URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/961.html


What is it?

Ginger is an herb. The rhizome (underground stem) is used as a spice and also as a medicine. It can be used fresh, dried and powdered, or as a juice or oil.

Ginger is commonly used to treat various types of “stomach problems,” including motion sickness, morning sickness, colic, upset stomach, gas, diarrhea, nausea caused by cancer treatment, nausea and vomiting after surgery, as well as loss of appetite.

Other uses include pain relief from arthritis or muscle soreness, menstrual pain, upper respiratory tract infections, cough, and bronchitis. Ginger is also sometimes used for chest pain, low back pain, and stomach pain.

Some people pour the fresh juice on their skin to treat burns. The oil made from ginger is sometimes applied to the skin to relieve pain.

In foods and beverages, ginger is used as a flavoring agent.

In manufacturing, ginger is used as for fragrance in soaps and cosmetics.

One of the chemicals in ginger is also used as an ingredient in laxative, anti-gas, and antacid medications.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for GINGER are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Nausea and vomiting following surgery. Most clinical research shows that taking 1 gram of ginger one hour before surgery seems to reduce nausea and vomiting during the first 24 hours after surgery. One study found ginger reduced nausea and vomiting by 38%. Also, applying ginger oil to patients’ wrists before surgery seems to prevent nausea in about 80% of patients. However, ginger might not reduce nausea and vomiting in the period 3-6 hours after surgery.
  • Dizziness. Taking ginger seems to reduce the symptoms of dizziness, including nausea.
  • Menstrual pain. Some research shows that ginger can reduce symptoms of menstrual pain in some women when taken during menstruation. One study shows that taking a specific ginger extract (Zintoma, Goldaru) 250 mg four times daily for 3 days at the beginning of the menstrual period reduces pain symptoms in as many as 62% of people. It seems to work about as well as the medications ibuprofen or mefenamic acid.
  • Arthritis. Some research shows that taking ginger can modestly reduce pain in some people with a form of arthritis called “osteoarthritis.” One study shows that taking a specific ginger extract (Zintona EC) 250 mg four times daily reduced arthritis pain in the knee after 3 months of treatment. Another study shows that using a different ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a ginger with alpinia also reduces pain upon standing, pain after walking, and stiffness. Some research has compared ginger to medications such as ibuprofen. In one study, a specific ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) did not work as well as taking ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily for reducing arthritis pain. But in another study, taking ginger extract 500 mg twice daily worked about as well as ibuprofen 400 mg three times daily for hip and knee pain related to arthritis. In another study, a specific ginger extract combined with glucosamine (Zinaxin glucosamine, EV ext-35) worked as well as the anti-inflamatory medication diclofenac slow release 100 mg daily plus glucosamine sulfate 1 gram daily. Research also suggests that massage therapy using an oil containing ginger and orange seems to reduce short-term stiffness and pain in people with knee pain.
  • Preventing morning sickness (discuss the possible risks with your healthcare provider). Ginger seems to reduce nausea and vomiting in some pregnant women. But taking any herb or medication during pregnancy is a big decision. Before taking ginger, be sure to discuss the possible risks with your healthcare provider.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Preventing motion sickness and seasickness. Some people say they feel better after taking ginger before travel, but research findings have been inconsistent. Some research shows no benefit for reducing symptoms of motion sickness or seasickness. However, one study suggests that ginger is more effective than dimenhydrinate, an anti-nausea drug, at reducing stomach related to motion sickness. Another study suggests that taking 1-2 grams of ginger increases the time before nausea starts and reduces the severity of nausea.
  • Weight loss. Research suggests that taking a supplement containing ginger, rhubarb, astragalus, red sage, turmeric, and gallic acid (Number Ten) daily for 8 weeks does not increase weight loss or reduce body weight in people who are overweight.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Sudden respiratory system failure (Acute respiratory distress syndrome). Research suggests that administering 120 mg of ginger extract daily for 21 days increases the number of days without ventilator support, the amount of nutrients consumed, and reduces the time spent in intensive care units in people with sudden respiratory system a failure. However, ginger extract does not seem to affect death rates in people with this condition.
  • Alcohol hangover. Early research suggests that taking a combination of ginger, pith of Citrus tangerine, and brown sugar before drinking decreases symptoms of alcohol hangovers, including nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
  • Nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy. There is contradictory evidence about the effectiveness of ginger for nausea and vomiting caused by chemotherapy for cancer. Some evidence suggests that taking ginger by mouth might help reduce nausea caused by chemotherapy. However, other evidence suggests that adding ginger is no more effective than standard anti-nausea treatments alone.
  • Upset stomach (dyspepsia). Evidence suggests that taking a single dose of 1.2 grams of ginger root powder 1 hour before eating speeds up how quickly food empties out of the some in people with dyspepsia.
  • High cholesterol. Evidence suggests that taking 1 gram ginger capsules three times daily for 45 days lowers triglyceride and cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
  • Speeding up labor. Early evidence suggests that bathing in water containing ginger oil does not shorten the length of labor.
  • Migraine headache. Evidence suggests that taking a combination of ginger and feverfew might reduce the length and intensity of migraine pain. However, it is not clear if the effects are from ginger, feverfew or the combination.
  • Muscle pain after exercise. There is contradictory evidence about whether ginger helps for muscle pain caused by exercise.
  • Recovery after surgery. Evidence suggests that inhaling and applying a combination of lavender and ginger oils to the skin before surgery does not reduce distress in children after surgery.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). There is some early evidence that ginger might be helpful for decreasing joint pain in people with RA.
  • Trouble swallowing. Evidence suggests that spraying a product containing ginger and clematix root (Tongyan) to the back of the throat improves trouble swallowing in stroke victims. However, it is not beneficial in people with less severe problems swallowing.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Colds.
  • Flu.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate ginger for these uses.

