URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/981.html


What is it?

Echinacea is an herb. Several species of the echinacea plant are used to make medicine from its leaves, flower, and root.

Echinacea is widely used to fight infections, especially the common cold and other upper respiratory infections. Some people take echinacea at the first sign of a cold, hoping they will be able to keep the cold from developing. Other people take echinacea after cold symptoms have started, hoping they can make symptoms less severe. The people who use echinacea to treat symptoms have the right idea. Research to date shows that echinacea probably modestly reduces cold symptoms, but it’s not clear whether it helps prevent colds from developing.

Echinacea is also used against many other infections including the flu, urinary tract infections, vaginal yeast infections, genital herpes, bloodstream infections (septicemia), gum disease, tonsillitis, streptococcus infections, syphilis, typhoid, malaria, and diphtheria.

Other uses not related to infection include chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), rheumatism, migraines, acid indigestion, pain, dizziness, rattlesnake bites, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Sometimes people apply echinacea to their skin to treat boils, abscesses, skin wounds, ulcers, burns, eczema, psoriasis, UV radiation skin damage, herpes simplex, bee stings, and hemorrhoids.

Echinacea species are native to North America and were used as traditional herbal remedies by the Great Plains Indian tribes. Later, settlers followed the Indians’ example and began using echinacea for medicinal purposes as well. For a time, echinacea enjoyed official status as a result of being listed in the US National Formulary from 1916-1950. However, use of echinacea fell out of favor in the United States with the discovery of antibiotics and due to the lack of scientific evidence supporting its use. But now, people are becoming interested in echinacea again because some antibiotics don’t work as well as they used to against certain bacteria.

Commercially available echinacea products come in many forms including tablets, juice, and tea.

There are concerns about the quality of some echinacea products on the market. Echinacea products are frequently mislabeled, and some may not even contain echinacea, despite label claims. Don’t be fooled by the term “standardized.” It doesn’t necessarily indicate accurate labeling. Also, some echinacea products have been contaminated with selenium, arsenic, and lead.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for ECHINACEA are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Common cold. Many scientific studies show that taking some echinacea products when cold symptoms are first noticed can modestly reduce symptoms of the common cold in adults. But other scientific studies show no benefit. The problem is that scientific studies have used different types of echinacea plants and different methods of preparation. Since the studies have not been consistent, it is not surprising that different studies show different results. If it helps for treating a cold, the benefit will likely be modest at best. It also isn’t clear whether echinacea can help PREVENT colds. Any benefit is likely to be modest.
  • Vaginal yeast infections. Taking echinacea and applying a medicated cream to the skin seems to lower the recurrence rate of infection to about 16% compared to 60.5% with econazole alone.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Ear infection. Early research suggests that taking a liquid echinacea extract does not prevent ear infections in children who are prone to ear infections. The risk of ear infection was actually increased by 1.59 times in children receiving echinacea.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Anxiety. Early research suggests that taking 40 mg of echinacea daily for one week reduces anxiety. It does not seem to reduce anxiety when taken at a lower dose.
  • Exercise performance. Early research shows that taking 8 grams of echinacea daily for 28 days improves breathing capacity during exercise in healthy men.
  • Gingivitis. Early research suggests that applying a patch in the mouth or using a mouth rinse containing Centella asiatica, Echinacea purpurea, and Sambucus nigra for 14 days improves gingivitis in people with long-term gum disease.
  • Genital herpes (Herpes simplex virus, HSV). Evidence on the effect of echinacea for the treatment of HSV is unclear. Some research shows that taking a specific echinacea extract (Echinaforce by Bioforce AG) 800 mg twice daily for 6 months does not seem to prevent or reduce the frequency or duration of recurrent genital herpes. However, other research shows that taking a combination product containing echinacea (Esberitox) 3-5 times daily reduces itchiness, tension, and pain in most people with HSV.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV). Early research shows that taking a combination product containing echinacea, Andrographis paniculata, grapefruit, papaya, Tabebuia, and Uncaria (Erbavita) daily for one month reduces the recurrence of anal warts in people who had surgical removal of anal warts.
  • Influenza (flu). Taking echinacea by mouth might slightly reduce some symptoms of the flu. However, there is not enough evidence to know if echinacea can treat or prevent the flu.
  • Low white blood cell count (Leukopenia). Administering a part of echinacea through the vein (intravenously) might reduce white blood cell loss caused by chemotherapy. In early research, taking 275 mg of echinacea by mouth twice daily for two weeks also reduced blood cell damage caused by radiation. In other research, taking 50 drops of an echinacea product (Esberitox N) three times daily in between chemoradiation treatments improved blood cell numbers in people who had received chemotherapy for 6 months or less, but not in people who had received chemotherapy for longer periods of time.
  • Tonsillitis. Early research shows that spraying a specific product containing sage and echinacea every two hours up to 10 times daily for up to five days improved sore throat symptoms as well as commonly used drug sprays in people with tonsillitis. Other early research suggests that taking 50 drops of a product containing echinacea (Esberitox) three times daily for two weeks, along with an antibiotic, reduced sore throat and increased overall well-being in people with tonsillitis.
  • Eye inflammation (Uveitis). Early research suggests that taking 150 mg of an echinacea product (Iridium, SOOFT, Montegiorgio, Ageoli, Italy) twice daily, in addition to eye drops and a steroid used to treat inflammation, for four weeks, does not improve vision any more than eye drops and steroids alone in people with eye inflammation.
  • Warts. Early research suggests that taking 60 mg of echinacea by mouth daily for up to 3 months does not clear warts on the skin.
  • Urinary tract infections (UTIs).
  • Migraine headaches.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
  • Eczema.
  • Hayfever.
  • Allergies.
  • Bee stings.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate echinacea for these uses.

How does it work?

Echinacea seems to activate chemicals in the body that decrease inflammation, which might reduce cold and flu symptoms.

Laboratory research suggests that echinacea can stimulate the body’s immune system, but there is no evidence that this occurs in people.

Echinacea also seems to contain some chemicals that can attack yeast and other kinds of fungi directly.

Are there safety concerns?

Echinacea is LIKELY SAFE for most people when used short-term. There is not enough information to know if echinacea is safe for long-term use. Some side effects have been reported such as fever, nausea, vomiting, unpleasant taste, stomach pain, diarrhea, sore throat, dry mouth, headache, numbness of the tongue, dizziness, insomnia, disorientation, and joint and muscle aches.

Echinacea is POSSIBLY SAFE in children. It seems to be safe in most children ages 2-11 years. However, about 7% of these children may experience a rash that could be due to an allergic reaction. There is some concern that allergic reactions to echinacea could be more severe in some children. For this reason, some regulatory organizations have recommended against giving echinacea to children under 12 years of age.

Echinacea is most likely to cause allergic reactions in children and adults who are allergic to ragweed, mums, marigolds, or daisies. If you have allergies, be sure to check with your healthcare provider before taking echinacea.

Applying echinacea to the skin can cause redness, itchiness, or a rash.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy or breast-feeding: Not enough is known about the use of echinacea during pregnancy and breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

“Auto-immune disorders” such as such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), a skin disorder called pemphigus vulgaris, or others: Echinacea might have an effect on the immune system that could make these conditions worse. Don’t take echinacea if you have an auto-immune disorder.

An inherited tendency toward allergies (atopy): People with this condition are more likely to develop an allergic reaction to echinacea. It’s best to avoid exposure to echinacea if you have this condition.

Are there interactions with medications?

Be cautious with this combination.
The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Echinacea might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking echinacea along with caffeine might cause too much caffeine in the bloodstream and increase the risk of side effects. Common side effects include jitteriness, headache, and fast heartbeat.
Etoposide (VePesid)
Etoposide is changed and broken down by the body. Echinacea might change how the body breaks down some medications. Taking echinacea along with etoposide might increase the side effects of etoposide. Before taking echinacea, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the body.
Medications changed by the body (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the body. Echinacea might change how the body breaks down some medications. Taking echinacea along with some medications might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking echinacea, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the body.

Some medications changed by the body include lovastatin (Mevacor), clarithromycin (Biaxin), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), diltiazem (Cardizem), estrogens, indinavir (Crixivan), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.
Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. Echinacea might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking echinacea along with some medications might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking echinacea, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some of the medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants)
Echinacea can increase the activity of the immune system. Taking echinacea along with some medications that decrease the immune system might decrease these medications' effectiveness.

Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Be watchful with this combination.
Midazolam (Versed)
Taking midazolam (Versed) with echinacea increases how much midazolam (Versed) the body absorbs. This might increase the effects and side effects of midazolam (Versed), but more information is needed.
Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. The body breaks down warfarin (Coumadin) to get rid of it. Echinacea might increase the breakdown and decrease the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin). Decreasing the effectiveness of warfarin (Coumadin) might increase the risk of clotting. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

There are no known interactions with herbs and supplements.

Are there interactions with foods?

