiber Officinale, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, Zinzeberis, Zinziber Officinale, Zinziber Officinalis.


Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (//


Return to top
To see all references for the Ginger page, please go to

  1. Leach MJ and Kumar S. The clinical effectiveness of ginger (zingiber officinale) in adults with osteoarthritis. International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare 2008;6:311-320.
  2. Janngam, J. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after intrathecal morphine for lower extremity surgery [master's thesis]. 2003;
  3. Wood CD, Manno JE, Wood MJ, and et al. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs. Clin Research Practices & Drug Reg Affairs 1988;6:129-136.
  4. Gujral S, Bhumra H, and Swaroop M. Effect of ginger (Zingebar officinate roscoe) oleoresin on serum and hepatic cholesterol levels in cholesterol fed rats. Nut Report Internat 1978;17:183-189.
  5. Griffenhagen GB. Materia medica of Christopher Columbus. Pharmacy in History (USA) 1992;34:131-145.
  6. Krutzfeldt K. Ginger - heavenly fire. AZ Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung (Germany) 2003;143:83-91.
  7. Nishimura N, Naora K, Nagasako S, and et al. Metabolic degradation of [6]-gingerol in rat jejunal mucosa. Japanese Journal of Hospital Pharmacy (Japan) 1994;20:530-536.
  8. Yamakage M, Hattori J, Satoh J, and et al. Effects of the Chinese Herbal Medicines Bupleuri radix, Ginseng radix, and Zingiberis rhizoma on Lymphatic Vessel Activity in Rats. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2006;34:1063-1068.
  9. Bhandari U, Shamsher AA, Pillai KK, and et al. Antihepatotoxic Activity of Ginger Ethanol Extract in Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology 2003;41:68.
  10. Papadopoulos NT, Shelly TE, Niyazi N, and et al. Olfactory and Behavioral Mechanisms Underlying Enhanced Mating Competitiveness Following Exposure to Ginger Root Oil and Orange Oil in Males of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae). Journal of Insect Behavior 2006;19:403-418.
  1. Gaus K, Huang Y, Israel DA, and et al. Standardized ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract reduces bacterial load and suppresses acute and chronic inflammation in Mongolian gerbils infected with cagA+ Helicobacter pylori. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2009;47:92-98.
  2. Weseler A, Geiss HK, Saller R, and et al. A novel colorimetric broth microdilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics and essential oils against Helicobacter pylori. Pharmazie, Die (Germany) 2005;60:498-502.
  3. Lai YY, Huang LJ, Lin HC, and et al. Synthesis of gingerdione derivatives as potent antiplatelet agents. Chinese Pharmaceutical Journal (Taiwan) 2002;54:259-269.
  4. Zhang ZX, Wang GL, and Liu LS. Studies on the anti-inflammatory effect of ginger oil. Chin.Tradit.Herbal Drugs 1989;20:545-546, 544.
  5. Loniewski I, Musial HD, Korwin-Piotrowska K, and et al. Antiemetic activity of ginger rhizome extract (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and eleuterococ root extract (Eleuthrococcus senticosus Maxim). Herba Polonica (Poland) 1998;44:39-44.
  6. Geiger J. The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia. Int J Aromather 2005;15:7-14.
  7. Huang Q, Iwamoto M, Aoki S, and et al. Anti-5-hydroxytryptamine3, effect of galanolactone, diterpenoid isolated from ginger. Chem.Pharm.Bull. 1991;39:397-399.
  8. Yamahara J, Rong HQ, Iwamoto M, and et al. Active components of ginger exhibiting anti-serotonergic action. Phytotherapy Res 1989;3:70-71.
  9. Kawai K, Ozawa Y, Nakamura Y, and et al. Galanals A & B, cytotoxic constituents isolated from Zingiber mioga Roscoe, interfere with the respiratory chain of liver mitchondra. Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan (Japan) 2005;215:86-87.
  10. Germer S and Franz G. Ginger: manifold medicinal crude drug: Uses and thin layer chromatographic (TLC) assay according to the German Pharmacopeia. Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung (Germany) 1997;137:40-46.
  11. Lewis YS, Mathew AG, Nambudiri ES, and et al. Oleoresin ginger. Flavour Ind 1972;3:78-81.
  12. Gossel TA and Wuest JR. Natural products: Fumitory, gamma linoleic acid, garlic and ginger. Nebraska Mortar and Pestle (USA) 2008;71:25-28.
  13. Combest Wl. Ginger. US Pharmacist (USA) 1998;23:74, 79, 83-84, 86.
  14. Surh Y, Park K, Chun K, and et al. Anti-tumor-promoting activities of selected pungent phenolic substances present in ginger. Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology 1999;18:131-139.
  15. Connell DW. Chemistry of the essential oil and oleoresin of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Flavour Ind 1970;1:677-693.
  16. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 2000;:46-50, 52-57.
  17. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1997;22:71-74, 76-78, 80-83.
  18. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1991;16:49-50, 52-53, 55-58.
  19. Lawrence BM. Progress in essential oils. Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1988;13:69-72, 74-76, 78.
  20. Kirana C, Record IR, McIntosh GH, and et al. Screening for antitumor activity of 11 species of Indonesian Zingiberaceae using human MCF-7 and HT-29 cancer cells. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2003;41:271-276.
  21. Pecoraro AM, Patel J, Guthrie T, and et al. Efficacy of ginger as an adjunctive anti-emetic in acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting 1998;33:P-429E.
  22. Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, and et al. Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. J Travel Med 1994;1:102-106.
  23. Srivastava KC. Aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger inhibit platelet aggregation and alter arachidonic acid metabolism. Biomed Biochim Acta 1984;43:S 335-S 346.
  24. Srivastava KC. Effects of aqueous extracts of onion, garlic and ginger on platelet aggregation and metabolism of arachidonic acid in the blood vascular system: in vitro study. Prostagland Leukotrienes Med 1984;13:227-235.
  25. Cupp MJ.Toxicology and Clinical Pharmacology of Herbal Products. New Jersey: Humana Press;2000.
  26. Grauds C. Ginger (Zingiber officinale). Pharmacy Times (USA) 1995;61:50.
  27. Haghighi M.Khalvat A.Toliat T.Jallaei S. Comparing the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. Arch Iranian Med. 2005;8:267-271.
  28. Fulder S and Tenne M. Ginger as an anti-nausea remedy in pregnancy: the issue of safety. Herbalgram 1996;38:47-50.
  29. McGuffin M, Hobbs C, Upton R, and et al.American Herbal Products Associations Botanical Safety Handbook. Boca Raton: CRC Press;1997.
  30. Fu HY, Lu CA, He YZ, and et al. Effects of Zhengchaihu Yin (decoction) on influenza virus and pathogenic bacteria in vivo and in vitro. Bull.Chin.Mater.Med 1986;11:238-241.
  31. Siddiqui A, Ansari A, and Khan SI. Antibacterial Activity of Some Commonly Used Food Commodities Against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 2009;52:143-145.
  32. Fatehi-Hassanabad Z, Gholamnezhad Z, Jafarzadeh M, and et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of ginger root in diabetic mice. DARU, Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (Iran) 2005;13:70-73.
  33. Awang DV. Ginger. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal (Canada) 1992;125:309-311.
  34. Yarnell E and Abascal K. Herbs for curbing inflammation. Alternative & Complementary Therapies (England) 2006;2:22-28.
  35. Lawrence BM. Major tropical spices ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.). Perfumer and Flavorist (USA) 1984;9:1, 3, 6-8, 10, 12-13, 16-18, 20-22, 24-26, 28-40.
  36. Gusseva-Badmaeva AP, Hammermann AF, and Sokolov WS. Drugs of Tibet. Planta Medica (Germany) 1972;21:161-172.
  37. Giri J, Devi TK, and Meerarani S. Effect of ginger on serum cholesterol levels. Indian J Nutrition Diet 1984;21:433-436.
  38. Seaman D. Inflammation, Pain, and Alzheimer's Disease: Condition-based care. American Chiropractor 2003;25:40.
  39. Pace J and Conlin DS. Oral ingestion of encapsulated ginger and reported self-care actions for the relief of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting. Dissertation Abstracts International 1987;47:3297-B.
  40. Monge, P., Scheline, R., and Solheim, E. The metabolism of zingerone, a pungent principle of ginger. Xenobiotica 1976;6:411-423. View abstract.
  41. Liu, L. and Simon, S. A. The influence of removing extracellular Ca2+ in the desensitization responses to capsaicin, zingerone and olvanil in rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. Brain Res 11-2-1998;809:246-252. View abstract.
  42. Hata, Y., Pancho, L. R., Nojima, H., and Kimura, I. Endothelium-dependent potentiation of prostaglandin F2alpha-induced contractions by (+/-)-[6]-gingerol is inhibited by cyclooxygenase- but not lipoxygenase-inhibitors in mouse mesenteric veins. Biol.Pharm.Bull 1998;21:792-794. View abstract.
  43. Sharma, S. S. and Gupta, Y. K. Reversal of cisplatin-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;62:49-55. View abstract.
  44. Park, K. K., Chun, K. S., Lee, J. M., Lee, S. S., and Surh, Y. J. Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, on phorbol ester-induced inflammation, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion in ICR mice. Cancer Lett. 7-17-1998;129:139-144. View abstract.
  45. Ejechi, B. O., Souzey, J. A., and Akpomedaye, D. E. Microbial stability of mango (Mangifera indica L.) juice preserved by combined application of mild heat and extracts of two tropical spices. J Food Prot. 1998;61:725-727. View abstract.
  46. Bhandari, U., Sharma, J. N., and Zafar, R. The protective action of ethanolic ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract in cholesterol fed rabbits. J Ethnopharmacol. 1998;61:167-171. View abstract.
  47. Hasenohrl, R. U., Topic, B., Frisch, C., Hacker, R., Mattern, C. M., and Huston, J. P. Dissociation between anxiolytic and hypomnestic effects for combined extracts of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba, as opposed to diazepam. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1998;59:527-535. View abstract.
  48. Ahmed, R. S. and Sharma, S. B. Biochemical studies on combined effects of garlic (Allium sativum Linn) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc) in albino rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 1997;35:841-843. View abstract.
  49. Sharma, S. S., Kochupillai, V., Gupta, S. K., Seth, S. D., and Gupta, Y. K. Antiemetic efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against cisplatin- induced emesis in dogs. J Ethnopharmacol. 1997;57:93-96. View abstract.
  50. Suzuki, F., Kobayashi, M., Komatsu, Y., Kato, A., and Pollard, R. B. Keishi-ka-kei-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, inhibits pulmonary metastasis of B16 melanoma. Anticancer Res 1997;17(2A):873-878. View abstract.
  51. Green, B. G. Rapid recovery from capsaicin desensitization during recurrent stimulation. Pain 1996;68(2-3):245-253. View abstract.
  52. Sohni, Y. R. and Bhatt, R. M. Activity of a crude extract formulation in experimental hepatic amoebiasis and in immunomodulation studies. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;54(2-3):119-124. View abstract.
  53. Prescott, J. and Stevenson, R. J. Desensitization to oral zingerone irritation: effects of stimulus parameters. Physiol Behav. 1996;60:1473-1480. View abstract.
  54. Janssen, P. L., Meyboom, S., van Staveren, W. A., de Vegt, F., and Katan, M. B. Consumption of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) does not affect ex vivo platelet thromboxane production in humans. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:772-774. View abstract.
  55. Liu, L. and Simon, S. A. Similarities and differences in the currents activated by capsaicin, piperine, and zingerone in rat trigeminal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol. 1996;76:1858-1869. View abstract.
  56. Prescott, J. and Stevenson, R. J. Psychophysical responses to single and multiple presentations of the oral irritant zingerone: relationship to frequency of chili consumption. Physiol Behav. 1996;60:617-624. View abstract.
  57. Hasenohrl, R. U., Nichau, C. H., Frisch, C. H., Souza Silva, M. A., Huston, J. P., Mattern, C. M., and Hacker, R. Anxiolytic-like effect of combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba in the elevated plus-maze. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1996;53:271-275. View abstract.
  58. Ramos, Ruiz A., De la Torre, R. A., Alonso, N., Villaescusa, A., Betancourt, J., and Vizoso, A. Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans. J Ethnopharmacol 7-5-1996;52:123-127. View abstract.
  59. Frisch, C., Hasenohrl, R. U., Mattern, C. M., Hacker, R., and Huston, J. P. Blockade of lithium chloride-induced conditioned place aversion as a test for antiemetic agents: comparison of metoclopramide with combined extracts of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 1995;52:321-327. View abstract.
  60. Chang, C. P., Chang, J. Y., Wang, F. Y., and Chang, J. G. The effect of Chinese medicinal herb Zingiberis rhizoma extract on cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-11-1995;48:13-19. View abstract.
  61. Tanabe, M., Chen, Y. D., Saito, K., and Kano, Y. Cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitory component from Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1993;41:710-713. View abstract.
  62. Yoshikawa, M., Hatakeyama, S., Chatani, N., Nishino, Y., and Yamahara, J. [Qualitative and quantitative analysis of bioactive principles in Zingiberis Rhizoma by means of high performance liquid chromatography and gas liquid chromatography. On the evaluation of Zingiberis Rhizoma and chemical change of constituents during Zingiberis Rhizoma processing]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1993;113:307-315. View abstract.
  63. Green, B. G. Evidence that removal of capsaicin accelerates desensitization on the tongue. Neurosci.Lett. 2-5-1993;150:44-48. View abstract.
  64. Surh, Y. J. and Lee, S. S. Enzymic reduction of [6]-gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, in the cell-free preparation of rat liver. Life Sci 1994;54:L321-L326. View abstract.
  65. Lumb, A. B. Effect of dried ginger on human platelet function. Thromb.Haemost. 1994;71:110-111. View abstract.
  66. Verma, S. K., Singh, J., Khamesra, R., and Bordia, A. Effect of ginger on platelet aggregation in man. Indian J Med.Res 1993;98:240-242. View abstract.
  67. Ohizumi, Y. [Tendency of development on novel type of cardiotonic drugs]. Nippon Rinsho 1993;51:1299-1304. View abstract.