How does it work?

Ginger contains chemicals that may reduce nausea and inflammation. Researchers believe the chemicals work primarily in the stomach and intestines, but they may also work in the brain and nervous system to control nausea.

Are there safety concerns?

Ginger is LIKELY SAFE for most people. Some people can have mild side effects including heartburn, diarrhea, and general stomach discomfort. Some women have reported extra menstrual bleeding while taking ginger.

When ginger is applied to the skin, it may cause irritation.

Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy: Using ginger during pregnancy is controversial. There is some concern that ginger might affect fetal sex hormones. There is also a report of miscarriage during week 12 of pregnancy in a woman who used ginger for morning sickness. However, studies in pregnant women suggest that ginger can be used safely for morning sickness without harm to the baby. The risk for major malformations in infants of women taking ginger does not appear to be higher than the usual rate of 1% to 3%. Also there doesn’t appear to be an increased risk of early labor or low birth weight. There is some concern that ginger might increase the risk of bleeding, so some experts advise againsting using it close to your delivery date. As with any medication given during pregnancy, it’s important to weigh the benefit against the risk. Before using ginger during pregnancy, talk it over with your healthcare provider.

Breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the safety of using ginger during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and don’t use it.

Bleeding disorders: Taking ginger might increase your risk of bleeding.

Diabetes: Ginger might lower your blood sugar. As a result, your diabetes medications might need to be adjusted by your healthcare provider.

Heart conditions: High doses of ginger might worsen some heart conditions.

Are there interactions with medications?

Do not take this combination.
Taking ginger along with nifedipne might slow blood clotting and increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Be cautious with this combination.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Ginger might slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Phenprocoumon is used in Europe to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with phenprocoumon might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your phenprocoumon might need to be changed.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Ginger can also slow blood clotting. Taking ginger along with warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.
Be watchful with this combination.
Cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune)
Ginger might increase how much cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) the body absorbs. Taking ginger along with cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune) might increase the side effects of cyclosporine.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Ginger might decrease blood sugar. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking ginger along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, metformin (Glucophage), pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), and others.
Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers)
Ginger might reduce blood pressure in a way that is similar to some medications for blood pressure and heart disease. Taking ginger along with these medications might cause your blood pressure to drop too low or cause an irregular heartbeat.

Some medications for high blood pressure and heart disease include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.
Metronidazole (Flagyl)
Ginger can increase how much metronidazole (Flagyl) the body absorbs. Taking ginger along with metronidazole (Flagyl) might increase the side effects of metronidazole.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar
Ginger might lower blood sugar. Using ginger along with other herbs and supplements that might lower blood sugar might lower blood sugar too much. Herbs that might lower blood sugar include devil's claw, fenugreek, guar gum, Panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and others.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using ginger along with herbs that might slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, red clover, turmeric, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

  • For morning sickness: 250 mg ginger 4 times daily.
  • For postoperative nausea and vomiting: 1-2 grams powdered ginger root one hour before induction of anesthesia.
  • For arthritis: Many different ginger extract products have been used in studies. The dosing used differs depending on the product taken. One ginger extract (Eurovita Extract 33; EV ext-33) 170 mg three times daily has been used. Another extract (Eurovita Extract 77; EV ext-77), which combines a gingert with an alpinia, 255 mg twice daily has also been used. Another ginger extract (Zintona EC) 250 mg four times daily has also been used.