There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:


For treatment of upper respiratory infections including the common cold and influenza, a wide variety of doses have been used depending on how the echinacea is prepared. These preparations include:
  • A tablet containing 6.78 mg of Echinacea purpurea crude extract based on 95% herb and 5% root (Echinaforce, Bioforce AG): two tablets given 3 times daily.
  • Freeze-dried echinacea juice extract capsules: 100 mg three times daily.
  • Echinacea purpurea herb juice: a daily dose of 6-9 mL for up to a maximum of 8 weeks. Echinacea purpurea herb juice has also been used in a dose of 20 drops every 2 hours for the first day followed by 20 drops three times daily until cold or flu symptoms improve.
  • An echinacea pallida root tincture equivalent to 900 mg herb daily.
  • An echinacea herbal compound tea (Echinacea Plus, Traditional Medicinals), consisting of leaves, flowers, and stems of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia plus dried extract of Echinacea purpurea root, has been used by drinking 5-6 cups of tea on the first day of symptoms and titrating down to 1 cup per day over the next 5 days. The tea is prepared by pouring 8 ounces of boiling water over one tea bag and steeping, covered, for 10-15 minutes.
  • Echinacea liquid (Echinagard): 20 drops every 2 hours for the first day of symptoms, then 3 times daily for up to 10 days.
  • A tablet containing 100 mg of a proprietary Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Monoselect Echinacea, PharmExtracta, Italy): 2 tablets daily for 15 days, then 1 tablet daily for 15 days, then 1 tablet every other day for 60 days to help prevent colds and the flu.
  • Echinacea purpurea liquid: 0.9 mL 3 times daily for 4 months to help prevent colds.

Other names

American Cone Flower, Black Sampson, Black Susans, Brauneria Angustifolia, Brauneria Pallida, Comb Flower, Coneflower, Echinacea Angustifolia, Echinacea Pallida, Echinacea Purpurea, Echinaceawurzel, Échinacée, Échinacée Angustifolia, Échinacée Pallida, Échinacée Pourpre, Échinacée Purpurea, Equinácea, Fleur à Hérisson, Hedgehog, Igelkopfwurzel, Indian Head, Kansas Snakeroot, Narrow-Leaved Purple Cone Flower, Pale Coneflower, Purple Cone Flower, Purpursonnenhutkraut, Purpursonnenhutwurzel, Racine d'echininacea, Red Sunflower, Rock-Up-Hat, Roter Sonnenhut, Rudbeckie Pourpre, Schmallblaettrige Kegelblumenwurzel, Schmallblaettriger Sonnenhut, Scurvy Root, Snakeroot, Sonnenhutwurzel.


To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.