  68. Yoshikawa, M., Yamaguchi, S., Kunimi, K., Matsuda, H., Okuno, Y., Yamahara, J., and Murakami, N. Stomachic principles in ginger. III. An anti-ulcer principle, 6-gingesulfonic acid, and three monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, gingerglycolipids A, B, and C, from Zingiberis Rhizoma originating in Taiwan. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 1994;42:1226-1230. View abstract.
  69. Denyer, C. V., Jackson, P., Loakes, D. M., Ellis, M. R., and Young, D. A. Isolation of antirhinoviral sesquiterpenes from ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Nat.Prod. 1994;57:658-662. View abstract.
  70. Chang, W. S., Chang, Y. H., Lu, F. J., and Chiang, H. C. Inhibitory effects of phenolics on xanthine oxidase. Anticancer Res 1994;14(2A):501-506. View abstract.
  71. Ohtsuki, K., Taguchi, K., Sato, K., and Kawabata, M. Purification of ginger proteases by DEAE-Sepharose and isoelectric focusing. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2-23-1995;1243:181-184. View abstract.
  72. Guh, J. H., Ko, F. N., Jong, T. T., and Teng, C. M. Antiplatelet effect of gingerol isolated from Zingiber officinale. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 1995;47:329-332. View abstract.
  73. Sohni, Y. R., Kaimal, P., and Bhatt, R. M. The antiamoebic effect of a crude drug formulation of herbal extracts against Entamoeba histolytica in vitro and in vivo. J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;45:43-52. View abstract.
  74. Meyer, K., Schwartz, J., Crater, D., and Keyes, B. Zingiber officinale (ginger) used to prevent 8-Mop associated nausea. Dermatol.Nurs. 1995;7:242-244. View abstract.
  75. Shoji, N., Iwasa, A., Takemoto, T., Ishida, Y., and Ohizumi, Y. Cardiotonic principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Pharm.Sci. 1982;71:1174-1175. View abstract.
  76. Kato, M., Nagao, J., Hayashi, M., and Hayashi, E. [Pharmacological studies on Saiko-prescriptions. I. Effects of Saiko-prescriptions on the isolated smooth muscles]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1982;102:371-380. View abstract.
  77. Liu, P. H. and Ho, H. L. Ginger and drug bezoar induced small bowel obstruction. J R.Coll.Surg.Edinb. 1983;28:397-398. View abstract.
  78. Kucera, M. and Kucerova, H. Contribution to the knowledge of Nigerian medicinal plants. 3. Chromatographic studies on Zingiber officinale Roscoe. J Chromatogr. 6-26-1974;93:421-428. View abstract.
  79. Masada, Y., Inoue, T., Hashimoto, K., Fujioka, M., and Shiraki, K. [Studies on the pungent principles of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by GC-MS]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1973;93:318-321. View abstract.
  80. Masada, Y., Inoue, T., Hashimoto, K., Fujioka, M., and Uchino, C. [Studies on the constituents of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) by GC-MS (author's transl)]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1974;94:735-738. View abstract.
  81. Hikino, H., Kiso, Y., Kato, N., Hamada, Y., Shioiri, T., Aiyama, R., Itokawa, H., Kiuchi, F., and Sankawa, U. Antihepatotoxic actions of gingerols and diarylheptanoids. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;14:31-39. View abstract.
  82. Yamahara, J., Miki, K., Chisaka, T., Sawada, T., Fujimura, H., Tomimatsu, T., Nakano, K., and Nohara, T. Cholagogic effect of ginger and its active constituents. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;13:217-225. View abstract.
  83. Flynn, D. L., Rafferty, M. F., and Boctor, A. M. Inhibition of human neutrophil 5-lipoxygenase activity by gingerdione, shogaol, capsaicin and related pungent compounds. Prostaglandins Leukot.Med. 1986;24(2-3):195-198. View abstract.
  84. Kawada, T., Sakabe, S., Watanabe, T., Yamamoto, M., and Iwai, K. Some pungent principles of spices cause the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamine in anesthetized rats. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med 1988;188:229-233. View abstract.
  85. Yamahara, J., Mochizuki, M., Rong, H. Q., Matsuda, H., and Fujimura, H. The anti-ulcer effect in rats of ginger constituents. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;23(2-3):299-304. View abstract.
  86. Umeda, M., Amagaya, S., and Ogihara, Y. Effects of certain herbal medicines on the biotransformation of arachidonic acid: a new pharmacological testing method using serum. J Ethnopharmacol. 1988;23:91-98. View abstract.
  87. Srivastava, K. C. Isolation and effects of some ginger components on platelet aggregation and eicosanoid biosynthesis. Prostaglandins Leukot.Med. 1986;25(2-3):187-198. View abstract.
  88. Kimura, I., Pancho, L. R., Koizumi, T., and Kimura, M. Chemical structural requirement in gingerol derivatives for potentiation of prostaglandin F2 alpha-induced contraction in isolated mesenteric veins of mice. J Pharmacobiodyn. 1989;12:220-227. View abstract.
  89. Pancho, L. R., Kimura, I., Unno, R., Kurono, M., and Kimura, M. Reversed effects between crude and processed ginger extracts on PGF2 alpha-induced contraction in mouse mesenteric veins. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 1989;50:243-246. View abstract.
  90. Kimura, I., Kimura, M., and Pancho, L. R. Modulation of eicosanoid-induced contraction of mouse and rat blood vessels by gingerols. Jpn.J Pharmacol. 1989;50:253-261. View abstract.
  91. Mascolo, N., Jain, R., Jain, S. C., and Capasso, F. Ethnopharmacologic investigation of ginger (Zingiber officinale). J Ethnopharmacol. 1989;27(1-2):129-140. View abstract.
  92. Qureshi, S., Shah, A. H., Tariq, M., and Ageel, A. M. Studies on herbal aphrodisiacs used in Arab system of medicine. Am J Chin Med 1989;17(1-2):57-63. View abstract.
  93. al Yahya, M. A., Rafatullah, S., Mossa, J. S., Ageel, A. M., Parmar, N. S., and Tariq, M. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats. Am.J Chin Med. 1989;17(1-2):51-56. View abstract.
  94. Kobayashi, M., Ishida, Y., Shoji, N., and Ohizumi, Y. Cardiotonic action of [8]-gingerol, an activator of the Ca++-pumping adenosine triphosphatase of sarcoplasmic reticulum, in guinea pig atrial muscle. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 1988;246:667-673. View abstract.
  95. Desai, H. G., Kalro, R. H., and Choksi, A. P. Effect of ginger & garlic on DNA content of gastric aspirate. Indian J Med.Res 1990;92:139-141. View abstract.
  96. Yamahara, J., Huang, Q. R., Li, Y. H., Xu, L., and Fujimura, H. Gastrointestinal motility enhancing effect of ginger and its active constituents. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38:430-431. View abstract.
  97. Mansour, M. S., Ni, Y. M., Roberts, A. L., Kelleman, M., Roychoudhury, A., and St-Onge, M. P. Ginger consumption enhances the thermic effect of food and promotes feelings of satiety without affecting metabolic and hormonal parameters in overweight men: a pilot study. Metabolism 2012;61:1347-1352. View abstract.
  98. Goto, C., Kasuya, S., Koga, K., Ohtomo, H., and Kagei, N. Lethal efficacy of extract from Zingiber officinale (traditional Chinese medicine) or [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol in Anisakis larvae in vitro. Parasitol.Res 1990;76:653-656. View abstract.
  99. Yang, S. Q., Zhang, W., Li, J. X., Lou, B. D., Li, X. P., Li, W., Huang, X. H., Liu, X. P., Yang, L. B., Shi, W. Y., and Cao, Y. [Observation of the therapeutic effect on COPD of cold phlegm blocking the lung type at stable stage treated with acupoint sticking therapy in different season]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2012;32:117-122. View abstract.
  100. Adewunmi, C. O., Oguntimein, B. O., and Furu, P. Molluscicidal and antischistosomal activities of Zingiber officinale. Planta Med. 1990;56:374-376. View abstract.
  101. Zick, S. M., Turgeon, D. K., Vareed, S. K., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Wright, B. D., Alrawi, S., Normolle, D. P., Djuric, Z., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II study of the effects of ginger root extract on eicosanoids in colon mucosa in people at normal risk for colorectal cancer. Cancer Prev.Res.(Phila) 2011;4:1929-1937. View abstract.
  102. Chen, H. C., Chen, W. C., Lin, K. H., Chen, Y. H., Lo, L. C., Lee, T. C., Hsia, T. C., Wang, C. H., Wu, S. H., Hsu, H. W., Chang, Y. J., Huang, Y. C., Ku, T. H., and Horng, M. H. Simultaneous use of traditional Chinese medicine (si-ni-tang) to treat septic shock patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 2011;12:199. View abstract.
  103. Chopra, A., Saluja, M., Tillu, G., Venugopalan, A., Narsimulu, G., Handa, R., Bichile, L., Raut, A., Sarmukaddam, S., and Patwardhan, B. Comparable efficacy of standardized Ayurveda formulation and hydroxychloroquine sulfate (HCQS) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA): a randomized investigator-blind controlled study. Clin.Rheumatol. 2012;31:259-269. View abstract.
  104. Li, J. [Forty-two cases of malaria treated with ginger-partitioned moxibustion in the Republic of Congo]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2011;31:559-561. View abstract.
  105. Munekage, M., Kitagawa, H., Ichikawa, K., Watanabe, J., Aoki, K., Kono, T., and Hanazaki, K. Pharmacokinetics of daikenchuto, a traditional Japanese medicine (kampo) after single oral administration to healthy Japanese volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:1784-1788. View abstract.
  106. Ringdahl, E. and Pandit, S. Treatment of knee osteoarthritis. Am.Fam.Physician 6-1-2011;83:1287-1292. View abstract.
  107. Yu, Y., Zick, S., Li, X., Zou, P., Wright, B., and Sun, D. Examination of the pharmacokinetics of active ingredients of ginger in humans. AAPS.J. 2011;13:417-426. View abstract.
  108. Drozdov, V. N., Kim, V. A., and Lazebnik, L. B. [Modern approach to the prevention and treatment of NSAID-gastropathy]. Eksp.Klin.Gastroenterol. 2011;:106-110. View abstract.
  109. Hirakawa, H., Ueno, S., Matuda, H., Hinoki, T., and Kato, Y. Effect of the herbal medicine dai-kenchu-to on gastrointestinal motility in patients with megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) and chronic idiopathic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIIP): report of two cases. Tokai J.Exp.Clin.Med. 2009;34:28-33. View abstract.
  110. Gul, E. E., Erdogan, H. I., Erer, M., and Kayrak, M. Herbal syncope: ginger-provoked bradycardia. Am.J.Emerg.Med. 2012;30:386-387. View abstract.
  111. Goto, F., Asama, Y., and Ogawa, K. Sho-saiko-to-ka-kikyo-sekko as an alternative treatment for chronic tonsillitis to avoid surgery. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16:216-218. View abstract.
  112. Zeng, H. L., Han, X. A., Gu, C., Huang, X. S., Gu, J. Q., Zhong, Q., Ming, W. J., and Cai, X. N. [Comparative protein analysis of K562 cell apoptosis induced by 6-gingerol]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2010;33:753-758. View abstract.
  113. Huang, Q., Matsuda, H., Sakai, K., Yamahara, J., and Tamai, Y. [The effect of ginger on serotonin induced hypothermia and diarrhea]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1990;110:936-942. View abstract.
  114. Iwabu, J., Watanabe, J., Hirakura, K., Ozaki, Y., and Hanazaki, K. Profiling of the compounds absorbed in human plasma and urine after oral administration of a traditional Japanese (kampo) medicine, daikenchuto. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:2040-2048. View abstract.
  115. Huang, D. E., Guo, J. H., Lin, M. N., Li, H. T., and Zheng, L. P. [Effects of time factors on acupoint sticking therapy for preventing and treating bronchial asthma]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2010;30:209-212. View abstract.
  116. Lohsiriwat, S., Rukkiat, M., Chaikomin, R., and Leelakusolvong, S. Effect of ginger on lower esophageal sphincter pressure. J.Med.Assoc.Thai. 2010;93:366-372. View abstract.
  117. Sun, L. H., Ge, J. J., Yang, J. J., She, Y. F., Li, W. L., Li, X. H., Yuan, J., Li, Z. B., Lu, Y. J., Bi, X. X., Li, M., Geng, Y. H., and Wang, T. [Randomized controlled clinical study on ginger-partitioned moxibustion for patients with cold-damp stagnation type primary dysmenorrhea]. Zhen.Ci.Yan.Jiu. 2009;34:398-402. View abstract.
  118. Zou, M. [Clinical observation on therapeutic effect of combination of acupuncture and ginger-partition moxibustion for treatment of patients with cardiac arrhythmia]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2009;29:876-878. View abstract.
  119. Yao, H., Tong, J., Zhang, P. D., Tao, J. P., and Li, J. X. [Acupoint sticking therapy for treatment of bronchial asthma: a multicenter controlled randomized clinical trial]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2009;29:609-612. View abstract.
  120. Lakshmi, B. V. and Sudhakar, M. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2010;48:530-535. View abstract.
  121. Sang, S., Hong, J., Wu, H., Liu, J., Yang, C. S., Pan, M. H., Badmaev, V., and Ho, C. T. Increased growth inhibitory effects on human cancer cells and anti-inflammatory potency of shogaols from Zingiber officinale relative to gingerols. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-25-2009;57:10645-10650. View abstract.
  122. Nya, E. J. and Austin, B. Use of dietary ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, as an immunostimulant to control Aeromonas hydrophila infections in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish.Dis. 2009;32:971-977. View abstract.
  123. Dugasani, S., Pichika, M. R., Nadarajah, V. D., Balijepalli, M. K., Tandra, S., and Korlakunta, J. N. Comparative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, [10]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2-3-2010;127:515-520. View abstract.
  124. Qiang, L. Q., Wang, C. P., Wang, F. M., Pan, Y., Yi, L. T., Zhang, X., and Kong, L. D. Combined administration of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol and ginger oil evokes antidepressant-like synergism in rats. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32:1281-1292. View abstract.
  125. Zhang, G. F., Yang, Z. B., Wang, Y., Yang, W. R., Jiang, S. Z., and Gai, G. S. Effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale) processed to different particle sizes on growth performance, antioxidant status, and serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Poult.Sci 2009;88:2159-2166. View abstract.