Other names

African Ginger, Amomum Zingiber, Ardraka, Black Ginger, Cochin Ginger, Gan Jiang, Gingembre, Gingembre Africain, Gingembre Cochin, Gingembre Indien, Gingembre Jamaïquain, Gingembre Noir, Ginger Essential Oil, Ginger Root, Huile Essentielle de Gingembre, Imber, Indian Ginger, Jamaica Ginger, Jengibre, Jiang, Kankyo, Kanshokyo, Nagara, Race Ginger, Racine de Gingembre, Rhizoma Zingiberi, Rhizoma Zingiberis, Rhizoma Zingiberis Recens, Shen Jiang, Sheng Jiang, Shoga, Shokyo, Shunthi, Srungavera, Sunth, Sunthi, Vishvabheshaja, Zingiber Officinale, Zingiberis Rhizoma, Zingiberis Siccatum Rhizoma, Zinzeberis, Zinziber Officinale, Zinziber Officinalis.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


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  182. Hibino, T., Yuzurihara, M., Terawaki, K., Kanno, H., Kase, Y., and Takeda, A. Goshuyuto, a traditional Japanese medicine for migraine, inhibits platelet aggregation in guinea-pig whole blood. J Pharmacol.Sci 2008;108:89-94. View abstract.
  183. Zick, S. M., Djuric, Z., Ruffin, M. T., Litzinger, A. J., Normolle, D. P., Alrawi, S., Feng, M. R., and Brenner, D. E. Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 2008;17:1930-1936. View abstract.
  184. Singh, G., Kapoor, I. P., Singh, P., De Heluani, C. S., De Lampasona, M. P., and Catalan, C. A. Chemistry, antioxidant and antimicrobial investigations on essential oil and oleoresins of Zingiber officinale. Food Chem Toxicol. 2008;46:3295-3302. View abstract.
  185. Ahui, M. L., Champy, P., Ramadan, A., Pham, Van L., Araujo, L., Brou, Andre K., Diem, S., Damotte, D., Kati-Coulibaly, S., Offoumou, M. A., Dy, M., Thieblemont, N., and Herbelin, A. Ginger prevents Th2-mediated immune responses in a mouse model of airway inflammation. Int Immunopharmacol. 12-10-2008;8:1626-1632. View abstract.
  186. Pan, M. H., Hsieh, M. C., Hsu, P. C., Ho, S. Y., Lai, C. S., Wu, H., Sang, S., and Ho, C. T. 6-Shogaol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced up-expression of iNOS and COX-2 in murine macrophages. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:1467-1477. View abstract.
  187. Ajith, T. A., Aswathy, M. S., and Hema, U. Protective effect of Zingiber officinale roscoe against anticancer drug doxorubicin-induced acute nephrotoxicity. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2008;46:3178-3181. View abstract.
  188. Han, L. K., Morimoto, C., Zheng, Y. N., Li, W., Asami, E., Okuda, H., and Saito, M. [Effects of zingerone on fat storage in ovariectomized rats]. Yakugaku Zasshi 2008;128:1195-1201. View abstract.
  189. Hickok, J. T., Roscoe, J. A., Morrow, G. R., and Ryan, J. L. A Phase II/III Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Clinical Trial of Ginger (Zingiber officinale) for Nausea Caused by Chemotherapy for Cancer: A Currently Accruing URCC CCOP Cancer Control Study. Support.Cancer Ther 9-1-2007;4:247-250. View abstract.
  190. Choi, K. M., Gang, J., and Yun, J. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii RH strain activity of herbal extracts used in traditional medicine. Int J Antimicrob.Agents 2008;32:360-362. View abstract.
  191. Rahuman, A. A., Gopalakrishnan, G., Venkatesan, P., Geetha, K., and Bagavan, A. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Phytother.Res 2008;22:1035-1039. View abstract.
  192. Isa, Y., Miyakawa, Y., Yanagisawa, M., Goto, T., Kang, M. S., Kawada, T., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K., and Tsuda, T. 6-Shogaol and 6-gingerol, the pungent of ginger, inhibit TNF-alpha mediated downregulation of adiponectin expression via different mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 8-29-2008;373:429-434. View abstract.
  193. El Abhar, H. S., Hammad, L. N., and Gawad, H. S. Modulating effect of ginger extract on rats with ulcerative colitis. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-13-2008;118:367-372. View abstract.
  194. Levine, M. E., Gillis, M. G., Koch, S. Y., Voss, A. C., Stern, R. M., and Koch, K. L. Protein and ginger for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea. J Altern.Complement Med 2008;14:545-551. View abstract.