  1. Helbig G. Unspezifische Reizkörpertherapie zur Infektprophylaxe. Medizinische Klinik 1961;35:1512-1514.
  2. Kleinschmidt H. Versuche zur herabsetzung der infektneigung bei kleinkindern mit esberitox. Therapie ger Gegenwart 1965;104:1258-1262.
  3. Schmidt U, Albrecht M, and Schenk N. Immunstimulas senkt Häufigkeit grippaler Infekte. Plazebokontrollierte Doppelblindstudie mit einem kombinierten Echinacea-Präparat mit 646 Studenten der Kölner Universität. [Immunstimulator decreases the frequency of influenza-like syndromes. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial on 646 students of the University of Cologne]. Natur- und Ganzheitsmedizin 1990;3:277-281.
  4. Scaglione F and Lund B. Efficacy in the treatment of the common cold of a preparation containing an echinacea extract. International J Immunother 1995;11:163-166.
  5. Thom E and Wollan T. A controlled clinical study of Kanjang mixture in the treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections. Phytother.Research 1997;11:207-210.
  6. Dorn M. Milderung grippaler Infekte durch ein pflanzliches Immunstimulans [Treatment of influenza-like syndromes with a phytotherapeutic immunostimulatory preparation]. Natur-und-Ganzheitsmedizin 1989;2:314-319.
  7. Melchart D, Linde K, Worku F, and et al. Immunomodulation with echinacea - a systematic review of controlled clinical trials. Phytomed 1994;1:245-254.
  8. Galea, S. and Thacker, K. Double blind prospective trial investigating the effectiveness of a commonly prescribed herbal remedy in altering duration, severity and symptoms of the common cold. Unpublished report 1996;
  9. Vorberg G and Schneider B. Pflanzliches Immunstimulans verkürzt grippalen Infekt. Doppelblindstudie belegt die Steigerung der unspezifischen Infektabwehr [Phytotherapeutic immunostimulator decreases the duration of influenza-like syndromes. Double-blind trial proves the enhancement of unspecific immune defense]. Ärztliche Forschung 1989;36:3-8.
  10. Brinkeborn R, Shah D, Geissbuhler S, and et al. Echinaforce in the treatment of acute colds. Results of a placebo-controlled double-blind study carried out in Sweden. Schweiz Zschr Ganzheits Medizin 1998;10:26-29.
  11. Kim, K. H. and Levitsky, D. A. Echinacea's effect on the common cold: a double-blind, placebo controlled, clinical trial. Unpublished report 2002;
  12. Galea, S. and Thacker, K. Double-blind prospective trial investigation the effectiveness of a commonly prescribed herbal remedy in altering the duration, severity, and symptoms of the common cold. Program and abstracts of the Trillium Primary Care Research Forum, CFPC Annual Scientific Assembly 1996;
  13. Kreft, S. Assessment Report on Echinacea Purpurea (L.) Moench., Herba Recens. European Medicines Agency (EMA): Post-authorization evaluation of medicine for human use. 2008;
  14. Tunnerhoff FK and Schwabe HK. Studies in human beings and animals on the influence of echinacea extracts on the formation of connective tissue following the implantation of fibrin. Arzneim Forsch 1956;6:330-334.
  15. Bodinet C, Willigmann I, and Beuscher N. Host-resistance increasing activity of root extracts from Echinacea species. Planta Med 1993;59 (Suppl):a672-a673.
  16. Jurcic K, Melchart D, and Holzmann M. Two proband studies for the stimulation of granulocyte phagocytosis through echinacea extract containing preparations. Z.Phytoterapie 1989;10:67-70.
  17. Burger RA, Torres AR, Warren RP, and et al. Echinacea purpurea induced cytokine production in human peripheral blood adherent mononuclear cells (PBAC). J Allergy Clin Immun 1997;99(1, part 2):283.
  18. Bauer, R. and Wagner, H. Echinacea species as potential immunostimulatory drugs. In: Wagner, H. and Farnsworth, N. R. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research. New York: Academic Press;1991.
  19. Blunck, K. D. Susceptibility to infection at children's home-to increase the resistance against infections. Kinderarzt 1983;14:991-992.
  20. Liesen HK and et al. Leucocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations in players of the German olympic games in 1988. Deutsch Zeitschrift fur Soprtmedizin 1989;(special issue):1-10.
  21. Coeugniet E and Kuhnast R. Rezidivierende candidiasis. Therapiewoche 1986;36:3352-3358.
  22. Stolze H and Forth H. Eine Antibiotikabehandlung kann durch zusätzliche Immunstimulierung optimiert werden. [A treatment with antibiotics can be optimized by additional immunostimulation]. Der Kassenartz 1983;23:43-48.
  23. Vorberg, G. Bei Erkältung unspezifische Immunabwehr stimulieren. [For colds, stimulate the nonspecific immune system]. Ärztliche Praxis 1984;36:97-98.
  24. von Blumroeder, W. O. [Angina lacunaris. An investigation on how to stimulate the endogenous defense system] (German). Z.Allg.Med. 1985;61:271-273.
  25. Zimmer M. Gezielte konservative Therapie der akuten Sinusitis in der HNO-Praxis. [Specific conservative treatment of acute sinusitis in the ENT practice.]. Therapiewoche 1985;35:4024-4028.
  26. Hentschel, C., Zeppelin, H. H., Kohnen, R., Kohler, R., Wustenberg, P., and Ernst, E. Clinical efficacy of Esberitox in common cold - results of a (GCP) randomised double-blind placebo-controlled multicenter study. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Ther 1997;2:189.
  27. Parnham MJ. Benefit-risk assessment of the squeezed sap of the purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) for long-term oral immunostimulation. Phytomed 1996;3:95-102.
  28. Barrett B, Vohmann, M., and Calabrese, C. Information on additional echinacea trials. J Fam.Pract. 1999;48:1001-1002.
  29. Zimmermann O. Die therapie des keuchhusten mit Myo-Echinacin. Hippokrates 1969;6:223-235.
  30. Volz G. Zur keuchhustenbehandlung mit Myo-Echinacin. Ther Gegenwart 1957;96:312-313.
  31. Heesen W. Unspezifische behandlungsmoglichkeiten bei tuberkulosen erkrankungen. Erfahrungsheikunde 1964;13:210-217.
  32. Bräunig B and Knick E. Therapeutische Erfahrungen mit Echinaceae pallidae bei grippalen Infekten [Therapeutic experiences with Echinacea pallida in upper respiratory tract infections]. Naturheilpraxis 1993;1:72-75.
  33. Hoheisel, O., Sandberg, M., Bertram, S., Bulitta, M., and Schafer, M. Echinacea treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. European J Clin Research 1997;9:261-269.
  34. Bräunig, B., Dorn, M., Limburg, E., and et al. Enhancement of resistance in common cold by Echinacea purpurea radix. Zeitschrift fur Phytotherpie 1992;13:7-13.
  35. Dorn M, Knick E, and Lewith G. Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections. Complement Ther Med 1997;5:40-42.
  36. Berg A, Northoff H, Konig D, and et al. Influence of Echinacin (EC31) treatment on exercise-induced immune response in athletes. J Clin Res 1998;1:367-380.
  37. Schoneberger D. Einfluß der immunstimulierenden Wirkung von Preßsaft aus Herba Echinaceae purpureae auf Verlauf und Schweregrad von Erkältungskrankheiten. Ergebnisse einer Doppelblindstudie. [The influence of immune-stimulating effects of pressed juice from Echinacea purpurea on the course and severity of colds. Results of a double-blind study]. Forum Immunologie 1992;8:2-12.
  38. Whitehead, M., Martin, T., Scheet, T., and Webster, M. Running Economy and Maximal Oxygen Consumption Following 4-Weeks of Oral Echinacea Supplementation. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2011;
  39. Reitz, H. D. Immunodulatoren mit pflanzlichen Wirkstoffen: eine wissenschaftliche Studie am Beispiel Esberitox N [Immunomodulation with phytotherapeutic agents: a scientific study on the example of Esberitox]. Notabene medici 1990;20:362-366.
  40. Anonymous. Immunallergische reaktionen nach echinacea-extrakten (Echinacin, Exberitox N U.A.). Arnzei-telegramm 1991;(April):39.
  41. Baetgen D. Erfolge in der keuchhusten-behandlung mit
  42. Viehmann P. [Results of treatment with an Echinacea-based ointment]. Erfahrungsheilkunde 1978;27:353-358.
  43. Thompson, K. D. Antiviral activity of Viracea against acyclovir susceptible and acyclovir resistant strains of herpes simplex virus. Antiviral Res 1998;39:55-61. View abstract.
  44. Burger, R. A., Torres, A. R., Warren, R. P., Caldwell, V. D., and Hughes, B. G. Echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. Int.J Immunopharmacol. 1997;19:371-379. View abstract.
  45. Steinmuller, C., Roesler, J., Grottrup, E., Franke, G., Wagner, H., and Lohmann-Matthes, M. L. Polysaccharides isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea enhance the resistance of immunosuppressed mice against systemic infections with Candida albicans and Listeria monocytogenes. Int.J Immunopharmacol. 1993;15:605-614. View abstract.
  46. Kindzel'skii, L. P., Zlochevskaia, L. L., Tsyganok, T. V., and Shabaeva, M. M. [The effect of natural immunomodulators on the lymphocytic natural killer activity in patients with malignant lymphoproliferative diseases]. Lik.Sprava. 1995;(1-2):146-148. View abstract.
  47. Piller, N. B. The influence of a non-specific stimulator of host resistance on the number and morphological characteristics of macrophages attaching to subcutaneously implanted coverslips in the rat. Res Exp.Med (Berl) 1981;179:255-259. View abstract.
  48. Forth, H. and Beuscher, N. Beeinflussing der Häufigkeit banaler Erkältungsinfekte durch Esberitox. Zeitschrift für Allgemeinmedizin [Effect on the frequency of banal cold infections by esberitox]. ZFA.(Stuttgart.) 11-20-1981;57:2272-2275. View abstract.
  49. Beuscher, N. [On the influence of drugs on cellular mechanisms of resistance in the animal experiment/Activation of peritoneal macrophages of the mouse by a resistance stimulant on plant base (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1982;32:134-138. View abstract.
  50. Beuscher, N. [On the influence of drugs on cellular mechanism of resistance in the animal experiment. III. Enhancement of leukocyte mobilisation in the mouse by a resistance stimulant on plant base (author's transl)]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1980;30:821-825. View abstract.
  51. Mose, J. R. [Effect of Echinacin on phagocytosis and natural killer cells]. Med Welt 12-30-1983;34(51-52):1463-1467. View abstract.
  52. Beuscher, N., Beuscher, H., Otto, B., and Schafer, B. [Modification by drugs of cellular and humoral resistance mechanisms in animal experiments. I. In-vitro studies of peritoneal leukocytes and serums in rats]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1977;27:1655-1660. View abstract.
  53. Pohl, P. [Treatment of radiation-induced leukopenia with Esberitox]. Ther Ggw. 1970;109:902-906. View abstract.
  54. Gerhardt, P. [Influence of an unspecific stimulation therapy using Esberitox on leukopoiesis during the use of ionizing radiation]. Strahlentherapie. 1972;143:549-558. View abstract.
  55. Voaden, D. J. and Jacobson, M. Tumor inhibitors. 3. Identification and synthesis of an oncolytic hydrocarbon from American coneflower roots. J Med Chem. 1972;15:619-623. View abstract.
  56. Kleinschmidt, H. [An experiment to decrease susceptibility to infections in young children with Esberitox]. Ther Ggw. 1965;104:1258-1262. View abstract.
  57. Sartor, K. J. [Efficacy of Esberitox in the treatment of radiation-induced leukopenia]. Ther Ggw. 1972;111:1147-1150. View abstract.
  58. Freyer, H. U. [Incidence of banal infections in childhood and possibilities of their prevention]. Fortschr.Med 2-7-1974;92:165-168. View abstract.