  126. Kim, J. H., Chang, J. H., Yoon, J. H., Kwon, S. H., Bae, J. H., and Kim, K. S. [6]-Gingerol suppresses interleukin-1 beta-induced MUC5AC gene expression in human airway epithelial cells. Am.J Rhinol.Allergy 2009;23:385-391. View abstract.
  127. Asnani, V. M. and Verma, R. J. Ameliorative effects of ginger extract on paraben-induced lipid peroxidation in the liver of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2009;66:225-228. View abstract.
  128. Nigam, N., George, J., Srivastava, S., Roy, P., Bhui, K., Singh, M., and Shukla, Y. Induction of apoptosis by [6]-gingerol associated with the modulation of p53 and involvement of mitochondrial signaling pathway in B[a]P-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis. Cancer Chemother.Pharmacol. 2010;65:687-696. View abstract.
  129. Waggas, A. M. Neuroprotective evaluation of extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) root in monosodium glutamate-induced toxicity in different brain areas male albino rats. Pak.J Biol.Sci 2-1-2009;12:201-212. View abstract.
  130. Nanjundaiah, S. M., Annaiah, H. N., and Dharmesh, M. Gastroprotective Effect of Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale) Extract: Role of Gallic Acid and Cinnamic Acid in H+, K+-ATPase/H. pylori Inhibition and Anti-oxidative Mechanism. Evid.Based Complement Alternat.Med 7-1-2009; View abstract.
  131. Riaz, T., Nawaz, Khan S., and Javaid, A. Management of corm-rot disease of Gladiolus by plant extracts. Nat.Prod.Res 6-25-2009;1-8. View abstract.
  132. Sharififar, F., Moshafi, M. H., Dehghan-Nudehe, G., Ameri, A., Alishahi, F., and Pourhemati, A. Bioassay screening of the essential oil and various extracts from 4 spices medicinal plants. Pak.J Pharm.Sci. 2009;22:317-322. View abstract.
  133. Jeong, C. H., Bode, A. M., Pugliese, A., Cho, Y. Y., Kim, H. G., Shim, J. H., Jeon, Y. J., Li, H., Jiang, H., and Dong, Z. [6]-Gingerol suppresses colon cancer growth by targeting leukotriene A4 hydrolase. Cancer Res 7-1-2009;69:5584-5591. View abstract.
  134. Wang, W., Wang, Z., Gao, H., and Hong, Y. [Quality analysis of processing products of dried ginger]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:564-566. View abstract.
  135. Merawin, L. T., Arifah, A. K., Sani, R. A., Somchit, M. N., Zuraini, A., Ganabadi, S., and Zakaria, Z. A. Screening of microfilaricidal effects of plant extracts against Dirofilaria immitis. Res Vet.Sci 2010;88:142-147. View abstract.
  136. Nigam, N., Bhui, K., Prasad, S., George, J., and Shukla, Y. [6]-Gingerol induces reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondrial cell death pathway in human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Chem.Biol.Interact. 9-14-2009;181:77-84. View abstract.
  137. Rao, B. N., Rao, B. S., Aithal, B. K., and Kumar, M. R. Radiomodifying and anticlastogenic effect of Zingerone on Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body gamma radiation. Mutat.Res 2009;677(1-2):33-41. View abstract.
  138. Chung, S. W., Kim, M. K., Chung, J. H., Kim, D. H., Choi, J. S., Anton, S., Seo, A. Y., Park, K. Y., Yokozawa, T., Rhee, S. H., Yu, B. P., and Chung, H. Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activation by a short-term feeding of zingerone in aged rats. J Med Food 2009;12:345-350. View abstract.
  139. Shati, A. A. and Elsaid, F. G. Effects of water extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on alcohol abuse. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47:1945-1949. View abstract.
  140. Yang, L., Zhou, C., Huang, K., Song, L., Zheng, Q., Yu, R., Zhang, R., Wu, Y., Zeng, S., Cheng, C. H., Zhao, Y., Li, X., and Qu, J. [Antioxidative and cytotoxic properties of diarylheptanoids isolated from Zingiber officinale]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2009;34:319-323. View abstract.
  141. Nammi, S., Sreemantula, S., and Roufogalis, B. D. Protective effects of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizome on the development of metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-fed rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;104:366-373. View abstract.
  142. Qian, Q. H., Yue, W., Wang, Y. X., Yang, Z. H., Liu, Z. T., and Chen, W. H. Gingerol inhibits cisplatin-induced vomiting by down regulating 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine and substance P expression in minks. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32:565-573. View abstract.
  143. Ukeh, D. A., Birkett, M. A., Pickett, J. A., Bowman, A. S., and Luntz, A. J. Repellent activity of alligator pepper, Aframomum melegueta, and ginger, Zingiber officinale, against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. Phytochemistry 2009;70:751-758. View abstract.
  144. Ding, G. H., Naora, K., Hayashibara, M., Katagiri, Y., Kano, Y., and Iwamoto, K. Pharmacokinetics of [6]-gingerol after intravenous administration in rats. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 1991;39:1612-1614. View abstract.
  145. Rong, X., Peng, G., Suzuki, T., Yang, Q., Yamahara, J., and Li, Y. A 35-day gavage safety assessment of ginger in rats. Regul.Toxicol.Pharmacol. 2009;54:118-123. View abstract.
  146. Yang, J. J., Sun, L. H., She, Y. F., Ge, J. J., Li, X. H., and Zhang, R. J. [Influence of ginger-partitioned moxibustion on serum NO and plasma endothelin-1 contents in patients with primary dysmenorrhea of cold-damp stagnation type]. Zhen.Ci.Yan.Jiu. 2008;33:409-412. View abstract.
  147. Chen, B. H., Wu, P. Y., Chen, K. M., Fu, T. F., Wang, H. M., and Chen, C. Y. Antiallergic Potential on RBL-2H3 Cells of Some Phenolic Constituents of Zingiber officinale (Ginger). J Nat.Prod. 3-9-2009; View abstract.
  148. Lee, T. Y., Lee, K. C., Chen, S. Y., and Chang, H. H. 6-Gingerol inhibits ROS and iNOS through the suppression of PKC-alpha and NF-kappaB pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 4-24-2009;382:134-139. View abstract.
  149. Chen, C. Y., Li, Y. W., and Kuo, S. Y. Effect of [10]-gingerol on [ca2+]i and cell death in human colorectal cancer cells. Molecules. 2009;14:959-969. View abstract.
  150. Zhan, K., Wang, C., Xu, K., and Yin, H. [Analysis of volatile and non-volatile compositions in ginger oleoresin by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry]. Se.Pu. 2008;26:692-696. View abstract.
  151. Ozgoli, G., Goli, M., and Simbar, M. Effects of ginger capsules on pregnancy, nausea, and vomiting. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:243-246. View abstract.
  152. Madani, A. and Jain, S. K. Anti-Salmonella activity of Terminalia belerica: in vitro and in vivo studies. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2008;46:817-821. View abstract.
  153. Jung, H. W., Yoon, C. H., Park, K. M., Han, H. S., and Park, Y. K. Hexane fraction of Zingiberis Rhizoma Crudus extract inhibits the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells via the NF-kappaB pathway. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47:1190-1197. View abstract.
  154. Wang, W., Li, C. Y., Wen, X. D., Li, P., and Qi, L. W. Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of 6-gingerol in rat by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 5-1-2009;49:1070-1074. View abstract.
  155. Wang, W., Li, C. Y., Wen, X. D., Li, P., and Qi, L. W. Simultaneous determination of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shogaol in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: Application to pharmacokinetics. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci 3-15-2009;877(8-9):671-679. View abstract.
  156. Fouda, A. M. and Berika, M. Y. Evaluation of the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes in rat collagen-induced arthritis. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;104:262-271. View abstract.
  157. Brown, A. C., Shah, C., Liu, J., Pham, J. T., Zhang, J. G., and Jadus, M. R. Ginger's (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) inhibition of rat colonic adenocarcinoma cells proliferation and angiogenesis in vitro. Phytother.Res 2009;23:640-645. View abstract.
  158. Nohr, L. A., Rasmussen, L. B., and Straand, J. Resin from the mukul myrrh tree, guggul, can it be used for treating hypercholesterolemia? A randomized, controlled study. Complement Ther.Med. 2009;17:16-22. View abstract.
  159. Patrick-Iwuanyanwu, K. C., Wegwu, M. O., and Ayalogu, E. O. Prevention of CCl4-induced liver damage by ginger, garlic and vitamin E. Pak.J Biol.Sci 2-15-2007;10:617-621. View abstract.
  160. Habib, S. H., Makpol, S., Abdul, Hamid NA, Das, S., Ngah, W. Z., and Yusof, Y. A. Ginger extract (Zingiber officinale) has anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects on ethionine-induced hepatoma rats. Clinics.(Sao Paulo) 2008;63:807-813. View abstract.
  161. Jiang, S. Z., Wang, N. S., and Mi, S. Q. Plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of [6]-gingerol in rats. Biopharm.Drug Dispos. 2008;29:529-537. View abstract.
  162. Koh, E. M., Kim, H. J., Kim, S., Choi, W. H., Choi, Y. H., Ryu, S. Y., Kim, Y. S., Koh, W. S., and Park, S. Y. Modulation of macrophage functions by compounds isolated from Zingiber officinale. Planta Med 2009;75:148-151. View abstract.
  163. Zick, S. M., Ruffin, M. T., Lee, J., Normolle, D. P., Siden, R., Alrawi, S., and Brenner, D. E. Phase II trial of encapsulated ginger as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Support.Care Cancer 2009;17:563-572. View abstract.
  164. Yagihashi, S., Miura, Y., and Yagasaki, K. Inhibitory effect of gingerol on the proliferation and invasion of hepatoma cells in culture. Cytotechnology 2008;57:129-136. View abstract.
  165. Pozzatti, P., Scheid, L. A., Spader, T. B., Atayde, M. L., Santurio, J. M., and Alves, S. H. In vitro activity of essential oils extracted from plants used as spices against fluconazole-resistant and fluconazole-susceptible Candida spp. Can J Microbiol. 2008;54:950-956. View abstract.
  166. Xie, X. X. and Lei, Q. H. [Observation on therapeutic effect of the spreading moxibustion on rheumatoid arthritis]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2008;28:730-732. View abstract.
  167. Abdel Halim, A. S. Efficacy of Zingiber officinale on third stage larvae and adult fecundity of Musca domestica and Anopheles pharoensis. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2008;38:385-392. View abstract.
  168. Szallasi, A. and Blumberg, P. M. Characterization of vanilloid receptors in the dorsal horn of pig spinal cord. Brain Res 5-3-1991;547:335-338. View abstract.
  169. Jorsaraei, S. G., Yousefnia, Y. R., Zainalzadeh, M., Moghadamnia, A. A., Beiky, A. A., and Damavandi, M. R. The effects of methanolic extracts of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on human sperm parameters; an in vitro study. Pak.J Biol.Sci 7-1-2008;11:1723-1727. View abstract.
  170. Park, M., Bae, J., and Lee, D. S. Antibacterial activity of [10]-gingerol and [12]-gingerol isolated from ginger rhizome against periodontal bacteria. Phytother.Res 2008;22:1446-1449. View abstract.
  171. Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., Ahmed, T., Khalid, A., Nawaz, S. A., Agbedahunsi, J. M., Choudhary, M. I., and Houghton, P. J. Muscarinic, Ca(++) antagonist and specific butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of dried ginger extract might explain its use in dementia. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2008;60:1375-1383. View abstract.
  172. Hibino, T., Yuzurihara, M., Terawaki, K., Kanno, H., Kase, Y., and Takeda, A. Goshuyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine for migraine, inhibits platelet aggregation in guinea-pig whole blood. J Pharmacol.Sci 2008;108:89-94. View abstract.
  173. Zick, S. M., Djuric, Z., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Normolle, D. P., Alrawi, S., Feng, M. R., and Brenner, D. E. Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1930-1936. View abstract.
  174. Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P., Singh, P., De Heluani, C. S., De Lampasona, M. P., and Catalan, C. A. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3295-3302. View abstract.
  175. Ahui, M. L., Champy, P., Ramadan, A., Pham, Van L., Araujo, L., Brou, Andre K., Diem, S., Damotte, D., Kati-Coulibaly, S., Offoumou, M. A., Dy, M., Thieblemont, N., and Herbelin, A. Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-10-2008;8:1626-1632. View abstract.
  176. Pan, M. H., Hsieh, M. C., Hsu, P. C., Ho, S. Y., Lai, C. S., Wu, H., Sang, S., and Ho, C. T. 6-Shogaol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-expression of iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:1467-1477. View abstract.
  177. Ajith, T. A., Aswathy, M. S., and Hema, U. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale roscoe against anticancer drug doxorubicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46:3178-3181. View abstract.
  178. Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Zheng, Y. N., Li, W., Asami, E., Okuda, H., and Saito, M. [Effects of zingerone on fat storage in ovariectomized rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128:1195-1201. View abstract.
  179. Hickok, J. T., Roscoe, J. A., Morrow, G. R., and Ryan, J. L. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study. Support.Cancer Ther 9-1-2007;4:247-250. View abstract.
  180. Choi, K. M., Gang, J., and Yun, J. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii RH strain activity of herbal extracts used in traditional medicine. Int J Antimicrob.Agents 2008;32:360-362. View abstract.
  181. Rahuman, A. A., Gopalakrishnan, G., Venkatesan, P., Geetha, K., and Bagavan, A. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Phytother.Res 2008;22:1035-1039. View abstract.
  182. Isa, Y., Miyakawa, Y., Yanagisawa, M., Goto, T., Kang, M. S., Kawada, T., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K., and Tsuda, T. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol, the pungent of ginger, inhibit TNF-alpha mediated downregulation of adiponectin expression via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 8-29-2008;373:429-434. View abstract.
  183. El Abhar, H. S., Hammad, L. N., and Gawad, H. S. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118:367-372. View abstract.
  184. Levine, M. E., Gillis, M. G., Koch, S. Y., Voss, A. C., Stern, R. M., and Koch, K. L. Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern.Complement Med 2008;14:545-551. View abstract.
  185. Buddhakala, N., Talubmook, C., Sriyotha, P., Wray, S., and Kupittayanant, S. Inhibitory effects of ginger oil on spontaneous and PGF2alpha-induced contraction of rat myometrium. Planta Med 2008;74:385-391. View abstract.