  195. Buddhakala, N., Talubmook, C., Sriyotha, P., Wray, S., and Kupittayanant, S. Inhibitory effects of ginger oil on spontaneous and PGF2alpha-induced contraction of rat myometrium. Planta Med 2008;74:385-391. View abstract.
  196. Kim, J. S., Lee, S. I., Park, H. W., Yang, J. H., Shin, T. Y., Kim, Y. C., Baek, N. I., Kim, S. H., Choi, S. U., Kwon, B. M., Leem, K. H., Jung, M. Y., and Kim, D. K. Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Arch Pharm.Res 2008;31:415-418. View abstract.
  197. Ghayur, M. N., Gilani, A. H., and Janssen, L. J. Ginger attenuates acetylcholine-induced contraction and Ca2+ signalling in murine airway smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008;86:264-271. View abstract.
  198. Wu, K. L., Rayner, C. K., Chuah, S. K., Changchien, C. S., Lu, S. N., Chiu, Y. C., Chiu, K. W., and Lee, C. M. Effects of ginger on gastric emptying and motility in healthy humans. Eur.J Gastroenterol.Hepatol. 2008;20:436-440. View abstract.
  199. Pan, M. H., Hsieh, M. C., Kuo, J. M., Lai, C. S., Wu, H., Sang, S., and Ho, C. T. 6-Shogaol induces apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cells via ROS production, caspase activation, and GADD 153 expression. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2008;52:527-537. View abstract.
  200. Perez, M. E. and Youssef, N. N. Dyspepsia in childhood and adolescence: insights and treatment considerations. Curr.Gastroenterol.Rep. 2007;9:447-455. View abstract.
  201. Krishnaswamy, K. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance. Asia Pac.J Clin Nutr. 2008;17 Suppl 1:265-268. View abstract.
  202. Ueki, S., Miyoshi, M., Shido, O., Hasegawa, J., and Watanabe, T. Systemic administration of [6]-gingerol, a pungent constituent of ginger, induces hypothermia in rats via an inhibitory effect on metabolic rate. Eur.J Pharmacol. 4-14-2008;584:87-92. View abstract.
  203. Pushpanathan, T., Jebanesan, A., and Govindarajan, M. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol.Res 2008;102:1289-1291. View abstract.
  204. Ensiyeh, J. and Sakineh, M. A. Comparing ginger and vitamin B6 for the treatment of nausea and vomiting in pregnancy: a randomised controlled trial. Midwifery 2009;25:649-653. View abstract.
  205. Zhao, X. X., Lu, M., Zhu, X., Gao, P., Li, Y. L., Wang, X. M., Ma, D. Y., Guo, X. H., Tong, B. Y., Yang, X. L., Du, W. W., Zhou, S. F., Liu, H. M., Ran, P. F., and Lu, X. R. [Multi-central clinical evaluation of ginger-partitioned moxibustion for treatment of leukopenia induced by chemotherapy]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2007;27:715-720. View abstract.
  206. Mallikarjuna, K., Sahitya, Chetan P., Sathyavelu, Reddy K., and Rajendra, W. Ethanol toxicity: rehabilitation of hepatic antioxidant defense system with dietary ginger. Fitoterapia 2008;79:174-178. View abstract.
  207. Chen, C. Y., Chen, C. H., Kung, C. H., Kuo, S. H., and Kuo, S. Y. [6]-gingerol induces Ca2+ mobilization in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71:137-140. View abstract.
  208. Tao, Q. F., Xu, Y., Lam, R. Y., Schneider, B., Dou, H., Leung, P. S., Shi, S. Y., Zhou, C. X., Yang, L. X., Zhang, R. P., Xiao, Y. C., Wu, X., Stockigt, J., Zeng, S., Cheng, C. H., and Zhao, Y. Diarylheptanoids and a monoterpenoid from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale: antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. J Nat.Prod. 2008;71:12-17. View abstract.
  209. Rhode, J., Fogoros, S., Zick, S., Wahl, H., Griffith, K. A., Huang, J., and Liu, J. R. Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2007;7:44. View abstract.
  210. Lee, S. H., Cekanova, M., and Baek, S. J. Multiple mechanisms are involved in 6-gingerol-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells. Mol.Carcinog. 2008;47:197-208. View abstract.
  211. Minghetti, P., Sosa, S., Cilurzo, F., Casiraghi, A., Alberti, E., Tubaro, A., Loggia, R. D., and Montanari, L. Evaluation of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of ginger dry extracts from solutions and plasters. Planta Med 2007;73:1525-1530. View abstract.