  59. Vomel, T. [Effect of a plant immunostimulant on phagocytosis of erythrocytes by the reticulohistiocytary system of isolated perfused rat liver]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35:1437-1439. View abstract.
  60. Beuscher, N. and Stolze, H. [Endotoxin content of plant drugs]. Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 5-6-1988;113:749-750. View abstract.
  61. Becker, K. P., Ditter, B., Nimsky, C., Urbaschek, R., and Urbaschek, B. [Endotoxin contents of phytopharmaceuticals: correlation with clinically observed side effects]. Dtsch.Med Wochenschr. 1-22-1988;113:83-87. View abstract.
  62. Coeugniet, E. G. and Elek, E. Immunomodulation with Viscum album and Echinacea purpurea extracts. Onkologie. 1987;10(3 Suppl):27-33. View abstract.
  63. Tubaro, A., Tragni, E., Del Negro, P., Galli, C. L., and Della, Loggia R. Anti-inflammatory activity of a polysaccharidic fraction of Echinacea angustifolia. J Pharm.Pharmacol. 1987;39:567-569. View abstract.
  64. Askeroglu, U., Alleyne, B., and Guyuron, B. Pharmaceutical and herbal products that may contribute to dry eyes. Plast.Reconstr.Surg. 2013;131:159-167. View abstract.
  65. Fashner, J., Ericson, K., and Werner, S. Treatment of the common cold in children and adults. Am.Fam.Physician 7-15-2012;86:153-159. View abstract.
  66. Zadoyan, G. and Fuhr, U. Phenotyping studies to assess the effects of phytopharmaceuticals on in vivo activity of main human cytochrome p450 enzymes. Planta Med. 2012;78:1428-1457. View abstract.
  67. Fonseca, B. L., dos Santos, B. C., Martins, P., Bonorino, C., Corte, T. W., da Silva, V. D., and Bauer, M. E. Neuroprotective effects of a new skin care formulation following ultraviolet exposure. Cell Prolif. 2012;45:48-52. View abstract.
  68. Hudson, J. B. Applications of the phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in infectious diseases. J Biomed.Biotechnol. 2012;2012:769896. View abstract.
  69. Hou, C. C., Huang, C. C., and Shyur, L. F. Echinacea alkamides prevent lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine-induced acute hepatic injury through JNK pathway-mediated HO-1 expression. J Agric.Food Chem 11-23-2011;59:11966-11974. View abstract.
  70. Lersch, C., Zeuner, M., Bauer, A., Siebenrock, K., Hart, R., Wagner, F., Fink, U., Dancygier, H., and Classen, M. Stimulation of the immune response in outpatients with hepatocellular carcinomas by low doses of cyclophosphamide (LDCY), echinacea purpurea extracts (Echinacin) and thymostimulin. Arch.Geschwulstforsch. 1990;60:379-383. View abstract.
  71. Ritchie, M. R., Gertsch, J., Klein, P., and Schoop, R. Effects of Echinaforce(R) treatment on ex vivo-stimulated blood cells. Phytomedicine. 7-15-2011;18:826-831. View abstract.
  72. Minetti, A. M., Forti, S., Tassone, G., Torretta, S., and Pignataro, L. Efficacy of complex herbal compound of Echinacea angustifolia (Imoviral(R) Junior) in recurrent upper respiratory tract infections during pediatric age: preliminary results. Minerva Pediatr 2011;63:177-182. View abstract.
  73. Ma, H., Carpenter, C. L., Sullivan-Halley, J., and Bernstein, L. The roles of herbal remedies in survival and quality of life among long-term breast cancer survivors--results of a prospective study. BMC.Cancer 2011;11:222. View abstract.
  74. Ruffoni, B., Pistelli, L., Bertoli, A., and Pistelli, L. Plant cell cultures: bioreactors for industrial production. Adv.Exp.Med Biol. 2010;698:203-221. View abstract.
  75. Senchina, D. S., Strauch, J. H., Hoffmann, G. B., Shah, N. B., Laflen, B. K., Dumke, B. L., Dao, C. T., Dias, A. S., and Perera, M. A. Phytochemical and immunomodulatory properties of an Echinacea laevigata (Asteraceae) tincture. J Altern.Complement Med 2011;17:375-377. View abstract.
  76. He, S. M., Chan, E., and Zhou, S. F. ADME properties of herbal medicines in humans: evidence, challenges and strategies. Curr.Pharm.Des 2011;17:357-407. View abstract.
  77. Baillard, C. [Perioperative management of chronic treatment and medical devices. Phytotherapy]. Ann.Fr.Anesth.Reanim. 2011;30:200. View abstract.
  78. Bensch, K., Tiralongo, J., Schmidt, K., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Lehmann, R., and Tiralongo, E. Investigations into the antiadhesive activity of herbal extracts against Campylobacter jejuni. Phytother.Res 2011;25:1125-1132. View abstract.
  79. Unger, M. [Pharmacokinetic drug interactions by herbal drugs: Critical evaluation and clinical relevance]. Wien.Med.Wochenschr. 2010;160(21-22):571-577. View abstract.
  80. Goey, A. K., Sparidans, R. W., Meijerman, I., Rosing, H., Schellens, J. H., and Beijnen, J. H. A sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the quantitative analysis of the Echinacea purpurea constituent undeca-2-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide in human plasma. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci. 1-1-2011;879:41-48. View abstract.
  81. Wu, L., Rowe, E. W., Jeftinija, K., Jeftinija, S., Rizshsky, L., Nikolau, B. J., McKay, J., Kohut, M., and Wurtele, E. S. Echinacea-induced cytosolic Ca2+ elevation in HEK293. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2010;10:72. View abstract.
  82. Codorean, E., Nichita, C., Albulescu, L., Raducan, E., Popescu, I. D., Lonita, A. C., and Albulescu, R. Correlation of XMAP and ELISA cytokine profiles; development and validation for immunotoxicological studies in vitro. Roum.Arch.Microbiol.Immunol. 2010;69:13-19. View abstract.
  83. He, S. M., Li, C. G., Liu, J. P., Chan, E., Duan, W., and Zhou, S. F. Disposition pathways and pharmacokinetics of herbal medicines in humans. Curr.Med Chem 2010;17:4072-4113. View abstract.
  84. Maskatia, Z. K. and Baker, K. Hypereosinophilia associated with echinacea use. South.Med J 2010;103:1173-1174. View abstract.
  85. Saluk-Juszczak, J., Pawlaczyk, I., Olas, B., Kolodziejczyk, J., Ponczek, M., Nowak, P., Tsirigotis-Woloszczak, M., Wachowicz, B., and Gancarz, R. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins. Int.J Biol.Macromol. 12-1-2010;47:700-705. View abstract.
  86. Chiu, S. C., Tsao, S. W., Hwang, P. I., Vanisree, S., Chen, Y. A., and Yang, N. S. Differential functional genomic effects of anti-inflammatory phytocompounds on immune signaling. BMC.Genomics 2010;11:513. View abstract.
  87. Sharma, M., Schoop, R., Suter, A., and Hudson, J. B. The potential use of Echinacea in acne: control of Propionibacterium acnes growth and inflammation. Phytother.Res 2011;25:517-521. View abstract.
  88. Canlas, J., Hudson, J. B., Sharma, M., and Nandan, D. Echinacea and trypanasomatid parasite interactions: growth-inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects of Echinacea. Pharm.Biol. 2010;48:1047-1052. View abstract.
  89. Penzak, S. R., Robertson, S. M., Hunt, J. D., Chairez, C., Malati, C. Y., Alfaro, R. M., Stevenson, J. M., and Kovacs, J. A. Echinacea purpurea significantly induces cytochrome P450 3A activity but does not alter lopinavir-ritonavir exposure in healthy subjects. Pharmacotherapy 2010;30:797-805. View abstract.
  90. Luo, Y., Pan, J., Pan, Y., Han, Z., and Zhong, R. Evaluation of the protective effects of Chinese herbs against biomolecule damage induced by peroxynitrite. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 2010;74:1350-1354. View abstract.
  91. Geiger, S., Nickl, K., Schneider, E. H., Seifert, R., and Heilmann, J. Establishment of recombinant cannabinoid receptor assays and characterization of several natural and synthetic ligands. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch.Pharmacol. 2010;382:177-191. View abstract.
  92. Wacker, A. and Hilbig, W. [Virus-inhibition by echinacea purpurea (author's transl)]. Planta Med 1978;33:89-102. View abstract.
  93. Liu, R., Tam, T. W., Mao, J., Saleem, A., Krantis, A., Arnason, J. T., and Foster, B. C. The effect of natural health products and traditional medicines on the activity of human hepatic microsomal-mediated metabolism of oseltamivir. J Pharm.Pharm.Sci. 2010;13:43-55. View abstract.
  94. Colalto, C. Herbal interactions on absorption of drugs: Mechanisms of action and clinical risk assessment. Pharmacol Res 2010;62:207-227. View abstract.
  95. Ross, S. M. A standardized Echinacea extract demonstrates efficacy in the prevention and treatment of colds in athletes. Holist.Nurs.Pract 2010;24:107-109. View abstract.
  96. Toselli, F., Matthias, A., Bone, K. M., Gillam, E. M., and Lehmann, R. P. Metabolism of the major Echinacea alkylamide N-isobutyldodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10Z-tetraenamide by human recombinant cytochrome P450 enzymes and human liver microsomes. Phytother.Res 2010;24:1195-1201. View abstract.
  97. Sharma, S. M., Anderson, M., Schoop, S. R., and Hudson, J. B. Bactericidal and anti-inflammatory properties of a standardized Echinacea extract (Echinaforce): dual actions against respiratory bacteria. Phytomedicine. 2010;17(8-9):563-568. View abstract.
  98. Hou, C. C., Chen, C. H., Yang, N. S., Chen, Y. P., Lo, C. P., Wang, S. Y., Tien, Y. J., Tsai, P. W., and Shyur, L. F. Comparative metabolomics approach coupled with cell- and gene-based assays for species classification and anti-inflammatory bioactivity validation of Echinacea plants. J Nutr.Biochem. 2010;21:1045-1059. View abstract.
  99. Sharma, M., Schoop, R., and Hudson, J. B. The efficacy of Echinacea in a 3-D tissue model of human airway epithelium. Phytother.Res 2010;24:900-904. View abstract.
  100. Senchina, D. S., Shah, N. B., Doty, D. M., Sanderson, C. R., and Hallam, J. E. Herbal supplements and athlete immune function--what's proven, disproven, and unproven? Exerc.Immunol.Rev. 2009;15:66-106. View abstract.
  101. Chicca, A., Adinolfi, B., Pellati, F., Orlandini, G., Benvenuti, S., and Nieri, P. Cytotoxic activity and G1 cell cycle arrest of a Dienynone from Echinacea pallida. Planta Med 2010;76:444-446. View abstract.
  102. Boonen, J., Baert, B., Roche, N., Burvenich, C., and De, Spiegeleer B. Transdermal behaviour of the N-alkylamide spilanthol (affinin) from Spilanthes acmella (Compositae) extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-8-2010;127:77-84. View abstract.
  103. Senchina, D. S., Hallam, J. E., Dias, A. S., and Perera, M. A. Human blood mononuclear cell in vitro cytokine response before and after two different strenuous exercise bouts in the presence of bloodroot and Echinacea extracts. Blood Cells Mol.Dis 2009;43:298-303. View abstract.
  104. Izzo, A. A. and Ernst, E. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review. Drugs 2009;69:1777-1798. View abstract.
  105. Spelman, K., Iiams-Hauser, K., Cech, N. B., Taylor, E. W., Smirnoff, N., and Wenner, C. A. Role for PPARgamma in IL-2 inhibition in T cells by Echinacea-derived undeca-2E-ene-8,10-diynoic acid isobutylamide. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1260-1264. View abstract.
  106. Todurov, I. M., Dibrova, IuA, Kucheruk, V. V., and Kalashnikov, O. O. [Application of antihomotoxic preparations in complex treatment of early inflammatory complications, occurring after gastrointestinal operations]. Klin.Khir. 2009;:5-8. View abstract.
  107. Jacobsson, I., Jonsson, A. K., Gerden, B., and Hagg, S. Spontaneously reported adverse reactions in association with complementary and alternative medicine substances in Sweden. Pharmacoepidemiol.Drug Saf 2009;18:1039-1047.