  186. Kim, J. S., Lee, S. I., Park, H. W., Yang, J. H., Shin, T. Y., Kim, Y. C., Baek, N. I., Kim, S. H., Choi, S. U., Kwon, B. M., Leem, K. H., Jung, M. Y., and Kim, D. K. Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Arch Pharm.Res 2008;31:415-418. View abstract.
  187. Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., and Janssen, L. J. Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signalling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:264-271. View abstract.
  188. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, K. W., and Lee, C. M. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2008;20:436-440. View abstract.
  189. Pan, M. H., Hsieh, M. C., Kuo, J. M., Lai, C. S., Wu, H., Sang, S., and Ho, C. T. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells via ROS production, caspase activation, and GADD 153 expression. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:527-537. View abstract.
  190. Perez, M. E. and Youssef, N. N. Dyspepsia in childhood and adolescence: insights and treatment considerations. Curr.Gastroenterol.Rep. 2007;9:447-455. View abstract.
  191. Krishnaswamy, K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:265-268. View abstract.
  192. Ueki, S., Miyoshi, M., Shido, O., Hasegawa, J., and Watanabe, T. Systemic administration of [6]-gingerol, a pungent constituent of ginger, induces hypothermia in rats via an inhibitory effect on metabolic rate. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-14-2008;584:87-92. View abstract.
  193. Pushpanathan, T., Jebanesan, A., and Govindarajan, M. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol.Res 2008;102:1289-1291. View abstract.
  194. Ensiyeh, J. and Sakineh, M. A. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Midwifery 2009;25:649-653. View abstract.
  195. Zhao, X. X., Lu, M., Zhu, X., Gao, P., Li, Y. L., Wang, X. M., Ma, D. Y., Guo, X. H., Tong, B. Y., Yang, X. L., Du, W. W., Zhou, S. F., Liu, H. M., Ran, P. F., and Lu, X. R. [Multi-central clinical evaluation of ginger-partitioned moxibustion for treatment of leukopenia induced by chemotherapy]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2007;27:715-720. View abstract.
  196. Mallikarjuna, K., Sahitya, Chetan P., Sathyavelu, Reddy K., and Rajendra, W. Ethanol toxicity: rehabilitation of hepatic antioxidant defense system with dietary ginger. Fitoterapia 2008;79:174-178. View abstract.
  197. Chen, C. Y., Chen, C. H., Kung, C. H., Kuo, S. H., and Kuo, S. Y. [6]-gingerol induces Ca2+ mobilization in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71:137-140. View abstract.
  198. Tao, Q. F., Xu, Y., Lam, R. Y., Schneider, B., Dou, H., Leung, P. S., Shi, S. Y., Zhou, C. X., Yang, L. X., Zhang, R. P., Xiao, Y. C., Wu, X., Stockigt, J., Zeng, S., Cheng, C. H., and Zhao, Y. Diarylheptanoids and a monoterpenoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale: antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71:12-17. View abstract.
  199. Rhode, J., Fogoros, S., Zick, S., Wahl, H., Griffith, K. A., Huang, J., and Liu, J. R. Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2007;7:44. View abstract.
  200. Lee, S. H., Cekanova, M., and Baek, S. J. Multiple mechanisms are involved in 6-gingerol-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2008;47:197-208. View abstract.
  201. Minghetti, P., Sosa, S., Cilurzo, F., Casiraghi, A., Alberti, E., Tubaro, A., Loggia, R. D., and Montanari, L. Evaluation of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of ginger dry extracts from solutions and plasters. Planta Med 2007;73:1525-1530. View abstract.
  202. Shukla, Y., Prasad, S., Tripathi, C., Singh, M., George, J., and Kalra, N. In vitro and in vivo modulation of testosterone mediated alterations in apoptosis related proteins by [6]-gingerol. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2007;51:1492-1502. View abstract.
  203. Imokawa, G. Recent advances in characterizing biological mechanisms underlying UV-induced wrinkles: a pivotal role of fibrobrast-derived elastase. Arch Dermatol.Res 2008;300 Suppl 1:S7-20. View abstract.
  204. Aimbire, F., Penna, S. C., Rodrigues, M., Rodrigues, K. C., Lopes-Martins, R. A., and Sertie, J. A. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinalis rhizomes on LPS-induced rat airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(3-4):129-138. View abstract.
  205. Pumbwe, L., Skilbeck, C. A., and Wexler, H. M. Induction of multiple antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides fragilis by benzene and benzene-derived active compounds of commonly used analgesics, antiseptics and cleaning agents. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2007;60:1288-1297. View abstract.
  206. Chen, J. C., Huang, L. J., Wu, S. L., Kuo, S. C., Ho, T. Y., and Hsiang, C. Y. Ginger and its bioactive component inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-17-2007;55:8390-8397. View abstract.
  207. Bhattarai, S., Tran, V. H., and Duke, C. C. Stability of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 11-30-2007;45:648-653. View abstract.
  208. Ishiguro, K., Ando, T., Maeda, O., Ohmiya, N., Niwa, Y., Kadomatsu, K., and Goto, H. Ginger ingredients reduce viability of gastric cancer cells via distinct mechanisms. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 10-12-2007;362:218-223. View abstract.
  209. Verma, R. J. and Asnani, V. Ginger extract ameliorates paraben induced biochemical changes in liver and kidney of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64:217-220. View abstract.
  210. Lee, H. S., Seo, E. Y., Kang, N. E., and Kim, W. K. [6]-Gingerol inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J Nutr.Biochem. 2008;19:313-319. View abstract.
  211. Asnani, V. and Verma, R. J. Antioxidative effect of rhizome of Zinziber officinale on paraben induced lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64:35-37. View abstract.
  212. Ajith, T. A., Hema, U., and Aswathy, M. S. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45:2267-2272. View abstract.
  213. Lam, R. Y., Woo, A. Y., Leung, P. S., and Cheng, C. H. Antioxidant actions of phenolic compounds found in dietary plants on low-density lipoprotein and erythrocytes in vitro. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 2007;26:233-242. View abstract.
  214. Ghayur, M. N., Khan, A. H., and Gilani, A. H. Ginger facilitates cholinergic activity possibly due to blockade of muscarinic autoreceptors in rat stomach fundus. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2007;20:231-235. View abstract.
  215. Riyazi, A., Hensel, A., Bauer, K., Geissler, N., Schaaf, S., and Verspohl, E. J. The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum. Planta Med 2007;73:355-362. View abstract.
  216. Mishra, C., Sharma, S., and Kakkar, P. A study to evaluate heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residue in Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from different ecological zones of India. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:95-98. View abstract.
  217. Kim, D. S., Kim, J. Y., and Han, Y. S. Alzheimer's disease drug discovery from herbs: neuroprotectivity from beta-amyloid (1-42) insult. J Altern.Complement Med. 2007;13:333-340. View abstract.
  218. Cortright, D. N., Krause, J. E., and Broom, D. C. TRP channels and pain. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1772:978-988. View abstract.
  219. Kim, J. K., Kim, Y., Na, K. M., Surh, Y. J., and Kim, T. Y. [6]-Gingerol prevents UVB-induced ROS production and COX-2 expression in vitro and in vivo. Free Radic.Res 2007;41:603-614. View abstract.
  220. Vijaya, Padma, V, Arul Diana, Christie S., and Ramkuma, K. M. Induction of apoptosis by ginger in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2007;100:302-307. View abstract.
  221. Chrubasik, J. E., Roufogalis, B. D., and Chrubasik, S. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain. Phytother Res 2007;21:675-683. View abstract.
  222. Affeltranger, M. A., McBurney, D. H., and Balaban, C. D. Temporal interactions between oral irritants: piperine, zingerone, and capsaicin. Chem.Senses 2007;32:455-462. View abstract.
  223. Niforatos, W., Zhang, X. F., Lake, M. R., Walter, K. A., Neelands, T., Holzman, T. F., Scott, V. E., Faltynek, C. R., Moreland, R. B., and Chen, J. Activation of TRPA1 channels by the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597). Mol.Pharmacol. 2007;71:1209-1216. View abstract.
  224. Siddaraju, M. N. and Dharmesh, S. M. Inhibition of gastric H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by phenolic antioxidants of Zingiber officinale. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2007;51:324-332. View abstract.
  225. Tripathi, S., Maier, K. G., Bruch, D., and Kittur, D. S. Effect of 6-gingerol on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Surg.Res 2007;138:209-213. View abstract.
  226. Ajith, T. A., Nivitha, V., and Usha, S. Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol protect the kidney against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45:921-927. View abstract.
  227. Ansari, M. N., Bhandari, U., and Pillai, K. K. Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44:892-897. View abstract.
  228. Woo, H. M., Kang, J. H., Kawada, T., Yoo, H., Sung, M. K., and Yu, R. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes. Life Sci. 2-13-2007;80:926-931. View abstract.
  229. Iwasaki, Y., Morita, A., Iwasawa, T., Kobata, K., Sekiwa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K., and Watanabe, T. A nonpungent component of steamed ginger--[10]-shogaol--increases adrenaline secretion via the activation of TRPV1. Nutr.Neurosci. 2006;9(3-4):169-178. View abstract.
  230. Shukla, Y. and Singh, M. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:683-690. View abstract.
  231. Nonn, L., Duong, D., and Peehl, D. M. Chemopreventive anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and other phytochemicals mediated by MAP kinase phosphatase-5 in prostate cells. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1188-1196. View abstract.
  232. Pfeiffer, E., Heuschmid, F. F., Kranz, S., and Metzler, M. Microsomal hydroxylation and glucuronidation of [6]-gingerol. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-15-2006;54:8769-8774. View abstract.
  233. Wu, C. X., Wei, X. B., Ding, H., Sun, X., and Cheng, X. M. [Protective effect of effective parts of Zingiber Offecinal on vascular endothelium of the experimental hyperlipidemic rats]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29:810-813. View abstract.
  234. Park, Y. J., Wen, J., Bang, S., Park, S. W., and Song, S. Y. [6]-Gingerol induces cell cycle arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Yonsei Med J 10-31-2006;47:688-697. View abstract.
  235. Chopra, A., Lavin, P., Patwardhan, B., and Chitre, D. A 32-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10:236-245. View abstract.
  236. Liu, H. L. and Wang, L. P. [Randomized controlled study on ginger-salt-partitioned moxibustion at shenque (CV 8) on urination disorders poststroke]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2006;26:621-624. View abstract.
  237. Kuhad, A., Tirkey, N., Pilkhwal, S., and Chopra, K. 6-Gingerol prevents cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Biofactors 2006;26:189-200. View abstract.
  238. Sookkongwaree, K., Geitmann, M., Roengsumran, S., Petsom, A., and Danielson, U. H. Inhibition of viral proteases by Zingiberaceae extracts and flavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora. Pharmazie 2006;61:717-721. View abstract.
  239. Yemitan, O. K. and Izegbu, M. C. Protective effects of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother.Res 2006;20:997-1002. View abstract.
  240. Kato, A., Higuchi, Y., Goto, H., Kizu, H., Okamoto, T., Asano, N., Hollinshead, J., Nash, R. J., and Adachi, I. Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-6-2006;54:6640-6644. View abstract.
  241. Kyung, K. S., Gon, J. H., Geun, K. Y., Sup, J. J., Suk, W. J., and Ho, K. J. 6-Shogaol, a natural product, reduces cell death and restores motor function in rat spinal cord injury. Eur.J Neurosci. 2006;24:1042-1052. View abstract.
  242. Ramirez-Ahumada, Mdel C., Timmermann, B. N., and Gang, D. R. Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale): identification of curcuminoid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases. Phytochemistry 2006;67:2017-2029. View abstract.
  243. Yu, Y., Huang, T., Yang, B., Liu, X., and Duan, G. Development of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with microwave distillation and simultaneous solid-phase microextraction for rapid determination of volatile constituents in ginger. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 1-4-2007;43:24-31. View abstract.
  244. Bidinotto, L. T., Spinardi-Barbisan, A. L., Rocha, N. S., Salvadori, D. M., and Barbisan, L. F. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on DNA damage and development of urothelial tumors in a mouse bladder carcinogenesis model. Environ.Mol.Mutagen. 2006;47:624-630. View abstract.
  245. Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Species differences in the prokinetic effects of ginger. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006;57(1-2):65-73. View abstract.
  246. Nie, H., Meng, L. Z., and Zhang, H. [Effect of gingerol on endotoxemia mouse model induced by heatstroke]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2006;26:529-532. View abstract.
  247. Picaud, S., Olsson, M. E., Brodelius, M., and Brodelius, P. E. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of recombinant (+)-germacrene D synthase from Zingiber officinale. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 8-1-2006;452:17-28. View abstract.
  248. Haksar, A., Sharma, A., Chawla, R., Kumar, R., Arora, R., Singh, S., Prasad, J., Gupta, M., Tripathi, R. P., Arora, M. P., Islam, F., and Sharma, R. K. Zingiber officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced CTA in a gender-specific manner. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2006;84:179-188. View abstract.
  249. Arranz, I., Sizoo, E., van Egmond, H., Kroeger, K., Legarda, T. M., Burdaspal, P., Reif, K., and Stroka, J. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int 2006;89:595-605. View abstract.
  250. Amin, A. and Hamza, A. A. Effects of Roselle and Ginger on cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Asian J Androl 2006;8:607-612. View abstract.
  251. Schwertner, H. A., Rios, D. C., and Pascoe, J. E. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107:1337-1343. View abstract.
  252. Aktan, F., Henness, S., Tran, V. H., Duke, C. C., Roufogalis, B. D., and Ammit, A. J. Gingerol metabolite and a synthetic analogue Capsarol inhibit macrophage NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression and enzyme activity. Planta Med 2006;72:727-734. View abstract.
  253. Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Sarihan, M., Solyom, A. M., Jolad, S. D., and Timmermann, B. N. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine 2007;14(2-3):123-128. View abstract.
  254. Tsukahara, K., Nakagawa, H., Moriwaki, S., Takema, Y., Fujimura, T., and Imokawa, G. Inhibition of ultraviolet-B-induced wrinkle formation by an elastase-inhibiting herbal extract: implication for the mechanism underlying elastase-associated wrinkles. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:460-468. View abstract.