  212. Shukla, Y., Prasad, S., Tripathi, C., Singh, M., George, J., and Kalra, N. In vitro and in vivo modulation of testosterone mediated alterations in apoptosis related proteins by [6]-gingerol. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2007;51:1492-1502. View abstract.
  213. Imokawa, G. Recent advances in characterizing biological mechanisms underlying UV-induced wrinkles: a pivotal role of fibrobrast-derived elastase. Arch Dermatol.Res 2008;300 Suppl 1:S7-20. View abstract.
  214. Aimbire, F., Penna, S. C., Rodrigues, M., Rodrigues, K. C., Lopes-Martins, R. A., and Sertie, J. A. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Zingiber officinalis rhizomes on LPS-induced rat airway hyperreactivity and lung inflammation. Prostaglandins Leukot.Essent.Fatty Acids 2007;77(3-4):129-138. View abstract.
  215. Pumbwe, L., Skilbeck, C. A., and Wexler, H. M. Induction of multiple antibiotic resistance in Bacteroides fragilis by benzene and benzene-derived active compounds of commonly used analgesics, antiseptics and cleaning agents. J Antimicrob.Chemother. 2007;60:1288-1297. View abstract.
  216. Chen, J. C., Huang, L. J., Wu, S. L., Kuo, S. C., Ho, T. Y., and Hsiang, C. Y. Ginger and its bioactive component inhibit enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea in mice. J Agric.Food Chem. 10-17-2007;55:8390-8397. View abstract.
  217. Bhattarai, S., Tran, V. H., and Duke, C. C. Stability of [6]-gingerol and [6]-shogaol in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 11-30-2007;45:648-653. View abstract.
  218. Ishiguro, K., Ando, T., Maeda, O., Ohmiya, N., Niwa, Y., Kadomatsu, K., and Goto, H. Ginger ingredients reduce viability of gastric cancer cells via distinct mechanisms. Biochem.Biophys.Res Commun. 10-12-2007;362:218-223. View abstract.
  219. Verma, R. J. and Asnani, V. Ginger extract ameliorates paraben induced biochemical changes in liver and kidney of mice. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64:217-220. View abstract.
  220. Lee, H. S., Seo, E. Y., Kang, N. E., and Kim, W. K. [6]-Gingerol inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J Nutr.Biochem. 2008;19:313-319. View abstract.
  221. Asnani, V. and Verma, R. J. Antioxidative effect of rhizome of Zinziber officinale on paraben induced lipid peroxidation: an in vitro study. Acta Pol.Pharm. 2007;64:35-37. View abstract.
  222. Ajith, T. A., Hema, U., and Aswathy, M. S. Zingiber officinale Roscoe prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity by enhancing hepatic antioxidant status. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45:2267-2272. View abstract.
  223. Lam, R. Y., Woo, A. Y., Leung, P. S., and Cheng, C. H. Antioxidant actions of phenolic compounds found in dietary plants on low-density lipoprotein and erythrocytes in vitro. J Am.Coll.Nutr. 2007;26:233-242. View abstract.
  224. Ghayur, M. N., Khan, A. H., and Gilani, A. H. Ginger facilitates cholinergic activity possibly due to blockade of muscarinic autoreceptors in rat stomach fundus. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2007;20:231-235. View abstract.
  225. Riyazi, A., Hensel, A., Bauer, K., Geissler, N., Schaaf, S., and Verspohl, E. J. The effect of the volatile oil from ginger rhizomes (Zingiber officinale), its fractions and isolated compounds on the 5-HT3 receptor complex and the serotoninergic system of the rat ileum. Planta Med 2007;73:355-362. View abstract.
  226. Mishra, C., Sharma, S., and Kakkar, P. A study to evaluate heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residue in Zingiber officinale Rosc. collected from different ecological zones of India. Bull Environ.Contam Toxicol. 2007;79:95-98. View abstract.
  227. Kim, D. S., Kim, J. Y., and Han, Y. S. Alzheimer's disease drug discovery from herbs: neuroprotectivity from beta-amyloid (1-42) insult. J Altern.Complement Med. 2007;13:333-340. View abstract.
  228. Cortright, D. N., Krause, J. E., and Broom, D. C. TRP channels and pain. Biochim.Biophys.Acta 2007;1772:978-988. View abstract.