    View abstract.
  108. Toselli, F., Matthias, A., and Gillam, E. M. Echinacea metabolism and drug interactions: the case for standardization of a complementary medicine. Life Sci. 7-17-2009;85(3-4):97-106. View abstract.
  109. Sharma, M., Anderson, S. A., Schoop, R., and Hudson, J. B. Induction of multiple pro-inflammatory cytokines by respiratory viruses and reversal by standardized Echinacea, a potent antiviral herbal extract. Antiviral Res 2009;83:165-170. View abstract.
  110. Ghaemi, A., Soleimanjahi, H., Gill, P., Arefian, E., Soudi, S., and Hassan, Z. Echinacea purpurea polysaccharide reduces the latency rate in herpes simplex virus type-1 infections. Intervirology 2009;52:29-34. View abstract.
  111. Hellum, B. H., Hu, Z., and Nilsen, O. G. Trade herbal products and induction of CYP2C19 and CYP2E1 in cultured human hepatocytes. Basic Clin.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2009;105:58-63. View abstract.
  112. Chicca, A., Raduner, S., Pellati, F., Strompen, T., Altmann, K. H., Schoop, R., and Gertsch, J. Synergistic immunomopharmacological effects of N-alkylamides in Echinacea purpurea herbal extracts. Int.Immunopharmacol. 2009;9(7-8):850-858. View abstract.
  113. Senchina, D. S., McCann, D. A., Flinn, G. N., Wu, L., Zhai, Z., Cunnick, J. E., Wurtele, E. S., and Kohut, M. L. Echinacea tennesseensis ethanol tinctures harbor cytokine- and proliferation-enhancing capacities. Cytokine 2009;46:267-272. View abstract.
  114. Engdal, S., Klepp, O., and Nilsen, O. G. Identification and exploration of herb-drug combinations used by cancer patients. Integr.Cancer Ther 2009;8:29-36. View abstract.
  115. Sharma, M., Schoop, R., and Hudson, J. B. Echinacea as an antiinflammatory agent: the influence of physiologically relevant parameters. Phytother.Res 2009;23:863-867. View abstract.
  116. Dong, G. C., Chuang, P. H., Chang, K. C., Jan, P. S., Hwang, P. I., Wu, H. B., Yi, M., Zhou, H. X., and Chen, H. M. Blocking effect of an immuno-suppressive agent, cynarin, on CD28 of T-cell receptor. Pharm.Res 2009;26:375-381. View abstract.
  117. Hansen, T. S. and Nilsen, O. G. Echinacea purpurea and P-glycoprotein drug transport in Caco-2 cells. Phytother.Res 2009;23:86-91. View abstract.
  118. Freeman, C. and Spelman, K. A critical evaluation of drug interactions with Echinacea spp. Mol.Nutr.Food Res. 2008;52:789-798. View abstract.
  119. Heinrich, M., Modarai, M., and Kortenkamp, A. Herbal extracts used for upper respiratory tract infections: are there clinically relevant interactions with the cytochrome P450 enzyme system? Planta Med 2008;74:657-660. View abstract.
  120. Sterer, N., Nuas, S., Mizrahi, B., Goldenberg, C., Weiss, E. I., Domb, A., and Davidi, M. P. Oral malodor reduction by a palatal mucoadhesive tablet containing herbal formulation. J Dent. 2008;36:535-539. View abstract.
  121. Barcz, E., Sommer, E., Nartowska, J., Balan, B., Chorostowska-Wynimko, J., and Skopinska-Rozewska, E. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity. Folia Histochem.Cytobiol. 2007;45 Suppl 1:S35-S39. View abstract.
  122. Bauer, R. and Foster, S. Analysis of alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives from Echinacea simulata and E. paradoxa roots. Planta Med 1991;57:447-449. View abstract.
  123. Whitehead, M. T., Martin, T. D., Scheett, T. P., and Webster, M. J. The effect of 4 wk of oral echinacea supplementation on serum erythropoietin and indices of erythropoietic status. Int.J Sport Nutr.Exerc.Metab 2007;17:378-390. View abstract.
  124. Pillai, S., Pillai, C., Mitscher, L. A., and Cooper, R. Use of quantitative flow cytometry to measure ex vivo immunostimulant activity of echinacea: the case for polysaccharides. J Altern Complement Med 2007;13:625-634. View abstract.
  125. Razina, T. G., Lopatina, K. A., Zueva, A. M., Gur'ev, A. M., Krylova, S. G., and Amosova, E. N. [Effect of Echinacea purpurea tincture and its polysaccharide complex on the efficacy of cytostatic therapy of transferred tumors]. Eksp.Klin Farmakol 2007;70:33-35. View abstract.
  126. Shah, S. A., Schlesselman, L., Cios, D., Lipeika, J., Patel, A. A., Kluger, J., and White, C. M. Effects of echinacea on electrocardiographic and blood pressure measurements. Am J Health Syst.Pharm 8-1-2007;64:1615-1618. View abstract.
  127. Hall, H., Fahlman, M. M., and Engels, H. J. Echinacea purpurea and mucosal immunity. Int J Sports Med 2007;28:792-797. View abstract.
  128. Roxas, M. and Jurenka, J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12:25-48. View abstract.
  129. Schoop, R., Buechi, S., and Suter, A. Open, multicenter study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of Echinaforce Forte tablets in athletes. Adv Ther 2006;23:823-833. View abstract.
  130. Classen, B., Thude, S., Blaschek, W., Wack, M., and Bodinet, C. Immunomodulatory effects of arabinogalactan-proteins from Baptisia and Echinacea. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(9-10):688-694. View abstract.
  131. Woelkart, K., Marth, E., Suter, A., Schoop, R., Raggam, R. B., Koidl, C., Kleinhappl, B., and Bauer, R. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of Echinacea purpurea preparations and their interaction with the immune system. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;44:401-408. View abstract.
  132. Guo, R., Pittler, M. H., and Ernst, E. Herbal medicines for the treatment of COPD: a systematic review. Eur.Respir.J 2006;28:330-338. View abstract.
  133. Gillespie, E. L. and Coleman, C. I. The effect of Echinacea on upper respiratory infection symptom severity and quality of life. Conn.Med 2006;70:93-97. View abstract.
  134. Koenig, K. and Roehr, C. C. Does treatment with Echinacea purpurea effectively shorten the course of upper respiratory tract infections in children? Arch Dis Child 2006;91:535-537. View abstract.
  135. Liatsos, G., Elefsiniotis, I., Todorova, R., and Moulakakis, A. Severe thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) induced or exacerbated by the immunostimulatory herb Echinacea. Am J Hematol. 2006;81:224. View abstract.
  136. Arroll, B. Non-antibiotic treatments for upper-respiratory tract infections (common cold). Respir.Med 2005;99:1477-1484. View abstract.
  137. Schwarz, E., Parlesak, A., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Bode, J. C., and Bode, C. Effect of oral administration of freshly pressed juice of Echinacea purpurea on the number of various subpopulations of B- and T-lymphocytes in healthy volunteers: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:625-631. View abstract.
  138. Narimanian, M., Badalyan, M., Panosyan, V., Gabrielyan, E., Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine 2005;12:539-547. View abstract.
  139. Barnes, J., Anderson, L. A., Gibbons, S., and Phillipson, J. D. Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.,Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties. J Pharm Pharmacol 2005;57:929-954. View abstract.
  140. Sampson, W. Studying herbal remedies. N.Engl.J Med 7-28-2005;353:337-339. View abstract.
  141. Brousseau, M. and Miller, S. C. Enhancement of natural killer cells and increased survival of aging mice fed daily Echinacea root extract from youth. Biogerontology. 2005;6:157-163. View abstract.
  142. Agnew, L. L., Guffogg, S. P., Matthias, A., Lehmann, R. P., Bone, K. M., and Watson, K. Echinacea intake induces an immune response through altered expression of leucocyte hsp70, increased white cell counts and improved erythrocyte antioxidant defences. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2005;30:363-369. View abstract.
  143. Maass, N., Bauer, J., Paulicks, B. R., Bohmer, B. M., and Roth-Maier, D. A. Efficiency of Echinacea purpurea on performance and immune status in pigs. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr.(Berl) 2005;89(7-8):244-252. View abstract.
  144. Morazzoni, P., Cristoni, A., Di Pierro, F., Avanzini, C., Ravarino, D., Stornello, S., Zucca, M., and Musso, T. In vitro and in vivo immune stimulating effects of a new standardized Echinacea angustifolia root extract (Polinacea). Fitoterapia 2005;76:401-411. View abstract.
  145. Chen, Y., Fu, T., Tao, T., Yang, J., Chang, Y., Wang, M., Kim, L., Qu, L., Cassady, J., Scalzo, R., and Wang, X. Macrophage activating effects of new alkamides from the roots of Echinacea species. J Nat.Prod. 2005;68:773-776. View abstract.
  146. Everett, L. L., Birmingham, P. K., Williams, G. D., Brenn, B. R., and Shapiro, J. H. Herbal and homeopathic medication use in pediatric surgical patients. Paediatr.Anaesth. 2005;15:455-460. View abstract.
  147. Woelkart, K., Koidl, C., Grisold, A., Gangemi, J. D., Turner, R. B., Marth, E., and Bauer, R. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of alkamides from the roots of Echinacea angustifolia in humans. J Clin Pharmacol 2005;45:683-689. View abstract.
  148. Heinen-Kammerer, T., Holtmannspotter, C., Schnabel, S., Motzkat, K., Kiencke, P., and Rychlik, R. [Effectiveness of echinacin in therapy of chronic recurrent respiratory disease]. Gesundheitswesen 2005;67:296-301. View abstract.
  149. Barrett, B., Brown, R., Mundt, M., Dye, L., Alt, J., Safdar, N., and Maberry, R. Using benefit harm tradeoffs to estimate sufficiently important difference: the case of the common cold. Med Decis.Making 2005;25:47-55. View abstract.
  150. Classen, B., Csavas, M., Borbas, A., Dingermann, T., and Zundorf, I. Monoclonal Antibodies against an Arabinogalactan-Protein from Pressed Juice of Echinacea purpurea. Planta Med. 2004;70:861-865. View abstract.
  151. Mishima, S., Saito, K., Maruyama, H., Inoue, M., Yamashita, T., Ishida, T., and Gu, Y. Antioxidant and immuno-enhancing effects of Echinacea purpurea. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 2004;27:1004-1009. View abstract.