  255. Westerterp-Plantenga, M., Diepvens, K., Joosen, A. M., Berube-Parent, S., and Tremblay, A. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine. Physiol Behav. 8-30-2006;89:85-91. View abstract.
  256. Pezo, D., Salafranca, J., and Nerin, C. Design of a method for generation of gas-phase hydroxyl radicals, and use of HPLC with fluorescence detection to assess the antioxidant capacity of natural essential oils. Anal.Bioanal.Chem. 2006;385:1241-1246. View abstract.
  257. Nostro, A., Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Cannatelli, M. A., Di Campli, E., Procopio, F., Grande, R., Marzio, L., and Alonzo, V. Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori. Phytother.Res 2006;20:187-190. View abstract.
  258. Goyal, R. K. and Kadnur, S. V. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale on goldthioglucose induced obesity. Fitoterapia 2006;77:160-163. View abstract.
  259. Nagoshi, C., Shiota, S., Kuroda, T., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., Kariyama, R., and Tsuchiya, T. Synergistic effect of [10]-gingerol and aminoglycosides against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Biol.Pharm.Bull 2006;29:443-447. View abstract.
  260. Wohlmuth, H., Smith, M. K., Brooks, L. O., Myers, S. P., and Leach, D. N. Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-22-2006;54:1414-1419. View abstract.
  261. Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Akhtar, M. S., Ghayur, M. N., and Gilani, A. H. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-30-2006;106:285-287. View abstract.
  262. Dias, M. C., Spinardi-Barbisan, A. L., Rodrigues, M. A., de Camargo, J. L., Teran, E., and Barbisan, L. F. Lack of chemopreventive effects of ginger on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2006;44:877-884. View abstract.
  263. Imanishi, N., Andoh, T., Mantani, N., Sakai, S., Terasawa, K., Shimada, Y., Sato, M., Katada, Y., Ueda, K., and Ochiai, H. Macrophage-mediated inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc, a traditional oriental herbal medicine, on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus. Am.J Chin Med 2006;34:157-169. View abstract.
  264. Wang, W. H. and Wang, Z. M. [Studies of commonly used traditional medicine-ginger]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1569-1573. View abstract.
  265. Desmarchelier, C., del, V. Pacciaroni, Abate-Daga, D., Coussio, J., Gil, R. R., and Silva, G. L. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Misodendrum punctulatum, myzodendrone and structurally related phenols. Phytother.Res 2005;19:1043-1047. View abstract.
  266. Abdel-Aziz, H., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum. Eur.J Pharmacol. 1-13-2006;530(1-2):136-143. View abstract.
  267. Kadnur, S. V. and Goyal, R. K. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2005;43:1161-1164. View abstract.
  268. Kim, H. W., Murakami, A., Abe, M., Ozawa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Williams, M. V., and Ohigashi, H. Suppressive effects of mioga ginger and ginger constituents on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation, and the expression of inducible pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. Antioxid.Redox.Signal. 2005;7(11-12):1621-1629. View abstract.
  269. Zhou, H. L., Deng, Y. M., and Xie, Q. M. The modulatory effects of the volatile oil of ginger on the cellular immune response in vitro and in vivo in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-21-2006;105(1-2):301-305. View abstract.
  270. Natarajan, K. S., Narasimhan, M., Shanmugasundaram, K. R., and Shanmugasundaram, E. R. Antioxidant activity of a salt-spice-herbal mixture against free radical induction. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-21-2006;105(1-2):76-83. View abstract.
  271. Thongson, C., Davidson, P. M., Mahakarnchanakul, W., and Vibulsresth, P. Antimicrobial effect of Thai spices against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104. J Food Prot. 2005;68:2054-2058. View abstract.
  272. Samy, R. P. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from India. Fitoterapia 2005;76(7-8):697-699. View abstract.
  273. Chrubasik, S., Pittler, M. H., and Roufogalis, B. D. Zingiberis rhizoma: a comprehensive review on the ginger effect and efficacy profiles. Phytomedicine 2005;12:684-701. View abstract.
  274. Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of ginger in gastrointestinal disorders. Dig.Dis.Sci 2005;50:1889-1897. View abstract.
  275. Jiang, H., Xie, Z., Koo, H. J., McLaughlin, S. P., Timmermann, B. N., and Gang, D. R. Metabolic profiling and phylogenetic analysis of medicinal Zingiber species: Tools for authentication of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc). Phytochemistry 2006;67:1673-1685. View abstract.
  276. Shin, S. G., Kim, J. Y., Chung, H. Y., and Jeong, J. C. Zingerone as an antioxidant against peroxynitrite. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-21-2005;53:7617-7622. View abstract.
  277. Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., Afridi, M. B., and Houghton, P. J. Cardiovascular effects of ginger aqueous extract and its phenolic constituents are mediated through multiple pathways. Vascul.Pharmacol. 2005;43:234-241. View abstract.
  278. Shen, C. L., Hong, K. J., and Kim, S. W. Comparative effects of ginger root (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on the production of inflammatory mediators in normal and osteoarthrotic sow chondrocytes. J Med Food 2005;8:149-153. View abstract.
  279. Grzanna, R., Lindmark, L., and Frondoza, C. G. Ginger--an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food 2005;8:125-132. View abstract.
  280. Lim, W. C., Seo, J. M., Lee, C. I., Pyo, H. B., and Lee, B. C. Stimulative and sedative effects of essential oils upon inhalation in mice. Arch.Pharm Res 2005;28:770-774. View abstract.
  281. Kim, E. C., Min, J. K., Kim, T. Y., Lee, S. J., Yang, H. O., Han, S., Kim, Y. M., and Kwon, Y. G. [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 9-23-2005;335:300-308. View abstract.
  282. Abdel-Aziz, H., Nahrstedt, A., Petereit, F., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. 5-HT3 receptor blocking activity of arylalkanes isolated from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Planta Med 2005;71:609-616. View abstract.
  283. Wei, Q. Y., Ma, J. P., Cai, Y. J., Yang, L., and Liu, Z. L. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of diarylheptanoids and gingerol-related compounds from the rhizome of Chinese ginger. J Ethnopharmacol. 11-14-2005;102:177-184. View abstract.
  284. Sharma, A., Haksar, A., Chawla, R., Kumar, R., Arora, R., Singh, S., Prasad, J., Islam, F., Arora, M. P., and Kumar, Sharma R. Zingiber officinale Rosc. modulates gamma radiation-induced conditioned taste aversion. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 7-12-2005; View abstract.
  285. Manju, V. and Nalini, N. Chemopreventive efficacy of ginger, a naturally occurring anticarcinogen during the initiation, post-initiation stages of 1,2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon cancer. Clin Chim.Acta 2005;358(1-2):60-67. View abstract.
  286. Kabuto, H., Nishizawa, M., Tada, M., Higashio, C., Shishibori, T., and Kohno, M. Zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depression in mouse striatum and increases superoxide scavenging activity in serum. Neurochem.Res 2005;30:325-332. View abstract.
  287. Jolad, S. D., Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Bates, R. B., and Timmermann, B. N. Commercially processed dry ginger (Zingiber officinale): Composition and effects on LPS-stimulated PGE production. Phytochemistry 2005;66:1614-1635. View abstract.
  288. Kuo, P. C., Damu, A. G., Cherng, C. Y., Jeng, J. F., Teng, C. M., Lee, E. J., and Wu, T. S. Isolation of a natural antioxidant, dehydrozingerone from Zingiber officinale and synthesis of its analogues for recognition of effective antioxidant and antityrosinase agents. Arch Pharm.Res 2005;28:518-528. View abstract.
  289. Ippoushi, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Azuma, K. Mechanism of inhibition of peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration by [6]-gingerol. Planta Med 2005;71:563-566. View abstract.
  290. Davies, M., Robinson, M., Smith, E., Huntley, S., Prime, S., and Paterson, I. Induction of an epithelial to mesenchymal transition in human immortal and malignant keratinocytes by TGF-beta1 involves MAPK, Smad and AP-1 signalling pathways. J Cell Biochem. 8-1-2005;95:918-931. View abstract.
  291. Betz, O., Kranke, P., Geldner, G., Wulf, H., and Eberhart, L. H. [Is ginger a clinically relevant antiemetic? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials]. Forsch.Komplementarmed.Klass.Naturheilkd. 2005;12:14-23. View abstract.
  292. Overy, D. P. and Frisvad, J. C. Mycotoxin production and postharvest storage rot of ginger (Zingiber officinale) by Penicillium brevicompactum. J Food Prot. 2005;68:607-609. View abstract.
  293. Phan, P. V., Sohrabi, A., Polotsky, A., Hungerford, D. S., Lindmark, L., and Frondoza, C. G. Ginger extract components suppress induction of chemokine expression in human synoviocytes. J Altern.Complement Med 2005;11:149-154. View abstract.
  294. Sivakumar, V. and Sivakumar, S. Effect of an indigenous herbal compound preparation 'Trikatu' on the lipid profiles of atherogenic diet and standard diet fed Rattus norvegicus. Phytother.Res. 2004;18:976-981. View abstract.
  295. Kim, S. O., Kundu, J. K., Shin, Y. K., Park, J. H., Cho, M. H., Kim, T. Y., and Surh, Y. J. [6]-Gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin. Oncogene 4-7-2005;24:2558-2567. View abstract.
  296. Jantan, I., Rafi, I. A., and Jalil, J. Platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor-binding antagonist activity of Malaysian medicinal plants. Phytomedicine 2005;12(1-2):88-92. View abstract.
  297. Han, L. K., Gong, X. J., Kawano, S., Saito, M., Kimura, Y., and Okuda, H. [Antiobesity actions of Zingiber officinale Roscoe]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2005;125:213-217. View abstract.
  298. Sekiya, K., Ohtani, A., and Kusano, S. Enhancement of insulin sensitivity in adipocytes by ginger. Biofactors 2004;22(1-4):153-156. View abstract.
  299. Masuda, Y., Kikuzaki, H., Hisamoto, M., and Nakatani, N. Antioxidant properties of gingerol related compounds from ginger. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):293-296. View abstract.
  300. Kim, S. O., Chun, K. S., Kundu, J. K., and Surh, Y. J. Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol on PMA-induced COX-2 expression and activation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK in mouse skin. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):27-31. View abstract.
  301. Young, H. Y., Luo, Y. L., Cheng, H. Y., Hsieh, W. C., Liao, J. C., and Peng, W. H. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of [6]-gingerol. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1-4-2005;96(1-2):207-210. View abstract.
  302. Pratibha, N., Saxena, V. S., Amit, A., D'Souza, P., Bagchi, M., and Bagchi, D. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. Int J Tissue React. 2004;26(1-2):43-51. View abstract.
  303. Thongson, C., Davidson, P. M., Mahakarnchanakul, W., and Weiss, J. Antimicrobial activity of ultrasound-assisted solvent-extracted spices. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2004;39:401-406. View abstract.
  304. Nguefack, J., Budde, B. B., and Jakobsen, M. Five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon: their antibacterial activity and ability to permeabilize the cytoplasmic membrane of Listeria innocua examined by flow cytometry. Lett.Appl.Microbiol. 2004;39:395-400. View abstract.
  305. Jagetia, G., Baliga, M., and Venkatesh, P. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.), a dietary supplement, protects mice against radiation-induced lethality: mechanism of action. Cancer Biother.Radiopharm. 2004;19:422-435. View abstract.
  306. Verma, S. K., Singh, M., Jain, P., and Bordia, A. Protective effect of ginger, Zingiber officinale Rosc on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2004;42:736-738. View abstract.
  307. Surh, Y. J., Park, K. K., Chun, K. S., Lee, L. J., Lee, E., and Lee, S. S. Anti-tumor-promoting activities of selected pungent phenolic substances present in ginger. J Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 1999;18:131-139. View abstract.
  308. Jolad, S. D., Lantz, R. C., Solyom, A. M., Chen, G. J., Bates, R. B., and Timmermann, B. N. Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry 2004;65:1937-1954. View abstract.
  309. Shelly, T. E., McInnis, D. O., Pahio, E., and Edu, J. Aromatherapy in the Mediterranean fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae): sterile males exposed to ginger root oil in prerelease storage boxes display increased mating competitiveness in field-cage trials. J Econ.Entomol. 2004;97:846-853. View abstract.
  310. Singh, A. and Singh, D. K. Effect of herbal molluscicides and their combinations on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Arch Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2004;46:470-477. View abstract.
  311. Nguefack, J., Leth, V., Amvam Zollo, P. H., and Mathur, S. B. Evaluation of five essential oils from aromatic plants of Cameroon for controlling food spoilage and mycotoxin producing fungi. Int J Food Microbiol. 8-1-2004;94:329-334. View abstract.
  312. Horie, S., Yamamoto, H., Michael, G. J., Uchida, M., Belai, A., Watanabe, K., Priestley, J. V., and Murayama, T. Protective role of vanilloid receptor type 1 in HCl-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Scand.J Gastroenterol. 2004;39:303-312. View abstract.
  313. Ma, J., Jin, X., Yang, L., and Liu, Z. L. Diarylheptanoids from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Phytochemistry 2004;65:1137-1143. View abstract.
  314. Borrelli, F., Capasso, R., Pinto, A., and Izzo, A. A. Inhibitory effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale) on rat ileal motility in vitro. Life Sci 4-23-2004;74:2889-2896. View abstract.
  315. Qian, D. S. and Liu, Z. S. [Pharmacologic studies of antimotion sickness actions of ginger]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1992;12:70, 95-70, 98. View abstract.
  316. Shen, C. L., Hong, K. J., and Kim, S. W. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) on decreasing the production of inflammatory mediators in sow osteoarthrotic cartilage explants. J Med Food 2003;6:323-328. View abstract.
  317. Srivastava, K. C. and Mustafa, T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) in rheumatism and musculoskeletal disorders. Med Hypotheses 1992;39:342-348. View abstract.
  318. Russell, D. and Kenny, G. N. 5-HT3 antagonists in postoperative nausea and vomiting. Br J Anaesth. 1992;69(7 Suppl 1):63S-68S. View abstract.
  319. Yoshimi, N., Wang, A., Morishita, Y., Tanaka, T., Sugie, S., Kawai, K., Yamahara, J., and Mori, H. Modifying effects of fungal and herb metabolites on azoxymethane-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in rats. Jpn.J Cancer Res 1992;83:1273-1278. View abstract.