  229. Kim, J. K., Kim, Y., Na, K. M., Surh, Y. J., and Kim, T. Y. [6]-Gingerol prevents UVB-induced ROS production and COX-2 expression in vitro and in vivo. Free Radic.Res 2007;41:603-614. View abstract.
  230. Vijaya, Padma, V, Arul Diana, Christie S., and Ramkuma, K. M. Induction of apoptosis by ginger in HEp-2 cell line is mediated by reactive oxygen species. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2007;100:302-307. View abstract.
  231. Chrubasik, J. E., Roufogalis, B. D., and Chrubasik, S. Evidence of effectiveness of herbal antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis and chronic low back pain. Phytother Res 2007;21:675-683. View abstract.
  232. Affeltranger, M. A., McBurney, D. H., and Balaban, C. D. Temporal interactions between oral irritants: piperine, zingerone, and capsaicin. Chem.Senses 2007;32:455-462. View abstract.
  233. Niforatos, W., Zhang, X. F., Lake, M. R., Walter, K. A., Neelands, T., Holzman, T. F., Scott, V. E., Faltynek, C. R., Moreland, R. B., and Chen, J. Activation of TRPA1 channels by the fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl cyclohexylcarbamate (URB597). Mol.Pharmacol. 2007;71:1209-1216. View abstract.
  234. Siddaraju, M. N. and Dharmesh, S. M. Inhibition of gastric H+, K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori growth by phenolic antioxidants of Zingiber officinale. Mol.Nutr.Food Res 2007;51:324-332. View abstract.
  235. Tripathi, S., Maier, K. G., Bruch, D., and Kittur, D. S. Effect of 6-gingerol on pro-inflammatory cytokine production and costimulatory molecule expression in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Surg.Res 2007;138:209-213. View abstract.
  236. Ajith, T. A., Nivitha, V., and Usha, S. Zingiber officinale Roscoe alone and in combination with alpha-tocopherol protect the kidney against cisplatin-induced acute renal failure. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2007;45:921-927. View abstract.
  237. Ansari, M. N., Bhandari, U., and Pillai, K. K. Ethanolic Zingiber officinale R. extract pretreatment alleviates isoproterenol-induced oxidative myocardial necrosis in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44:892-897. View abstract.
  238. Woo, H. M., Kang, J. H., Kawada, T., Yoo, H., Sung, M. K., and Yu, R. Active spice-derived components can inhibit inflammatory responses of adipose tissue in obesity by suppressing inflammatory actions of macrophages and release of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 from adipocytes. Life Sci. 2-13-2007;80:926-931. View abstract.
  239. Iwasaki, Y., Morita, A., Iwasawa, T., Kobata, K., Sekiwa, Y., Morimitsu, Y., Kubota, K., and Watanabe, T. A nonpungent component of steamed ginger--[10]-shogaol--increases adrenaline secretion via the activation of TRPV1. Nutr.Neurosci. 2006;9(3-4):169-178. View abstract.
  240. Shukla, Y. and Singh, M. Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45:683-690. View abstract.
  241. Nonn, L., Duong, D., and Peehl, D. M. Chemopreventive anti-inflammatory activities of curcumin and other phytochemicals mediated by MAP kinase phosphatase-5 in prostate cells. Carcinogenesis 2007;28:1188-1196. View abstract.
  242. Pfeiffer, E., Heuschmid, F. F., Kranz, S., and Metzler, M. Microsomal hydroxylation and glucuronidation of [6]-gingerol. J Agric.Food Chem. 11-15-2006;54:8769-8774. View abstract.
  243. Wu, C. X., Wei, X. B., Ding, H., Sun, X., and Cheng, X. M. [Protective effect of effective parts of Zingiber Offecinal on vascular endothelium of the experimental hyperlipidemic rats]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 2006;29:810-813. View abstract.
  244. Park, Y. J., Wen, J., Bang, S., Park, S. W., and Song, S. Y. [6]-Gingerol induces cell cycle arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Yonsei Med J 10-31-2006;47:688-697. View abstract.
  245. Chopra, A., Lavin, P., Patwardhan, B., and Chitre, D. A 32-week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA-11, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees. J Clin Rheumatol. 2004;10:236-245. View abstract.