  152. Pellati, F., Benvenuti, S., Magro, L., Melegari, M., and Soragni, F. Analysis of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity of Echinacea spp. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 5-16-2004;35:289-301. View abstract.
  153. Bodinet, C., Lindequist, U., Teuscher, E., and Freudenstein, J. Influence of peroral application of a herbal immunomodulator on the antibody production of Peyer's patches cells. Arzneimittelforschung. 2004;54:114-118. View abstract.
  154. Firenzuoli, F. and Gori, L. Echinacea for treating colds in children. JAMA 3-17-2004;291:1323-1324. View abstract.
  155. Kim, L., Wollner, D., Anderson, P., and Brammer, D. Echinacea for treating colds in children. JAMA 3-17-2004;291:1323. View abstract.
  156. Cohen, H. A., Varsano, I., Kahan, E., Sarrell, E. M., and Uziel, Y. Effectiveness of an herbal preparation containing echinacea, propolis, and vitamin C in preventing respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter study. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med. 2004;158:217-221. View abstract.
  157. Millea, P. J. Echinacea for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 10-7-2003;139:601. View abstract.
  158. Shober, S. Echinacea for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 10-7-2003;139:600. View abstract.
  159. Mittman, P., Wollner, D., and Kim, L. Echinacea for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 10-7-2003;139:600-601. View abstract.
  160. Russo, E. B. Echinacea for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 10-7-2003;139:599. View abstract.
  161. Applequist, W. L. Echinacea for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 10-7-2003;139:599-600. View abstract.
  162. Abrahams, S. G. Echinacea for the common cold. Ann Intern Med 10-7-2003;139:599. View abstract.
  163. Bany, J., Siwicki, A. K., Zdanowska, D., Sokolnicka, I., Skopinska-Rozewska, E., and Kowalczyk, M. Echinacea purpurea stimulates cellular immunity and anti-bacterial defence independently of the strain of mice. Pol.J Vet.Sci. 2003;6(3 Suppl):3-5. View abstract.
  164. LOE, H. and SILNESS, J. PERIODONTAL DISEASE IN PREGNANCY. I. PREVALENCE AND SEVERITY. Acta Odontol.Scand. 1963;21:533-551. View abstract.
  165. Lersch, C., Zeuner, M., Bauer, A., Siemens, M., Hart, R., Drescher, M., Fink, U., Dancygier, H., and Classen, M. Nonspecific immunostimulation with low doses of cyclophosphamide (LDCY), thymostimulin, and Echinacea purpurea extracts (echinacin) in patients with far advanced colorectal cancers: preliminary results. Cancer Invest 1992;10:343-348. View abstract.
  166. HELBIG, G. [Nonspecific therapy with irritants for infection prophylaxis. A study of the therapeutic effect of Esberitox]. Med Klin. 9-1-1961;56:1512-1514. View abstract.
  167. JOHNE, H. O. and SPERR, A. [Experimental and clinical experiences with stimulation therapy with gluco-lipopolypeptide complexes (esberitox) in dermatology]. Medizinische. 8-25-1956;7(33-34):1145-1147. View abstract.
  168. VON OETTINGEN, E. N. [Acute diseases of the ear and neck; contribution to the use of esberitox]. Ther Ggw. 1954;93:152-153. View abstract.
  169. SCHWARZ, F. K. [Peroral change of general reaction to infections by esberitox]. Med Klin.(Munich) 10-3-1952;47:1320-1322. View abstract.
  170. HOFFMANN, R. [Esberitox, an oral remedy for non-specific therapeutic irritation in infectious inflammation]. Ther Ggw. 1952;91:186. View abstract.
  171. Bostelmann, H. C., Bodeker, R. H., Dames, W., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Siegers, C. P., and Stammwitz, U. [Immunomodulation by herbal agents. A double-blind study in a medical university hospital involving a hepatitis B vaccine adjuvant model]. Fortschr.Med Orig. 12-5-2002;120:119-123. View abstract.
  172. Bodinet, C., Lindequist, U., Teuscher, E., and Freudenstein, J. Effect of an orally applied herbal immunomodulator on cytokine induction and antibody response in normal and immunosuppressed mice. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:606-613. View abstract.
  173. Bodinet, C., Mentel, R., Wegner, U., Lindequist, U., Teuscher, E., and Freudenstein, J. Effect of oral application of an immunomodulating plant extract on Influenza virus type A infection in mice. Planta Med 2002;68:896-900. View abstract.
  174. Kemp, D. E. and Franco, K. N. Possible leukopenia associated with long-term use of echinacea. J Am Board Fam.Pract. 2002;15:417-419. View abstract.
  175. Bauer, R. [New knowledge regarding the effect and effectiveness of Echinacea purpurea extracts]. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):407-411. View abstract.
  176. Kohler, G., Bodinet, C., and Freudenstein, J. [Pharmacodynamic effects and clinical effectiveness of a combination of herbal substances comprised of Cone Flower, Wild Indigo and White Cedar]. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):393-397. View abstract.
  177. Sloley, B. D., Urichuk, L. J., Tywin, C., Coutts, R. T., Pang, P. K., and Shan, J. J. Comparison of chemical components and antioxidants capacity of different Echinacea species. J Pharm Pharmacol 2001;53:849-857. View abstract.
  178. Hu, C. and Kitts, D. D. Studies on the antioxidant activity of Echinacea root extract. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:1466-1472. View abstract.
  179. Bodinet, C. and Freudenstein, J. Effects of an orally applied aqueous-ethanolic extract of a mixture of Thujae occidentalis herba, Baptisiae tinctoriae radix, Echinaceae purpureae radix and Echinaceae pallidae radix on antibody response against sheep red blood cells in mice. Planta Med 1999;65:695-699. View abstract.
  180. Ertel, G., Manley, H., McQueen, C., and Bryant, P. Information on additional Echinacea trials. J Fam.Pract. 1999;48:1001-1002. View abstract.
  181. Wustenberg, P., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Kohler, G., and Stammwitz, U. Efficacy and mode of action of an immunomodulator herbal preparation containing Echinacea, wild indigo, and white cedar. Adv.Ther 1999;16:51-70. View abstract.
  182. Hudec, J., Burdova, M., Kobida, L., Komora, L., Macho, V., Kogan, G., Turianica, I., Kochanova, R., Lozek, O., Haban, M., and Chlebo, P. Antioxidant capacity changes and phenolic profile of Echinacea purpurea, nettle (Urtica dioica L.), and dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) after application of polyamine and phenolic biosynthesis regulators. J Agric Food Chem 7-11-2007;55:5689-5696. View abstract.
  183. Elsasser-Beile, U., Willenbacher, W., Bartsch, H. H., Gallati, H., Schulte, Monting J., and von, Kleist S. Cytokine production in leukocyte cultures during therapy with Echinacea extract. J Clin Lab Anal. 1996;10:441-445. View abstract.
  184. Naser, B., Lund, B., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., Kohler, G., Lehmacher, W., and Scaglione, F. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical dose-response trial of an extract of Baptisia, Echinacea and Thuja for the treatment of patients with common cold. Phytomedicine. 2005;12:715-722. View abstract.
  185. Hauke, W., Kohler, G., Henneicke-von Zepelin, H. H., and Freudenstein, J. Esberitox N as supportive therapy when providing standard antibiotic treatment in subjects with a severe bacterial infection (acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis). A multicentric, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Chemotherapy 2002;48:259-266. View abstract.
  186. Posadzki, P., Watson, L. K., and Ernst, E. Adverse effects of herbal medicines: an overview of systematic reviews. Clin Med 2013;13:7-12. View abstract.
  187. Mohamed, M. E. and Frye, R. F. Inhibitory effects of commonly used herbal extracts on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A4, 1A6, and 1A9 enzyme activities. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:1522-1528. View abstract.
  188. Mohamed, M. F., Tseng, T., and Frye, R. F. Inhibitory effects of commonly used herbal extracts on UGT1A1 enzyme activity. Xenobiotica 2010;40:663-669. View abstract.
  189. Buettner, C., Mukamal, K. J., Gardiner, P., Davis, R. B., Phillips, R. S., and Mittleman, M. A. Herbal supplement use and blood lead levels of United States adults. J.Gen.Intern.Med. 2009;24:1175-1182. View abstract.
  190. Cravotto, G., Boffa, L., Genzini, L., and Garella, D. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants. J Clin Pharm Ther 2010;35:11-48. View abstract.
  191. Hermann, R. and von, Richter O. Clinical evidence of herbal drugs as perpetrators of pharmacokinetic drug interactions. Planta Med 2012;78:1458-1477. View abstract.
  192. Mazzio, E. A. and Soliman, K. F. In vitro screening for the tumoricidal properties of international medicinal herbs. Phytother.Res 2009;23:385-398. View abstract.
  193. Zwickey, H., Brush, J., Iacullo, C. M., Connelly, E., Gregory, W. L., Soumyanath, A., and Buresh, R. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD25 expression in humans: a pilot study. Phytother.Res 2007;21:1109-1112. View abstract.
  194. Brush, J., Mendenhall, E., Guggenheim, A., Chan, T., Connelly, E., Soumyanath, A., Buresh, R., Barrett, R., and Zwickey, H. The effect of Echinacea purpurea, Astragalus membranaceus and Glycyrrhiza glabra on CD69 expression and immune cell activation in humans. Phytother Res 2006;20:687-695. View abstract.
  195. Egert, D. and Beuscher, N. Studies on antigen specifity of immunoreactive arabinogalactan proteins extracted from Baptisia tinctoria and Echinacea purpurea. Planta Med. 1992;58:163-165. View abstract.
  196. Burns, J. J., Zhao, L., Taylor, E. W., and Spelman, K. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity. Toxicology 11-28-2010;278:140-159. View abstract.