  320. Li, S. and Guan, S. [Stability examination of beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound of Zingiber officinale volatile oil]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1992;17:481-3, 511. View abstract.
  321. Wang, C. C., Chen, L. G., Lee, L. T., and Yang, L. L. Effects of 6-gingerol, an antioxidant from ginger, on inducing apoptosis in human leukemic HL-60 cells. In Vivo 2003;17:641-645. View abstract.
  322. Saruwatari, J., Nakagawa, K., Shindo, J., Nachi, S., Echizen, H., and Ishizaki, T. The in-vivo effects of sho-saiko-to, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, on two cytochrome P450 enzymes (1A2 and 3A) and xanthine oxidase in man. J.Pharm.Pharmacol. 2003;55:1553-1559. View abstract.
  323. Willetts, K. E., Ekangaki, A., and Eden, J. A. Effect of a ginger extract on pregnancy-induced nausea: a randomised controlled trial. Aust.N.Z.J Obstet.Gynaecol. 2003;43:139-144. View abstract.
  324. Amit, A., Saxena, V. S., Pratibha, N., D'Souza, P., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., and Stohs, S. J. Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis. Drugs Exp.Clin Res. 2003;29:107-115. View abstract.
  325. Yamahara, J., Hatakeyama, S., Taniguchi, K., Kawamura, M., and Yoshikawa, M. [Stomachic principles in ginger. II. Pungent and anti-ulcer effects of low polar constituents isolated from ginger, the dried rhizoma of Zingiber officinale Roscoe cultivated in Taiwan. The absolute stereostructure of a new diarylheptanoid]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1992;112:645-655. View abstract.
  326. Konning, G. H., Agyare, C., and Ennison, B. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana. Fitoterapia 2004;75:65-67. View abstract.
  327. Nurtjahja-Tjendraputra, E., Ammit, A. J., Roufogalis, B. D., Tran, V. H., and Duke, C. C. Effective anti-platelet and COX-1 enzyme inhibitors from pungent constituents of ginger. Thromb.Res 2003;111(4-5):259-265. View abstract.
  328. Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Yun, G. S., Lu, Z. Z., and Stoia, A. Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A+ strains of Helicobacter pylori. Anticancer Res. 2003;23(5A):3699-3702. View abstract.
  329. Sripramote, M. and Lekhyananda, N. A randomized comparison of ginger and vitamin B6 in the treatment of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. J Med Assoc.Thai. 2003;86:846-853. View abstract.
  330. Witte, D. G., Cassar, S. C., Masters, J. N., Esbenshade, T., and Hancock, A. A. Use of a fluorescent imaging plate reader--based calcium assay to assess pharmacological differences between the human and rat vanilloid receptor. J Biomol.Screen. 2002;7:466-475. View abstract.
  331. Ippoushi, K., Azuma, K., Ito, H., Horie, H., and Higashio, H. [6]-Gingerol inhibits nitric oxide synthesis in activated J774.1 mouse macrophages and prevents peroxynitrite-induced oxidation and nitration reactions. Life Sci 11-14-2003;73:3427-3437. View abstract.
  332. Gonlachanvit, S., Chen, Y. H., Hasler, W. L., Sun, W. M., and Owyang, C. Ginger reduces hyperglycemia-evoked gastric dysrhythmias in healthy humans: possible role of endogenous prostaglandins. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 2003;307:1098-1103. View abstract.
  333. Shelly, T. E., Rendon, P., Hernandez, E., Salgado, S., McInnis, D., Villalobos, E., and Liedo, P. Effects of diet, ginger root oil, and elevation on the mating competitiveness of male Mediterranean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) from a mass-reared, genetic sexing strain in Guatemala. J Econ.Entomol. 2003;96:1132-1141. View abstract.
  334. Yoshikawa, M., Hatakeyama, S., Taniguchi, K., Matuda, H., and Yamahara, J. 6-Gingesulfonic acid, a new anti-ulcer principle, and gingerglycolipids A, B, and C, three new monoacyldigalactosylglycerols, from zingiberis rhizoma originating in Taiwan. Chem.Pharm.Bull.(Tokyo) 1992;40:2239-2241. View abstract.
  335. Peng, P. [Pharmacological study of Zingiber officinale (Willd.) Rosc. and its clinical use]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1992;17:370-373. View abstract.
  336. Ohizumi, Y. [Novel types of cardiotonic drugs]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1992;100:259-269. View abstract.
  337. Naora, K., Ding, G., Hayashibara, M., Katagiri, Y., Kano, Y., and Iwamoto, K. Pharmacokinetics of [6]-gingerol after intravenous administration in rats with acute renal or hepatic failure. Chem.Pharm.Bull (Tokyo) 1992;40:1295-1298. View abstract.
  338. Ficker, C., Smith, M. L., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., Zhang, J., Durst, T., Assabgui, R., and Arnason, J. T. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from ginger. Phytother.Res. 2003;17:897-902. View abstract.
  339. Miyoshi, N., Nakamura, Y., Ueda, Y., Abe, M., Ozawa, Y., Uchida, K., and Osawa, T. Dietary ginger constituents, galanals A and B, are potent apoptosis inducers in Human T lymphoma Jurkat cells. Cancer Lett. 9-25-2003;199:113-119. View abstract.
  340. Someya, A., Horie, S., Yamamoto, H., and Murayama, T. Modifications of capsaicin-sensitive neurons in isolated guinea pig ileum by [6]-gingerol and lafutidine. J Pharmacol.Sci 2003;92:359-366. View abstract.
  341. Dugenci, S. K., Arda, N., and Candan, A. Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88:99-106. View abstract.
  342. Antonious, G. F. and Kochhar, T. S. Zingiberene and curcumene in wild tomato. J Environ.Sci Health B 2003;38:489-500. View abstract.
  343. Penna, S. C., Medeiros, M. V., Aimbire, F. S., Faria-Neto, H. C., Sertie, J. A., and Lopes-Martins, R. A. Anti-inflammatory effect of the hydralcoholic extract of Zingiber officinale rhizomes on rat paw and skin edema. Phytomedicine 2003;10:381-385. View abstract.
  344. Onogi, T., Minami, M., Kuraishi, Y., and Satoh, M. Capsaicin-like effect of -shogaol on substance P-containing primary afferents of rats: a possible mechanism of its analgesic action. Neuropharmacology 1992;31:1165-1169. View abstract.
  345. Liu, N., Huo, G., Zhang, L., and Zhang, X. [Effect of Zingiber OfficinaleRosc on lipid peroxidation in hyperlipidemia rats]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 2003;32:22-23. View abstract.
  346. Saha, S., Smith, R. M., Lenz, E., and Wilson, I. D. Analysis of a ginger extract by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using superheated deuterium oxide as the mobile phase. J Chromatogr.A 3-28-2003;991:143-150. View abstract.
  347. Leal, P. F., Braga, M. E., Sato, D. N., Carvalho, J. E., Marques, M. O., and Meireles, M. A. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction. J Agric.Food Chem. 4-23-2003;51:2520-2525. View abstract.
  348. Ficker, C. E., Arnason, J. T., Vindas, P. S., Alvarez, L. P., Akpagana, K., Gbeassor, M., De Souza, C., and Smith, M. L. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts. Mycoses 2003;46(1-2):29-37. View abstract.
  349. Shi, Q., Li, J., Tong, X., Tan, X., Ge, F., and Liang, J. [Studies on the supercritical-CO2 fluid extraction and quality evaluation of ginger oils]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 1999;22:134-135. View abstract.
  350. Kamtchouing, P., Mbongue Fandio, G. Y., Dimo, T., and Jatsa, H. B. Evaluation of androgenic activity of Zingiber officinale and Pentadiplandra brazzeana in male rats. Asian J Androl 2002;4:299-301. View abstract.
  351. Alzoreky, N. S. and Nakahara, K. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia. Int J Food Microbiol. 2-15-2003;80:223-230. View abstract.
  352. Vishwakarma, S. L., Pal, S. C., Kasture, V. S., and Kasture, S. B. Anxiolytic and antiemetic activity of Zingiber officinale. Phytother.Res 2002;16:621-626. View abstract.
  353. Hashimoto, K., Satoh, K., Murata, P., Makino, B., Sakakibara, I., Kase, Y., Ishige, A., Higuchi, M., and Sasaki, H. Component of Zingiber officinale that improves the enhancement of small intestinal transport. Planta Med. 2002;68:936-939. View abstract.
  354. Dorval, V., Dufour, M., and Leclerc, P. Regulation of the phosphotyrosine content of human sperm proteins by intracellular Ca2+: role of Ca2+-adenosine triphosphatases. Biol.Reprod. 2002;67:1538-1545. View abstract.
  355. Sanderson, L., Bartlett, A., and Whitfield, P. J. In vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract towards adult schistosomes and their egg production. J Helminthol. 2002;76:241-247. View abstract.
  356. Keating, A. and Chez, R. A. Ginger syrup as an antiemetic in early pregnancy. Altern Ther.Health Med 2002;8:89-91. View abstract.
  357. Nagasawa, H., Watanabe, K., and Inatomi, H. Effects of bitter melon (Momordica charantia l.) or ginger rhizome (Zingiber offifinale rosc) on spontaneous mammary tumorigenesis in SHN mice. Am.J Chin Med 2002;30(2-3):195-205. View abstract.
  358. Topic, B., Hasenohrl, R. U., Hacker, R., and Huston, J. P. Enhanced conditioned inhibitory avoidance by a combined extract of Zingiber officinale and Ginkgo biloba. Phytother.Res 2002;16:312-315. View abstract.
  359. Nakazawa, T. and Ohsawa, K. Metabolism of [6]-gingerol in rats. Life Sci 3-22-2002;70:2165-2175. View abstract.
  360. Yang, Y., Kinoshita, K., Koyama, K., Takahashi, K., Kondo, S., and Watanabe, K. Structure-antiemetic-activity of some diarylheptanoids and their analogues. Phytomedicine 2002;9:146-152. View abstract.
  361. Gupta, Y. K. and Sharma, M. Reversal of pyrogallol-induced delay in gastric emptying in rats by ginger (Zingiber officinale). Methods Find.Exp.Clin Pharmacol. 2001;23:501-503. View abstract.
  362. Jewell, D. and Young, G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2002;:CD000145. View abstract.
  363. Sekiwa, Y., Kobayashi, A., Kubota, K., and Takenaka, M. First isolation of geranyl disaccharides from ginger and their relations to aroma formation. Nat.Prod.Lett. 2001;15:267-274. View abstract.
  364. Topic, B., Tani, E., Tsiakitzis, K., Kourounakis, P. N., Dere, E., Hasenohrl, R. U., Hacker, R., Mattern, C. M., and Huston, J. P. Enhanced maze performance and reduced oxidative stress by combined extracts of zingiber officinale and ginkgo biloba in the aged rat. Neurobiol.Aging 2002;23:135-143. View abstract.
  365. Bhattarai, S., Tran, V. H., and Duke, C. C. The stability of gingerol and shogaol in aqueous solutions. J Pharm Sci 2001;90:1658-1664. View abstract.
  366. Sekiwa-Iijima, Y., Aizawa, Y., and Kubota, K. Geraniol dehydrogenase activity related to aroma formation in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). J Agric.Food Chem. 2001;49:5902-5906. View abstract.
  367. Kaur, G. and Kulkarni, S. K. Investigations on possible serotonergic involvement in effects of OB-200G (polyherbal preparation) on food intake in female mice. Eur.J Nutr. 2001;40:127-133. View abstract.
  368. Parascandola, J. Pharmacology and public health: the Jamaica ginger paralysis episode of the 1930s. Pharm.Hist 1994;36:123-131. View abstract.
  369. Koo, K. L., Ammit, A. J., Tran, V. H., Duke, C. C., and Roufogalis, B. D. Gingerols and related analogues inhibit arachidonic acid-induced human platelet serotonin release and aggregation. Thromb.Res 9-1-2001;103:387-397. View abstract.
  370. Singh, A. and Singh, D. K. Molluscicidal activity of Lawsonia inermis and its binary and tertiary combinations with other plant derived molluscicides. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2001;39:263-268. View abstract.
  371. Verma, S. K. and Bordia, A. Ginger, fat and fibrinolysis. Indian J Med Sci 2001;55:83-86. View abstract.
  372. Agarwal, M., Walia, S., Dhingra, S., and Khambay, B. P. Insect growth inhibition, antifeedant and antifungal activity of compounds isolated/derived from Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) rhizomes. Pest.Manag.Sci 2001;57:289-300. View abstract.
  373. Tjendraputra, E., Tran, V. H., Liu-Brennan, D., Roufogalis, B. D., and Duke, C. C. Effect of ginger constituents and synthetic analogues on cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme in intact cells. Bioorg.Chem. 2001;29:156-163. View abstract.
  374. Bode, A. M., Ma, W. Y., Surh, Y. J., and Dong, Z. Inhibition of epidermal growth factor-induced cell transformation and activator protein 1 activation by [6]-gingerol. Cancer Res 2-1-2001;61:850-853. View abstract.
  375. Weidner, M. S. and Sigwart, K. The safety of a ginger extract in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;73:513-520. View abstract.
  376. Charles, R., Garg, S. N., and Kumar, S. New gingerdione from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale. Fitoterapia 2000;71:716-718. View abstract.
  377. Guo, P., Xu, J., Xu, S., and Wang, K. [Inhibition of hydrogen peroxide production on chondrocytes induced by fulvic acid by ginger volatile oil]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1997;22:559-561. View abstract.
  378. Puri, A., Sahai, R., Singh, K. L., Saxena, R. P., Tandon, J. S., and Saxena, K. C. Immunostimulant activity of dry fruits and plant materials used in indian traditional medical system for mothers after child birth and invalids. J Ethnopharmacol. 2000;71(1-2):89-92. View abstract.
  379. Liu, L., Welch, J. M., Erickson, R. P., Reinhart, P. H., and Simon, S. A. Different responses to repeated applications of zingerone in behavioral studies, recordings from intact and cultured TG neurons, and from VR1 receptors. Physiol Behav. 4-1-2000;69(1-2):177-186. View abstract.
  380. Fuhrman, B., Rosenblat, M., Hayek, T., Coleman, R., and Aviram, M. Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr 2000;130:1124-1131. View abstract.
  381. Onyenekwe, P. C. Assessment of oleoresin and gingerol contents in gamma irradiated ginger rhizomes. Nahrung 2000;44:130-132. View abstract.