  246. Liu, H. L. and Wang, L. P. [Randomized controlled study on ginger-salt-partitioned moxibustion at shenque (CV 8) on urination disorders poststroke]. Zhongguo Zhen.Jiu. 2006;26:621-624. View abstract.
  247. Kuhad, A., Tirkey, N., Pilkhwal, S., and Chopra, K. 6-Gingerol prevents cisplatin-induced acute renal failure in rats. Biofactors 2006;26:189-200. View abstract.
  248. Sookkongwaree, K., Geitmann, M., Roengsumran, S., Petsom, A., and Danielson, U. H. Inhibition of viral proteases by Zingiberaceae extracts and flavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora. Pharmazie 2006;61:717-721. View abstract.
  249. Yemitan, O. K. and Izegbu, M. C. Protective effects of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae) against carbon tetrachloride and acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Phytother.Res 2006;20:997-1002. View abstract.
  250. Kato, A., Higuchi, Y., Goto, H., Kizu, H., Okamoto, T., Asano, N., Hollinshead, J., Nash, R. J., and Adachi, I. Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo. J Agric.Food Chem. 9-6-2006;54:6640-6644. View abstract.
  251. Kyung, K. S., Gon, J. H., Geun, K. Y., Sup, J. J., Suk, W. J., and Ho, K. J. 6-Shogaol, a natural product, reduces cell death and restores motor function in rat spinal cord injury. Eur.J Neurosci. 2006;24:1042-1052. View abstract.
  252. Ramirez-Ahumada, Mdel C., Timmermann, B. N., and Gang, D. R. Biosynthesis of curcuminoids and gingerols in turmeric (Curcuma longa) and ginger (Zingiber officinale): identification of curcuminoid synthase and hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA thioesterases. Phytochemistry 2006;67:2017-2029. View abstract.
  253. Yu, Y., Huang, T., Yang, B., Liu, X., and Duan, G. Development of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with microwave distillation and simultaneous solid-phase microextraction for rapid determination of volatile constituents in ginger. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 1-4-2007;43:24-31. View abstract.
  254. Bidinotto, L. T., Spinardi-Barbisan, A. L., Rocha, N. S., Salvadori, D. M., and Barbisan, L. F. Effects of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) on DNA damage and development of urothelial tumors in a mouse bladder carcinogenesis model. Environ.Mol.Mutagen. 2006;47:624-630. View abstract.
  255. Ghayur, M. N. and Gilani, A. H. Species differences in the prokinetic effects of ginger. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2006;57(1-2):65-73. View abstract.
  256. Nie, H., Meng, L. Z., and Zhang, H. [Effect of gingerol on endotoxemia mouse model induced by heatstroke]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2006;26:529-532. View abstract.
  257. Picaud, S., Olsson, M. E., Brodelius, M., and Brodelius, P. E. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of recombinant (+)-germacrene D synthase from Zingiber officinale. Arch Biochem.Biophys. 8-1-2006;452:17-28. View abstract.
  258. Haksar, A., Sharma, A., Chawla, R., Kumar, R., Arora, R., Singh, S., Prasad, J., Gupta, M., Tripathi, R. P., Arora, M. P., Islam, F., and Sharma, R. K. Zingiber officinale exhibits behavioral radioprotection against radiation-induced CTA in a gender-specific manner. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 2006;84:179-188. View abstract.
  259. Arranz, I., Sizoo, E., van Egmond, H., Kroeger, K., Legarda, T. M., Burdaspal, P., Reif, K., and Stroka, J. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in medical herbs: interlaboratory study. J AOAC Int 2006;89:595-605. View abstract.
  260. Amin, A. and Hamza, A. A. Effects of Roselle and Ginger on cisplatin-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Asian J Androl 2006;8:607-612. View abstract.
  261. Schwertner, H. A., Rios, D. C., and Pascoe, J. E. Variation in concentration and labeling of ginger root dietary supplements. Obstet.Gynecol. 2006;107:1337-1343. View abstract.