  197. Abdul MI, Jiang X, Williams KM, et al. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions of echinacea and policosanol with warfarin in healthy subjects. Br J Clin.Pharmacol. 2010;69:508-15. View abstract.
  198. Bossaer JB and Odle BL. Probable etoposide interaction with Echinacea. J.Diet.Suppl 2012;9:90-5. View abstract.
  199. Zedan H, Hofny ER, and Ismail SA. Propolis as an alternative treatment for cutaneous warts. Int.J Dermatol 2009;48:1246-49. View abstract.
  200. Neri PG, Stagni R, Filippello M, et al. Oral Echinacea purpurea extract in low-grade, steroid-dependent, autoimmune idiopathic uveitis: a pilot study. J Ocul.Pharmacol Ther 2006;22:431-36. View abstract.
  201. von Blumroeder, W. O. [Angina lacunaris. An investigation on how to stimulate the endogenous defense system] (German). Z.Allg.Med. 1985;61:271-273.
  202. Schapowal A, Berger D, Klein P, et al. Echinacea/sage or chlorhexidine/lidocaine for treating acute sore throats: a randomized double-blind trial. Eur.J Med Res 9-1-2009;14:406-12. View abstract.
  203. Bendel R, Bendel V, Renner K, et al. [Supplementary treatment with Esberitox of female patients undergoing curative adjuvant irradiation following breast cancer]. Strahlenther.Onkol. 1988;164:278-83. View abstract.
  204. Bendel R, Bendel V, Renner K, et al. [Additional treatment with Esberitox N in patients with chemo- radiotherapy treatment of advanced breast cancer]. Onkologie. 1989;12 Suppl 3:32-8. View abstract.
  205. Joksic G, Petrovic S, Joksic I, et al. Biological effects of Echinacea purpurea on human blood cells. Arh.Hig.Rada Toksikol. 2009;60:165-72. View abstract.
  206. Mistrangelo M, Cornaglia S, Pizzio M, et al. Immunostimulation to reduce recurrence after surgery for anal condyloma acuminata: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Colorectal Dis 2010;12:799-803. View abstract.
  207. Bockhorst H, Gollnick N, Guran S, et al. [Therapy of herpes simplex in practice. Report on the treatment of herpes simplex labialis with Esberitox]. ZFA.(Stuttgart.) 11-20-1982;58:1795-98. View abstract.
  208. Cassano N, Ferrari A, Fai D, et al. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical containing Echinacea, methionine and antioxidant/immunostimulating compounds in patients with cutaneous viral warts. G.Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2011;146:191-95. View abstract.
  209. Grbic J, Wexler I, Celenti R, et al. A phase II trial of a transmucosal herbal patch for the treatment of gingivitis. J Am Dent.Assoc. 2011;142:1168-75. View abstract.
  210. Samuels N, Grbic JT, Saffer AJ, et al. Effect of an herbal mouth rinse in preventing periodontal inflammation in an experimental gingivitis model: a pilot study. Compend.Contin.Educ.Dent. 2012;33:204-11. View abstract.
  211. Samuels N, Saffer A, Wexler ID, et al. Localized reduction of gingival inflammation using site-specific therapy with a topical gingival patch. J.Clin.Dent. 2012;23:64-7. View abstract.
  212. Whitehead MT, Martin TD, Scheett TP, et al. Running economy and maximal oxygen consumption after 4 weeks of oral Echinacea supplementation. J.Strength.Cond.Res. 2012;26:1928-33. View abstract.
  213. Isbaniah F, Wiyono WH, Yunus F, et al. Echinacea purpurea along with zinc, selenium and vitamin C to alleviate exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: results from a randomized controlled trial. J Clin.Pharm.Ther 2011;36:568-76. View abstract.
  214. Haller J, Freund, TF, Pelczer, KG, et al. The anxiolytic potential and psychotropic side effects of an echinacea preparation in laboratory animals and healthy volunteers. Phytother.Res. 2013;27:54-61. View abstract.
  215. Wahl RA, Aldous MB, Worden KA, et al. Echinacea purpurea and osteopathic manipulative treatment in children with recurrent otitis media: a randomized controlled trial. BMC.Complement Altern.Med 2008;8:56. View abstract.
  216. Goel V, Lovlin R, Chang C, et al. A proprietary extract from the echinacea plant (Echinacea purpurea) enhances systemic immune response during a common cold. Phytother.Res 2005;19:689-94. View abstract.
  217. Del-Rio-Navarro BE, Espinosa, Rosales F, et al. Immunostimulants for preventing respiratory tract infection in children. Cochrane Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;:CD004974. View abstract.
  218. Bräunig B, Dorn M, Limburg E, and et al. Enhancement of resistance in common cold by Echinacea purpurea radix. Zeitschrift fur Phytotherpie 1992;13:7-13.
  219. Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D, Rabago D, et al. Placebo effects and the common cold: a randomized controlled trial. Ann.Fam.Med 2011;9:312-22. View abstract.
  220. Guo R, Pittler MH, Ernst E. Complementary medicine for treating or preventing influenza or influenza-like illness. Am J Med 2007;120:923-9. View abstract.
  221. Di Pierro F, Rapacioli G, Ferrara T, Togni S. Use of a standardized extract from Echinacea angustifolia (Polinacea) for the prevention of respiratory tract infections. Altern Med Rev 2012;17:36-41. View abstract.
  222. Jawad M, Schoop R, Suter A, et al. Safety and efficacy profile of Echinacea purpurea to prevent common cold episodes: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2012;2012:841315. Epub 2012 Sep 16. View abstract.
  223. Press Release: Echinacea herbal products should not be used in children under 12 years old. Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (UK). August 20, 2012. Available at: www.mhra.gov.uk/NewsCentre/Pressreleases/CON180627. (Accessed 21 October 2012)
  224. Schoop R, Klein P, Suter A, Johnston SL. Echinacea in the prevention of induced rhinovirus colds: a meta-analysis. Clin Ther 2006;28:174-83. View abstract.
  225. O'Neil J, Hughes S, Lourie A, Zweifler J. Effects of echinacea on the frequency of upper respiratory tract symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2008;100:384-8. View abstract.
  226. Shah SA, Sander S, White CM, et al. Evaluation of echinacea for the prevention and treatment of the common cold: a meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2007;7:473-80. View abstract.
  227. Barrett B, Brown R, Rakel D. et al. Echinacea for treating the common cold: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 2010;153:769-77. View abstract.
  228. Kocaman O, Hulagu S, Senturk O. Echinacea-induced severe acute hepatitis with features of cholestatic autoimmune hepatitis. Eur J Intern Med 2008;19:148. View abstract.
  229. Kim LS, Waters RF, Burkholder PM. Immunological activity of larch arabinogalactan and Echinacea: a preliminary, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Altern Med Rev 2002;7:138-49. View abstract.
  230. Perri D, Dugoua JJ, Mills E, Koren G. Safety and efficacy of echinacea (Echinacea augustafolia, e. purpurea and e. pallida) during pregnancy and lactation. Can J Clin Pharmacol 2006;13:e262-7. View abstract.
  231. Linde K, Barrett B, Wolkart K, et al. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;:CD000530. View abstract.
  232. Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, et al. In vivo assessment of botanical supplementation on human cytochrome P450 phenotypes: Citrus aurantium, Echinacea purpurea, milk thistle, and saw palmetto. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2004;76:428-40. . View abstract.
  233. Caruso TJ, Gwaltney JM Jr. Treatment of the common cold with echinacea: a structured review. Clin Infect Dis 2005;40:807-10. View abstract.
  234. Krochmal R, Hardy M, Bowerman S, et al. Phytochemical assays of commercial botanical dietary supplements. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2004;1:305-3. View abstract.
  235. Anon. Echinacea: cold comfort. Consum Rep 2004;69:30-2. View abstract.
  236. Turner RB, Bauer R, Woelkart K, et al. An evaluation of Echinacea angustifolia in experimental rhinovirus infections. N Engl J Med 2005;353:341-8. View abstract.
  237. Huntley AL, Thompson Coon J, Ernst E. The safety of herbal medicinal products derived from Echinacea species: a systematic review. Drug Saf 2005;28:387-400. View abstract.
  238. Speroni E, Govoni P, Guizzardi S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and cicatrizing activity of Echinacea pallida Nutt. root extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:265-72. View abstract.
  239. Coeugniet EG, Kuhnast R. Recurrent candidiasis: Adjuvant immunotherapy with different formulations of Echinacin. Therapiewoche 1986;36:3352-8.
  240. Barrett B. Medicinal properties of Echinacea: a critical review. Phytomedicine 2003;10:66-86. View abstract.
  241. Gilroy CM, Steiner JF, Byers T, et al. Echinacea and truth in labeling. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:699-704. View abstract.
  242. Turner RB. Echinacea for the common cold: can alternative medicine be evidence-based medicine? Ann Intern Med 2002;137:1001-2. View abstract.
  243. Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, Wikman G. Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytother Res 2004;18:47-53. View abstract.
  244. Goel V, Lovlin R, Barton R, et al. Efficacy of a standardized echinacea preparation (Echinilin) for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Pharm Ther 2004;29:75-83. View abstract.
  245. Sperber SJ, Shah LP, Gilbert RD, et al. Echinacea purpurea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Clin Infect Dis 2004;38:1367-71. View abstract.
  246. Lee AN, Werth VP. Activation of autoimmunity following use of immunostimulatory herbal supplements. Arch Dermatol 2004;140:723-7. View abstract.
  247. Gorski JC, Huang S, Zaheer NA, et al. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo.Clin Pharmacol Ther 2003;73 (Abstract PDII-A-8):P94. View abstract.
  248. Yale SH, Liu K. Echinacea purpurea therapy for the treatment of the common cold: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 2004;164:1237-41. View abstract.
