What is it?
Magnesium is a mineral that is present in relatively large amounts in the body. Researchers estimate that the average person’s body contains about 25 grams of magnesium, and about half of that is in the bones. Magnesium is important in more than 300 chemical reactions that keep the body working properly. People get magnesium from their diet, but sometimes magnesium supplements are needed if magnesium levels are too low. Dietary intake of magnesium may be low, particularly among women.
An easy way to remember foods that are good magnesium sources is to think fiber. Foods that are high in fiber are generally high in magnesium. Dietary sources of magnesium include legumes, whole grains, vegetables (especially broccoli, squash, and green leafy vegetables), seeds, and nuts (especially almonds). Other sources include dairy products, meats, chocolate, and coffee. Water with a high mineral content, or “hard” water, is also a source of magnesium.
People take magnesium to prevent or treat magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency is not uncommon in the US. It’s particularly common among African Americans and the elderly.
Magnesium is also used as a laxative for constipation and for preparation of the bowel for surgical or diagnostic procedures. It is also used as an antacid for acid indigestion.
Some people use magnesium for diseases of the heart and blood vessels including chest pain, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, high levels of “bad” cholesterol called low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, low levels of “good” cholesterol called high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, heart valve disease (mitral valve prolapse), and heart attack.
Magnesium is also used for treating attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Lyme disease, fibromyalgia, leg cramps during pregnancy, diabetes, kidney stones, migraine headaches, weak bones (osteoporosis), premenstrual syndrome (PMS), altitude sickness, urinary incontinence, restless leg syndrome, asthma, hayfever, multiple sclerosis, and for preventing hearing loss.
Athletes sometimes use magnesium to increase energy and endurance.
Some people put magnesium on their skin to treat infected skin ulcers, boils, and carbuncles; and to speed up wound healing. Magnesium is also used as a cold compress in the treatment of a severe skin infection caused by strep bacteria (erysipelas) and as a hot compress for deep-seated skin infections.
Some companies that manufacturer magnesium/calcium combination supplements promote a 2:1 or 3:1 ratio as being ideal for absorption of these elements. However, there is no credible research to support this claim. Claims that coral calcium products have ideal combinations of magnesium and calcium to cure a variety of diseases and conditions are being carefully evaluated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and US Federal Trade Commission (FTC).
How effective is it?
Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.
The effectiveness ratings for MAGNESIUM are as follows:
- Constipation. Taking magnesium by mouth is helpful as a laxative for constipation and to prepare the bowel for medical procedures.
- Dyspepsia (heartburn or “sour stomach”). Taking magnesium by mouth as an antacid reduces symptoms of heartburn. Various magnesium compounds can be used, but magnesium hydroxide seems to work the fastest.
- Magnesium deficiency. Taking magnesium is helpful for treating and preventing magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency usually occurs when people have liver disorders, heart failure, vomiting or diarrhea, kidney dysfunction, and other conditions.
- High blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and eclampsia). Administering magnesium intravenously (by IV) or as a shot is considered the treatment of choice for reducing high blood pressure during pregnancy (pre-eclampsia) and for treating eclampsia, which includes the development of seizures. Research suggests that administering magnesium reduces the risk of seizures.
Likely effective for...
- Irregular heartbeat (torsades de pointes). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) is helpful for treating a certain type of irregular heartbeat called torsades de pointes.
Possibly effective for...
- Irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to be helpful for treating a certain type of irregular heartbeat called arrhythmias.
- Asthma. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to help treat sudden asthma attacks. However, it might be more beneficial in children than in adults. Taking magnesium by mouth does not seem to improve attacks in people with long-term asthma.
- Pain caused by nerve damage associated with cancer. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to relieve pain caused by nerve damage due to cancer for several hours.
- Cerebral palsy. The best evidence to date suggests that giving magnesium to pregnant women before very preterm births can reduce the risk of cerebral palsy in the infant.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Administering magnesium as a shot seems to improve symptoms of fatigue. However, there is some controversy about its benefits.
- A lung disease called chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Administering magnesium through a shot seems to be helpful for treating sudden COPD symptoms.
- Cluster headache. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to relieve cluster headaches.
- Chest pain (angina) due to artery disease. Taking magnesium seems to reduce chest pain attacks in people with coronary artery disease.
- Diabetes. Eating a diet with more magnesium is linked with a reduced risk of developing diabetes in adults and overweight children. Research on the effects of magnesium for people with existing diabetes shows conflicting results.