  262. Aktan, F., Henness, S., Tran, V. H., Duke, C. C., Roufogalis, B. D., and Ammit, A. J. Gingerol metabolite and a synthetic analogue Capsarol inhibit macrophage NF-kappaB-mediated iNOS gene expression and enzyme activity. Planta Med 2006;72:727-734. View abstract.
  263. Lantz, R. C., Chen, G. J., Sarihan, M., Solyom, A. M., Jolad, S. D., and Timmermann, B. N. The effect of extracts from ginger rhizome on inflammatory mediator production. Phytomedicine 2007;14(2-3):123-128. View abstract.
  264. Tsukahara, K., Nakagawa, H., Moriwaki, S., Takema, Y., Fujimura, T., and Imokawa, G. Inhibition of ultraviolet-B-induced wrinkle formation by an elastase-inhibiting herbal extract: implication for the mechanism underlying elastase-associated wrinkles. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:460-468. View abstract.
  265. Westerterp-Plantenga, M., Diepvens, K., Joosen, A. M., Berube-Parent, S., and Tremblay, A. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine. Physiol Behav. 8-30-2006;89:85-91. View abstract.
  266. Pezo, D., Salafranca, J., and Nerin, C. Design of a method for generation of gas-phase hydroxyl radicals, and use of HPLC with fluorescence detection to assess the antioxidant capacity of natural essential oils. Anal.Bioanal.Chem. 2006;385:1241-1246. View abstract.
  267. Nostro, A., Cellini, L., Di Bartolomeo, S., Cannatelli, M. A., Di Campli, E., Procopio, F., Grande, R., Marzio, L., and Alonzo, V. Effects of combining extracts (from propolis or Zingiber officinale) with clarithromycin on Helicobacter pylori. Phytother.Res 2006;20:187-190. View abstract.
  268. Goyal, R. K. and Kadnur, S. V. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale on goldthioglucose induced obesity. Fitoterapia 2006;77:160-163. View abstract.
  269. Nagoshi, C., Shiota, S., Kuroda, T., Hatano, T., Yoshida, T., Kariyama, R., and Tsuchiya, T. Synergistic effect of [10]-gingerol and aminoglycosides against vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). Biol.Pharm.Bull 2006;29:443-447. View abstract.
  270. Wohlmuth, H., Smith, M. K., Brooks, L. O., Myers, S. P., and Leach, D. N. Essential oil composition of diploid and tetraploid clones of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) grown in Australia. J Agric.Food Chem. 2-22-2006;54:1414-1419. View abstract.
  271. Iqbal, Z., Lateef, M., Akhtar, M. S., Ghayur, M. N., and Gilani, A. H. In vivo anthelmintic activity of ginger against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. J Ethnopharmacol. 6-30-2006;106:285-287. View abstract.
  272. Dias, M. C., Spinardi-Barbisan, A. L., Rodrigues, M. A., de Camargo, J. L., Teran, E., and Barbisan, L. F. Lack of chemopreventive effects of ginger on colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2006;44:877-884. View abstract.
  273. Imanishi, N., Andoh, T., Mantani, N., Sakai, S., Terasawa, K., Shimada, Y., Sato, M., Katada, Y., Ueda, K., and Ochiai, H. Macrophage-mediated inhibitory effect of Zingiber officinale Rosc, a traditional oriental herbal medicine, on the growth of influenza A/Aichi/2/68 virus. Am.J Chin Med 2006;34:157-169. View abstract.
  274. Wang, W. H. and Wang, Z. M. [Studies of commonly used traditional medicine-ginger]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30:1569-1573. View abstract.
  275. Desmarchelier, C., del, V. Pacciaroni, Abate-Daga, D., Coussio, J., Gil, R. R., and Silva, G. L. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities of Misodendrum punctulatum, myzodendrone and structurally related phenols. Phytother.Res 2005;19:1043-1047. View abstract.
  276. Abdel-Aziz, H., Windeck, T., Ploch, M., and Verspohl, E. J. Mode of action of gingerols and shogaols on 5-HT3 receptors: binding studies, cation uptake by the receptor channel and contraction of isolated guinea-pig ileum. Eur.J Pharmacol. 1-13-2006;530(1-2):136-143. View abstract.
  277. Kadnur, S. V. and Goyal, R. K. Beneficial effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe on fructose induced hyperlipidemia and hyperinsulinemia in rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2005;43:1161-1164. View abstract.
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Last reviewed - 02/14/2015