  249. Yale SH, Glurich I. Analysis of the inhibitory potential of Ginkgo biloba, Echinacea purpurea, and Serenoa repens on the metabolic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2D6, and 2C9. J Altern Complement Med 2005;11:433-9. View abstract.
  250. Schulten B, Bulitta M, Ballering-Bruhl B, et al. Efficacy of Echinacea purpurea in patients with a common cold. A placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51:563-8.. View abstract.
  251. Barrett BP, Brown RL, Locken K, et al. Treatment of the common cold with unrefined echinacea. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2002;137:939-46.. View abstract.
  252. Muller-Jakic B, Breu W, Probstle A, et al. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase by alkamides from Echinacea and Achillea species. Planta Med 1994;60:37-40.. View abstract.
  253. Tragni E, Tubaro A, Melis S, Galli CL. Evidence from two classic irritation tests for an anti-inflammatory action of a natural extract, Echinacina B. Food Chem Toxicol 1985;23:317-9.. View abstract.
  254. Schwarz E, Metzler J, Diedrich JP, et al. Oral administration of freshly expressed juice of Echinacea purpurea herbs fail to stimulate the nonspecific immune response in healthy young men: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. J Immunother 2002;25:413-20.. View abstract.
  255. Melchart D, Linde K, Fischer P, Kaesmayr J. Echinacea for preventing and treating the common cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000;2:CD000530.. View abstract.
  256. See DM, Broumand N, Sahl L, Tilles JG. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunopharmacology 1997;35:229-35.. View abstract.
  257. Hoheisel O, Sandberg M, Bertram S, et al. Echinagard treatment shortens the course of the common cold: a double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Clin Res 1997;9:261-268.
  258. Logan JL, Ahmed J. Critical hypokalemic renal tubular acidosis due to Sjogren's syndrome: association with the purported immune stimulant echinacea. Clin Rheumatol 2003;22:158-9. View abstract.
  259. Melchart D, Clemm C, Weber B, et al. Polysaccharides isolated from Echinacea purpurea herba cell cultures to counteract undesired effects of chemotherapy--a pilot study. Phytother Res 2002;16:138-42.. View abstract.
  260. Turner RB, Riker DK, Gangemi JD. Ineffectiveness of echinacea for prevention of experimental rhinovirus colds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2000;44:1708-9. View abstract.
  261. Facino RM, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Echinacoside and caffeoyl conjugates protect collagen from free radical-induced degradation: a potential use of echinacea extracts in the prevention of skin photodamage. Planta Med 1995;61:510-4. View abstract.
  262. Percival SS. Use of echinacea in medicine. Biochem Pharmacol 2000;60:155-8. View abstract.
  263. Mullins RJ, Heddle R. Adverse reactions associated with echinacea: the Australian experience. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2002;88:42-51. View abstract.
  264. Vonau B, Chard S, Mandalia S, et al. Does the extract of the plant Echinacea purpurea influence the clinical course of recurrent genital herpes? Int J STD AIDS 2001;12:154-8. View abstract.
  265. Soon SL, Crawford RI. Recurrent erythema nodosum associated with echinacea herbal therapy. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:298-9. View abstract.
  266. Gallo M, Sarkar M, Au W, et al. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to echinacea: A prospective controlled study. Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3141-3. View abstract.
  267. Budzinski JW, Foster BC, Vandenhoek S, Arnason JT. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7:273-82. View abstract.
  268. Pepping J. Echinacea. Am J Health Syst Pharm 1999;56:121-3. View abstract.
  269. Giles JT, Palat CT III, Chien SH, et al. Evaluation of Echinacea for treatment of the common cold. Pharmacother 2000;20:690-7. View abstract.
  270. Henneicke-von Zepelin H, Hentschel C, Schnitker J, et al. Efficacy and safety of a fixed combination phytomedicine in the treatment of the common cold (acute viral respiratory tract infection): results of a randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study. Curr Med Res Opin 1999;15:214-27. View abstract.
  271. Perry NB, van Klink JW, Burgess EJ, et al. Alkamide levels in Echinacea purpurea: effects of processing, drying and storage. Planta Med 2000;66:54-6. View abstract.
  272. Binns SE, Purgina B, Bergeron C. Light-mediated antifungal activity of Echinacea extracts. Plant Med 2000;66:241-4. View abstract.
  273. Stimpel M, Proksch A, Wagner H, et al. Macrophage activation and induction of macrophage cytotoxicity by purified polysaccharide fractions from the plant Echinacea purpurea. Infect Immun 1984;46:845-9. View abstract.
  274. Luettig B, Steinmuller C, Gifford GE, et al. Macrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989;81:669-75. View abstract.
  275. Parnham MJ. Benefit-risk assessment of the squeezed sap of the purple coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) for long-term oral immunostimulation. Phytomedicine 1996;3:95-102.
  276. Melchart D, Walther E, Linde K, et al. Echinacea root extracts for the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections: a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Arch Fam Med 1998;7:541-5. View abstract.
  277. Dorn M, Knick E, Lewith G. Placebo-controlled, double-blind study of Echinaceae pallidae radix in upper respiratory tract infections. Complement Ther Med 1997;5:40-2.
  278. Lindenmuth GF, Lindenmuth EB. The efficacy of echinacea compound herbal tea preparation on the severity and duration of upper respiratory and flu symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:327-34. View abstract.
  279. Taylor JA, Weber W, Standish L, et al. Efficacy and safety of echinacea in treating upper respiratory tract infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290:2824-30.. View abstract.
  280. Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. An alternative medicine study of herbal effects on the penetration of zona-free hamster oocytes and the integrity of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid. Fertil Steril 1999;71:517-22. View abstract.
  281. Ondrizek RR, Chan PJ, Patton WC, King A. Inhibition of human sperm motility by specific herbs used in alternative medicine. J Assist Reprod Genet 1999;16:87-91. View abstract.
  282. Grimm W, Muller HH. A randomized controlled trial of the effect of fluid extract of Echinacea purpurea on the incidence and severity of colds and respiratory infections. Am J Med 1999;106:138-43. View abstract.
  283. Barrett B, Vohmann M, Calabrese C. Echinacea for upper respiratory infection. J Fam Pract 1999;48:628-35. View abstract.
  284. Gunning K. Echinacea in the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections. West J Med 1999;171:198-200. View abstract.
  285. Chavez ML, Chavez PI. Echinacea. Hosp Pharm 1998;33:180-8.
  286. Rehman J, Dillow JM, Carter SM, et al. Increased production of antigen-specific immunoglobulins G and M following in vivo treatment with the medicinal plants Echinacea angustifolia and Hydrastis canadensis. Immunol Lett 1999;68:391-5. View abstract.
  287. Vilter RW. Nutritional aspects of ascorbic acid: uses and abuses. West J Med 1980;133:485-92. View abstract.
  288. Awang DVC, Kindack DG. Echinacea. Can Pharm J 1991; 124:512-6.
  289. Mengs U, Clare CB, Poiley JA. Toxicity of Echinacea purpurea. Acute, subacute and genotoxicity studies. Arzneimittelforschung 1991;41:1076-81. View abstract.
  290. Brinkeborn RM, Shah DV, Degenring FH. Echinaforce and other Echinacea fresh plant preparations in the treatment of the common cold. A randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Phytomedicine 1999;6:1-6.. View abstract.
  291. Mullins RJ. Allergic reactions to Echinacea. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2000;104:S340-341 (Abstract 1003).
  292. Mullins RJ. Echinacea-associated anaphylaxis. Med J Aust 1998;168:170-1. View abstract.
  293. Miller LG. Herbal Medicinals: Selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:2200-11. View abstract.
  294. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs and Cosmetics. 2nd ed. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
  295. United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc., ed. Drug Information for the Health Care Professional. 19th ed. Englewood, CO: Micromedex Inc., 1999.
  296. Martindale W. Martindale the Extra Pharmacopoeia. Pharmaceutical Press, 1999.
  297. Wichtl MW. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals. Ed. N.M. Bisset. Stuttgart: Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers, 1994.
  298. Schulz V, Hansel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. Terry C. Telger, transl. 3rd ed. Berlin, GER: Springer, 1998.
  299. The Review of Natural Products by Facts and Comparisons. St. Louis, MO: Wolters Kluwer Co., 1999.
  300. Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal: A Sensible Guide to the Use of Herbs and Related Remedies. 3rd ed., Binghamton, NY: Haworth Herbal Press, 1993.
  301. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Philpson JD. Herbal Medicine: A Guide for Healthcare Professionals. London, UK: The Pharmaceutical Press, 1996.
  302. Tyler VE. Herbs of Choice. Binghamton, NY: Pharmaceutical Products Press, 1994.
  303. Blumenthal M, ed. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Trans. S. Klein. Boston, MA: American Botanical Council, 1998.
  304. Monographs on the medicinal uses of plant drugs. Exeter, UK: European Scientific Co-op Phytother, 1997.
Last reviewed - 02/14/2015