  382. Maier, L. S., Schwan, C., Schillinger, W., Minami, K., Schutt, U., and Pieske, B. Gingerol, isoproterenol and ouabain normalize impaired post-rest behavior but not force-frequency relation in failing human myocardium. Cardiovasc.Res 2000;45:913-924. View abstract.
  383. Sekiwa, Y., Kubota, K., and Kobayashi, A. Isolation of novel glucosides related to gingerdiol from ginger and their antioxidative activities. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48:373-377. View abstract.
  384. Singh, K. and Singh, D. K. Effect of different combinations of MGK-264 or piperonyl butoxide with plant-derived molluscicides on snail reproduction. Arch Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2000;38:182-190. View abstract.
  385. Singh, V. K., Singh, S., and Singh, D. K. Effect of active molluscicidal component of spices on different enzyme activities and biogenic amine levels in the nervous tissue of Lymnaea acuminata. Phytother.Res 1999;13:649-654. View abstract.
  386. Erdelyi, L. Guaiacol and vanilloid compounds modulate the A-type potassium currents in molluscan neurons. Acta Biol.Hung. 1999;50(1-3):65-79. View abstract.
  387. Antipenko, A. Y., Spielman, A. I., and Kirchberger, M. A. Interactions of 6-gingerol and ellagic acid with the cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther 1999;290:227-234. View abstract.
  388. Lee, E. and Surh, Y. J. Induction of apoptosis in HL-60 cells by pungent vanilloids, [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol. Cancer Lett. 12-25-1998;134:163-168. View abstract.
  389. Vaes, L. P. and Chyka, P. A. Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:1478-1482. View abstract.
  390. Huang, W. Y., Cai, Y. Z., Xing, J., Corke, H., and Sun, M. Comparative analysis of bioactivities of four Polygonum species. Planta Med 2008;74:43-49. View abstract.
  391. Kang, S. C., Lee, C. M., Choi, H., Lee, J. H., Oh, J. S., Kwak, J. H., and Zee, O. P. Evaluation of oriental medicinal herbs for estrogenic and antiproliferative activities. Phytother Res 2006;20:1017-1019. View abstract.
  392. Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Moradi, L., Mehri, A., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. The efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia; a systematic review. Curr.Pharm.Des 2010;16:2935-2947. View abstract.
  393. Cwikla, C., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother.Res 2010;24:649-656. View abstract.
  394. Baliga, M. S., Jagetia, G. C., Rao, S. K., and Babu, K. Evaluation of nitric oxide scavenging activity of certain spices in vitro: a preliminary study. Nahrung 2003;47:261-264. View abstract.
  395. Futrell, J. M. and Rietschel, R. L. Spice allergy evaluated by results of patch tests. Cutis 1993;52:288-290. View abstract.
  396. Pradeep, K. U., Geervani, P., and Eggum, B. O. Influence of spices on utilization of sorghum and chickpea protein. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1991;41:269-276. View abstract.
  397. Sambaiah, K. and Srinivasan, K. Effect of cumin, cinnamon, ginger, mustard and tamarind in induced hypercholesterolemic rats. Nahrung 1991;35:47-51. View abstract.
  398. Srinivasan, K. Plant foods in the management of diabetes mellitus: spices as beneficial antidiabetic food adjuncts. Int.J Food Sci.Nutr. 2005;56:399-414. View abstract.
  399. Kamble VA and Patil SD. Spice-Derived Essential Oils: Effective Antifungal and Possible Therapeutic Agents. Journal of Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants (USA) 2008;14:129-143.
  400. Jayashankar, S., Panagoda, G. J., Amaratunga, E. A., Perera, K., and Rajapakse, P. S. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled study on the effects of a herbal toothpaste on gingival bleeding, oral hygiene and microbial variables. Ceylon Med.J 2011;56:5-9. View abstract.
  401. Rattanachaikunsopon, P. and Phumkhachorn, P. Protective effect of clove oil-supplemented fish diets on experimental Lactococcus garvieae infection in tilapia. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2009;73:2085-2089. View abstract.
  402. Carrasco, F. R., Schmidt, G., Romero, A. L., Sartoretto, J. L., Caparroz-Assef, S. M., Bersani-Amado, C. A., and Cuman, R. K. Immunomodulatory activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Salvia officinalis L. and Syzygium aromaticum L. essential oils: evidence for humor- and cell-mediated responses. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 2009;61:961-967. View abstract.
  403. Lopez, P., Sanchez, C., Batlle, R., and Nerin, C. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains. J Agric.Food Chem 8-24-2005;53:6939-6946. View abstract.
  404. Minami, E., Shibata, H., Nomoto, M., and Fukuda, T. Effect of shitei-to, a traditional Chinese medicine formulation, on pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:69-72. View abstract.
  405. Gregory, P. J., Sperry, M., and Wilson, A. F. Dietary supplements for osteoarthritis. Am.Fam.Physician 1-15-2008;77:177-184. View abstract.
  406. Khanom, F., Kayahara, H., and Tadasa, K. Superoxide-scavenging and prolyl endopeptidase inhibitory activities of Bangladeshi indigenous medicinal plants. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2000;64:837-840. View abstract.
  407. Farag, S. E., Aziz, N. H., and Attia, E. S. Effect of irradiation on the microbiological status and flavouring materials of selected spices. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1995;201:283-288. View abstract.
  408. Henning, S. M., Zhang, Y., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Wang, P., Bowerman, S., and Heber, D. Antioxidant capacity and phytochemical content of herbs and spices in dry, fresh and blended herb paste form. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2011;62:219-225. View abstract.
  409. Castle, N. A. Differential inhibition of potassium currents in rat ventricular myocytes by capsaicin. Cardiovasc.Res. 1992;26:1137-1144. View abstract.
  410. Pontieri, V., Neto, A. S., de Franca Camargo, A. F., Koike, M. K., and Velasco, I. T. The herbal drug Catuama reverts and prevents ventricular fibrillation in the isolated rabbit heart. J Electrocardiol. 2007;40:534-538. View abstract.
  411. Oliveira, C. H., Moraes, M. E., Moraes, M. O., Bezerra, F. A., Abib, E., and De, Nucci G. Clinical toxicology study of an herbal medicinal extract of Paullinia cupana, Trichilia catigua, Ptychopetalum olacoides and Zingiber officinale (Catuama) in healthy volunteers. Phytother.Res. 2005;19:54-57. View abstract.
  412. Antunes, E., Gordo, W. M., de Oliveira, J. F., Teixeira, C. E., Hyslop, S., and De, Nucci G. The relaxation of isolated rabbit corpus cavernosum by the herbal medicine Catuama and its constituents. Phytother.Res. 2001;15:416-421. View abstract.
  413. Setty, A. R. and Sigal, L. H. Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. Semin.Arthritis Rheum 2005;34:773-784. View abstract.
  414. Betoni, J. E., Mantovani, R. P., Barbosa, L. N., Di Stasi, L. C., and Fernandes, Junior A. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 2006;101:387-390. View abstract.
  415. Norajit, K., Laohakunjit, N., and Kerdchoechuen, O. Antibacterial effect of five Zingiberaceae essential oils. Molecules. 2007;12:2047-2060. View abstract.
  416. Martins, A. P., Salgueiro, L., Goncalves, M. J., da Cunha, A. P., Vila, R., Canigueral, S., Mazzoni, V., Tomi, F., and Casanova, J. Essential oil composition and antimicrobial activity of three Zingiberaceae from S.Tome e Principe. Planta Med. 2001;67:580-584. View abstract.
  417. Mahady, G. B., Pendland, S. L., Stoia, A., Hamill, F. A., Fabricant, D., Dietz, B. M., and Chadwick, L. R. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytother.Res 2005;19:988-991. View abstract.
  418. Hasani-Ranjbar, S., Nayebi, N., Larijani, B., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity. World J Gastroenterol. 7-7-2009;15:3073-3085. View abstract.
  419. Aggarwal, B. B., Kunnumakkara, A. B., Harikumar, K. B., Tharakan, S. T., Sung, B., and Anand, P. Potential of spice-derived phytochemicals for cancer prevention. Planta Med 2008;74:1560-1569. View abstract.
  420. Amara, A. A., El Masry, M. H., and Bogdady, H. H. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity. Pak.J Pharm Sci. 2008;21:159-171. View abstract.
  421. Sathisha, U. V., Jayaram, S., Harish Nayaka, M. A., and Dharmesh, S. M. Inhibition of galectin-3 mediated cellular interactions by pectic polysaccharides from dietary sources. Glycoconj.J 2007;24:497-507. View abstract.
  422. Rosenbaum, C. C., O'Mathuna, D. P., Chavez, M., and Shields, K. Antioxidants and antiinflammatory dietary supplements for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Altern.Ther.Health Med. 2010;16:32-40. View abstract.
  423. Bhat, J., Damle, A., Vaishnav, P. P., Albers, R., Joshi, M., and Banerjee, G. In vivo enhancement of natural killer cell activity through tea fortified with Ayurvedic herbs. Phytother.Res 2010;24:129-135. View abstract.
  424. Uma, Pradeep K., Geervani, P., and Eggum, B. O. Common Indian spices: nutrient composition, consumption and contribution to dietary value. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr 1993;44:137-148. View abstract.
  425. Aggarwal, B. B. and Shishodia, S. Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem.Pharmacol 5-14-2006;71:1397-1421. View abstract.
  426. Prajapati, V., Tripathi, A. K., Aggarwal, K. K., and Khanuja, S. P. Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Bioresour.Technol. 2005;96:1749-1757. View abstract.
  427. Aggarwal, B. B. and Shishodia, S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning. Ann.N.Y Acad.Sci. 2004;1030:434-441. View abstract.
  428. Odunola, O. A. Comparative effects of some local food condiments on sodium arsenite-induced clastogenicity. Afr.J Med Med Sci. 2003;32:75-80. View abstract.
  429. D'Souza, P., Amit, A., Saxena, V. S., Bagchi, D., Bagchi, M., and Stohs, S. J. Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis. Drugs Exp.Clin.Res. 2004;30:99-109. View abstract.
  430. Kiuchi, F., Iwakami, S., Shibuya, M., Hanaoka, F., and Sankawa, U. Inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene biosynthesis by gingerols and diarylheptanoids. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1992;40:387-391. View abstract.
  431. Grzanna, R., Phan, P., Polotsky, A., Lindmark, L., and Frondoza, C. G. Ginger extract inhibits beta-amyloid peptide-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in cultured THP-1 monocytes. J Altern Complement Med 2004;10:1009-1013. View abstract.
  432. Nakatani, N. Phenolic antioxidants from herbs and spices. Biofactors 2000;13(1-4):141-146. View abstract.
  433. Cady RK, Goldstein J, Nett R, et al. A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot study of sublingual feverfew and ginger (LipiGesic M) in the treatment of migraine. Headache 2011;51:1078-86. View abstract.
  434. Islam MS, Choi H. Comparative effects of dietary ginger (Zingiber officinale) and garlic (Allium sativum) investigated in a type 2 diabetes model of rats. J Med Food. 2008;11:152-9. View abstract.
  435. Al-Amin ZM, Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, et al. Anti-diabetic and hypolipidaemic properties of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Br J Nutr. 2006;96:660-6. View abstract.
  436. Ojewole JA. Analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Phytother Res. 2006;20:764-72. View abstract.
  437. Bhandari U, Kanojia R, Pillai KK. Effect of ethanolic extract of Zingiber officinale on dyslipidaemia in diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97:227-30. View abstract.
  438. Chiang HM, Chao PD, Hsiu SL, et al. Ginger significantly decreased the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine in rats. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:845-55. View abstract.
  439. Okonta JM, Uboh M, Obonga WO. Herb-Drug Interaction: A Case Study of Effect of Ginger on the Pharmacokinetic of Metronidazole in Rabbit. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (India) 2008;70:232.
  440. Lesho EP, Saullo L, Udvari-Nagy S. A 76-year-old woman with erratic anticoagulation. Cleve Clin J Med. 2004;71:651-6. View abstract.
  441. Shalansky S, Lynd L, Richardson K, et al. Risk of warfarin-related bleeding events and supratherapeutic international normalized ratios associated with complementary and alternative medicine: a longitudinal analysis. Pharmacotherapy. 2007;27:1237-47. View abstract.
  442. Roberts AT, Martin CK, Liu Z, et al. The safety and efficacy of a dietary herbal supplement and gallic acid for weight loss. J Med Food. 2007;10:184-8. View abstract.
  443. Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1737-41. View abstract.
  444. Calvert I. Ginger: an essential oil for shortening labour? Pract Midwife. 2005;8:30-4. View abstract.
  445. Shariatpanahi ZV, Taleban FA, Mokhtari M, et al. Ginger extract reduces delayed gastric emptying and nosocomial pneumonia in adult respiratory distress syndrome patients hospitalized in an intensive care unit. J Crit Care. 2010;25:647-50. View abstract.
  446. Feng XG, Hao WJ, Ding Z, et al. Clinical study on tongyan spray for post-stroke dysphagia patients: a randomized controlled trial. Chin J Integr Med. 2012;18:345-9. View abstract.
  447. Yip YB, Tam AC. An experimental study on the effectiveness of massage with aromatic ginger and orange essential oil for moderate-to-severe knee pain among the elderly in Hong Kong. Complement Ther Med. 2008;16:131-8. View abstract.
  448. Zahmatkash M, Vafaeenasab MR. Comparing analgesic effects of a topical herbal mixed medicine with salicylate in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:715-9. View abstract.
  449. Pongrojpaw D, Chiamchanya C. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of post-operative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:244-50. View abstract.
  450. Nanthakomon T, Pongrojpaw D. The efficacy of ginger in prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynecologic surgery. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:S130-6. View abstract.
  451. Tavlan A, Tuncer S, Erol A, et al. Prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after thyroidectomy: combined antiemetic treatment with dexamethasone and ginger versus dexamethasone alone. Clin Drug Investig. 2006;26:209-14. View abstract.
  452. Apariman S, Ratchanon S, Wiriyasirivej B. Effectiveness of ginger for prevention of nausea and vomiting after gynecological laparoscopy. J Med Assoc Thai. 2006;89:2003-9. View abstract.
  453. Morin AM, Betz O, Kranke P, et al. [Is ginger a relevant antiemetic for postoperative nausea and vomiting?]. Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther. 2004;39:281-5. View abstract.
  454. Geiger J. The essential oil of ginger, Zingiber officinale, and anaesthesia. Int J Aromather 2005;15:7-14.
  455. Lien HC, Sun WM, Chen YH, et al. Effects of ginger on motion sickness and gastric slow-wave dysrhythmias induced by circular vection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003;284:G481-9. View abstract.
  456. Mowrey DB, Clayson DE. Motion sickness, ginger, and psychophysics. Lancet. 1982;1:655-7. View abstract.
  457. Schmid R, Schick T, Steffen R, et al. Comparison of seven commonly used agents for prophylaxis of seasickness. J Travel Med 1994;1:102-106.
  458. Holtmann S, Clarke AH, Scherer H, et al. The anti-motion sickness mechanism of ginger. A comparative study with placebo and dimenhydrinate. Acta Otolaryngol. 1989;108:168-74. View abstract.
  459. Alizadeh-Navaei R, Roozbeh F, Saravi M, et al. Investigation of the effect of ginger on the lipid levels. A double blind controlled clinical trial. Saudi Med J. 2008;29:1280-4. View abstract.
  460. Nord D, Belew J. Effectiveness of the essential oils lavender and ginger in promoting children's comfort in a perianesthesia setting. J Perianesth Nurs. 2009;24:307-12. View abstract.
  461. Hu ML, Rayner CK, Wu KL, et al. Effect of ginger on gastric motility and symptoms of functional dyspepsia. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:105-10. View abstract.
  462. Young HY, Liao JC, Chang YS, et al. Synergistic effect of ginger and nifedipine on human platelet aggregation: a study in hypertensive patients and normal volunteers. Am J Chin Med. 2006;34:545-51. View abstract.
  463. Argento A, Tiraferri E, Marzaloni M. [Oral anticoagulants and medicinal plants. An emerging interaction]. Ann Ital Med Int. 2000;15:139-43. View abstract.
  464. Abebe W. Herbal medication: potential for adverse interactions with analgesic drugs. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2002;27:391-401. View abstract.
  465. Backon J. Ginger as an antiemetic: possible side effects due to its thromboxane synthetase activity. Anaesthesia. 1991;46:705-6.. View abstract.
  466. Takahashi M, Li W, Koike K, et al. Clinical effectiveness of KSS formula, a traditional folk remedy for alcohol hangover symptoms. J Nat Med. 2010;64:487-91. View abstract.
  467. Pace J, Conlin DS. Oral ingestion of encapsulated ginger and reported self-care actions for the relief of chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting. Dissertation Abstracts International 1987;47:3297-B.
  468. Pillai AK, Sharma KK, Gupta YK, et al. Anti-emetic effect of ginger powder versus placebo as an add-on therapy in children and young adults receiving high emetogenic chemotherapy. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2011;56:234-8. View abstract.
  469. Ryan JL, Heckler CE, Roscoe JA, et al. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces acute chemotherapy-induced nausea: a URCC CCOP study of 576 patients. Support Care Cancer. 2012;20:1479-89. View abstract.
  470. Mohammadbeigi R, Shahgeibi S, Soufizadeh N, et al. Comparing the effects of ginger and metoclopramide on the treatment of pregnancy nausea. Pak J Biol Sci. 2011;14:817-20. View abstract.
  471. Matthews A, Dowswell T, Haas DM, et al. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;CD007575. View abstract.
  472. Cady RK, Schreiber CP, Beach ME, et al. Gelstat Migraine (sublingually administered feverfew and ginger compound) for acute treatment of migraine when administered during the mild pain phase. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11:I65-69. View abstract.
  473. Lua PL, Zakaria NS. A brief review of current scientific evidence involving aromatherapy use for nausea and vomiting. J Altern Complement Med 2012;18:534. View abstract.
  474. Heitmann K, Nordeng H, Holst L. Safety of ginger use in pregnancy: results from a large population-based cohort study. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2012 Jun 17. View abstract.
  475. Drozdov VN, Kim VA, Tkachenko EV, Varvanina GG. Influence of a specific ginger combination on gastropathy conditions in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip. J Alt Compl Med 2012;18:583-8. View abstract.
  476. Black CD, O'Connor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on muscle pain induced by eccentric exercise. Phytother Res 2010;24:1620-6. View abstract.
  477. Black CD, Herring MP, Hurley DJ, O'Connor PJ. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) reduces muscle pain caused by eccentric exercise. J Pain 2010;11:894-903. View abstract.
  478. Black CD, Oconnor PJ. Acute effects of dietary ginger on quadriceps muscle pain during moderate-intensity cycling exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2008;18:653-64. View abstract.
  479. Ozgoli G, Goli M, Moattar F. Comparison of effects of ginger, mefenamic acid, and ibuprofen on pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea. J Altern Complement Med 2009;15:129-32. View abstract.
  480. Haghighi M, Khalva A, Toliat T, Jallaei S. Comparing the effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract and ibuprofen on patients with osteoarthritis. Arch Iran Med 2005;8:267-71.
  481. Leach MJ, Kumar S. The clinical effectiveness of ginger (Zingiber officinale) in adults with osteoarthritis. Int J Evid Based Healthc 2008;6:311-20. View abstract.
  482. Terry R, Posadzki P, Watson LK, Ernst E. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale) for the treatment of pain: a systematic review of clinical trials. Pain Med 2011;12:1808-18. View abstract.
  483. Eberhart LH, Mayer R, Betz O, et al. Ginger does not prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting after laparoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg 2003;96:995-8. View abstract.
  484. Chittumma P, Kaewkiattikun K, Wiriyasiriwach B. Comparison of the effectiveness of ginger and vitamin B6 for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:15-20. View abstract.
  485. Pongrojpaw D, Somprasit C, Chanthasenanont A. A randomized comparison of ginger and dimenhydrinate in the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. J Med Assoc Thai 2007;90:1703-9. View abstract.
  486. Jiang X, Blair EY, McLachlan AJ. Investigation of the effects of herbal medicines on warfarin response in healthy subjects: a population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling approach. J Clin Pharmacol 2006;46:1370-8. View abstract.
  487. Manusirivithaya S, Sripramote M, Tangjitgamol S, et al. Antiemetic effect of ginger in gynecologic oncology patients receiving cisplatin. Int J Gynecol Cancer 2004;14:1063-9. View abstract.
  488. Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, et al. The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2006;194:95-9. View abstract.
  489. Smith C, Crowther C, Wilson K et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:639-45. View abstract.
  490. Borrelli F, Capasso R, Aviello G, et al. Effectiveness and safety of ginger in the treatment of pregnancy-induced nausea and vomiting. Obstet Gynecol 2005;105:849-56. View abstract.
  491. Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, et al. Effect of ginkgo and ginger on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2005;59:425-32. View abstract.
  492. Kruth P, Brosi E, Fux R, et al. Ginger-associated overanticoagulation by phenprocoumon. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:257-60. View abstract.
  493. Akhani SP, Vishwakarma SL, Goyal RK. Anti-diabetic activity of Zingiber officinale in streptozotocin-induced type I diabetic rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2004;56:101-5. View abstract.
  494. Kanerva L, Estlander T, Jolanki R. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from spices. Contact Dermatitis 1996;35:157-62. View abstract.
  495. Thomson M, Al-Qattan KK, Al-Sawan SM, et al. The use of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) as a potential anti-inflammatory and antithrombotic agent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2002;67:475-8. View abstract.
  496. Ghayur MN, Gilani AH. Ginger lowers blood pressure through blockade of voltage-dependent calcium channels. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2005;45:74-80. View abstract.
  497. Suekawa M, Ishige A, Yuasa K, et al. Pharmacological studies on ginger. I. Pharmacological actions of pungent constitutents, -gingerol and -shogaol. J Pharmacobiodyn 1984;7:836-48. View abstract.
  498. Frondoza CG, Sohrabi A, Polotsky A, et al. An in vitro screening assay for inhibitors of proinflammatory mediators in herbal extracts using human synoviocyte cultures. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2004;40:95-101. View abstract.
  499. Wigler I, Grotto I, Caspi D, Yaron M. The effects of Zintona EC (a ginger extract) on symptomatic gonarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2003;11:783-9. View abstract.
  500. Chen D, Wu CF, Huang L, Ning Z. Effect of the aqueous extract of Xiao-Ban-Xia-Tang on gastric emptying in mice. Am J Chin Med 2002;30:207-14. View abstract.
  501. Portnoi G, Chng LA, Karimi-Tabesh L, et al. Prospective comparative study of the safety and effectiveness of ginger for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2003;189:1374-7.. View abstract.
  502. Nagabhushan M, Amonkar AJ, Bhide SV. Mutagenicity of gingerol and shogaol and antimutagenicity of zingerone in Salmonella/microsome assay. Cancer Lett 1987;36:221-33.. View abstract.
  503. Wilkinson JM. Effect of ginger tea on the fetal development of Sprague-Dawley rats. Reprod Toxicol 2000;14:507-12.. View abstract.
  504. Weidner MS, Sigwart K. Investigation of the teratogenic potential of a zingiber officinale extract in the rat. Reprod Toxicol 2001;15:75-80.. View abstract.
  505. Surh YJ. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1091-7.. View abstract.
  506. Smith C, Crowther C, Willson K, et al. A randomized controlled trial of ginger to treat nausea and vomiting in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004;103:639-45. View abstract.
  507. Langner E, Greifenberg S, Gruenwald J. Ginger: history and use. Adv Ther 1998;15:25-44. View abstract.
  508. Wood CD, Manno JE, Wood MJ, et al. Comparison of efficacy of ginger with various antimotion sickness drugs. Clin Res Pr Drug Regul Aff 1988;6:129-36. View abstract.
  509. Stewart JJ, Wood MJ, Wood CD, Mims ME. Effects of ginger on motion sickness susceptibility and gastric function. Pharmacology 1991;42:111-20. View abstract.
  510. Grontved A, Hentzer E. Vertigo-reducing effect of ginger root. A controlled clinical study. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec 1986;48:282-6. View abstract.
  511. Srivastava KC. Effect of onion and ginger consumption on platelet thromboxane production in humans. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1989;35:183-5. View abstract.
  512. Phillips S, Hutchinson S, Ruggier R. Zingiber officinale does not affect gastric emptying rate. A randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Anaesthesia 1993;48:393-5. View abstract.
  513. Srivastava KC, Mustafa T. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and rheumatic disorders. Med Hypotheses 1989;29:25-8. View abstract.
  514. Grontved A, Brask T, Kambskard J, Hentzer E. Ginger root against seasickness: a controlled trial on the open sea. Acta Otolaryngol 1998;105:45-9. View abstract.
  515. Bordia A, Verma SK, Srivastava KC. Effect of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenumgraecum L.) on blood lipids, blood sugar and platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 1997;56:379-84. View abstract.
  516. Marcus DM, Suarez-Almazor ME. Is there a role for ginger in the treatment of osteoarthritis? Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2461-2. View abstract.
  517. Altman RD, Marcussen KC. Effects of ginger extract on knee pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2531-38. View abstract.
  518. Backon J. Ginger in preventing nausea and vomiting of pregnancy; a caveat due to its thromboxane synthetase activity and effect on testosterone binding. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991;42:163-4. View abstract.
  519. Bliddal H, Rosetzsky A, Schlichting P, et al. A randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over study of ginger extracts and ibuprofen in osteoarthritis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 2000;8:9-12. View abstract.
  520. Vutyavanich T, Kraisarin T, Ruangsri R. Ginger for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol 2001;97:577-82. View abstract.
  521. Aeschbach R, Loliger J, Scott BC. Antioxidant actions of thymol, carvacrol, 6-gingerol, zingerone and hydroxytyrosol. Food Chem Toxicol 1994;32:31-6. View abstract.
  522. Gong QM, Wang SL, Gan C. [A clinical study on the treatment of acute upper digestive tract hemorrhage with wen-she decoction]. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 1989;9:272-3, 260. View abstract.
  523. Visalyaputra S, Petchpaisit N, Somcharoen K, Choavaratana R. The efficacy of ginger root in the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting after outpatient gynaecological laparoscopy. Anaesthesia 1998;53:506-10. View abstract.
  524. Arfeen Z, Owen H, Plummer JL, et al. A double-blind randomized controlled trial of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Anaesth Intensive Care 1995;23:449-52. View abstract.
  525. Schechter JO. Treatment of disequilibrium and nausea in the SRI discontinuation syndrome. J Clin Psychiatry 1998;59:431-2. View abstract.
  526. Lumb AB. Mechanism of antiemetic effect of ginger. Anaesthesia 1993;48:1118. View abstract.
  527. Micklefield GH, Redeker Y, Meister V, et al. Effects of ginger on gastroduodenal motility. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1999;37:341-6. View abstract.
  528. Jewell D, Young G. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;:CD000145. View abstract.
  529. Wilkinson JM. What do we know about herbal morning sickness treatments? A literature survey. Midwifery 2000;16:224-8. View abstract.
  530. Anon. Case problem: presenting conventional and complementary approaches for relieving nausea in a breast cancer patient undergoing chemotherapy. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:257-9. View abstract.
  531. Ernst E, Pittler MH. Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. Br J Anaesth 2000;84:367-71. View abstract.
  532. Fessenden JM, Wittenborn W, Clarke L. Gingko biloba: a case report of herbal medicine and bleeding postoperatively from a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am Surg 2001;67:33-5. View abstract.
  533. Bone ME, Wilkinson DJ, Young JR, et al. Ginger root-a new antiemetic. The effect of ginger root on postoperative nausea and vomiting after major gynaecological surgery. Anaesthesia 1990;45:669-71. View abstract.
  534. Phillips S, Ruggier R, Hutchinson SE. Zingiber officinale (ginger)-an antiemetic for day case surgery. Anaesthesia 1993;48:715-7. View abstract.
  535. Fischer-Rasmussen W, Kjaer SK, Dahl C, Asping U. Ginger treatment of hyperemesis gravidarum. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 1991;38:19-24. View abstract.
  536. Miller LG. Herbal Medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:2200-11. View abstract.
  537. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., ed. Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 19th ed. Englewood, CO: Micromedex Inc., 1999.
  538. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
  539. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  540. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  541. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 02/14/2015

Page last updated: 20 March 2015