- Fibromyalgia. Taking magnesium with malic acid (Super Malic tablets) by mouth seems to reduce pain related to fibromyalgia.
- Hearing loss. Taking magnesium by mouth seems to prevent hearing loss in people exposed to loud noise. Also, taking magnesium seems to improve hearing loss in people with sudden hearing loss not related to loud noise.
- High cholesterol. Taking magnesium chloride and magnesium oxide appears to slightly decrease low-density lipoprotein (LDL or “bad”) and total cholesterol levels, and slightly increase in high-density lipoprotein (HDL or “good”) cholesterol levels in people with high cholesterol.
- Metabolic syndrome (increased risk for diabetes and heart disease). People with low magnesium levels are 6-7 times more likely to have metabolic syndrome than people with normal magnesium levels. Higher magnesium intake from diet and supplements is linked with a lower risk of developing metabolic syndrome in healthy women and healthy young adults.
- Migraine headaches. Taking high doses of magnesium by mouth seems to reduce the frequency and intensity of migraine headaches in some studies. However, other research suggests that it does not have any effect. It may be that only people with low levels of magnesium respond to treatment.
- Diseases of heart valves (mitral valve prolapse). Taking magnesium seems to reduce symptoms of mitral valve prolapse in people with low magnesium levels in their blood.
- Weak bones (osteoporosis). Taking magnesium seems to prevent bone loss in older women with osteoporosis. Also, taking estrogen along with magnesium plus calcium and a multivitamin supplement appears to increase bone strength in older women better than estrogen alone.
- Pain after a hysterectomy. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to be help reduce pain after a surgical procedure to remove the uterus called a hysterectomy. There is some evidence that a high magnesium dose of 3 grams followed by 500 mg per hour can reduce discomfort. However, lower doses do not seem to be effective and might actually increase pain.
- Pain after surgery. When administered with anesthesia or given to people after surgery, magnesium seems to increase the amount of time before pain develops after surgery.
- Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Taking magnesium seems to relieve symptoms of PMS, including mood changes and bloating. Taking magnesium also seems to prevent premenstrual migraines.
- Stroke. Consuming more magnesium in the diet might decrease the risk of stroke in men. There is no proof that taking magnesium supplements has this same effect.
- Chest pain due to blood vessel spasms (vasospastic angina). Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) seems to prevent blood vessel spasms in people with chest pain caused by spasms in the artery that supplies blood to the heart.
Possibly ineffective for...
- Heart attack. In general, giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) or taking magnesium by mouth does not seem to reduce the overall risk of death after a heart attack.
- Athletic performance. Taking magnesium by mouth does not seem to increase energy or endurance during athletic activity
- Muscle cramps. Taking magnesium supplements does not seem to decrease the frequency or intensity of muscle cramps.
- Stillbirths. Taking magnesium supplements during pregnancy does not seem to decrease the risk of stillbirths.
- Tetanus. Taking magnesium does not seem to reduce the risk of death in people with tetanus compared to standard treatment. However, taking magnesium might reduce the amount of time spent in the hospital, although results are conflicting.
- Traumatic brain injury. Taking magnesium does not seem to improve brain damage or reduce the risk of death in people with a traumatic brain injury.
Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...
- Alcohol withdrawal. Taking magnesium by mouth seems to improve sleep quality in people who are dependent on alcohol and going through withdrawal. However, injecting magnesium as a shot does not seem to reduce alcohol withdrawal symptoms.
- Altitude sickness. Taking magnesium before climbing a mountain and continuing until descending the mountain does not seem to prevent altitude sickness.
- Aluminum phosphide poisoning. Some research suggests that taking magnesium reduces the risk of death in people with aluminum phosphide poisoning. Other research suggests magnesium does not have this effect.
- Anxiety. Early research suggests that taking magnesium, hawthorn, and California poppy (Sympathyl, not available in the U.S.) might help treat mild to moderate anxiety disorder.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with ADHD seem to have lower magnesium levels. Early research suggests that magnesium might help treat ADHD in children with low magnesium levels.
- Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking a certain magnesium product (Magnesiocard) may have similar effects as lithium in people with bipolar disorder.
- High blood pressure. Some research suggests that taking magnesium slightly reduces diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number in a blood pressure reading) in people with mild to moderate high blood pressure. Magnesium might not lower systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading).
- Kidney stones. Taking magnesium by mouth might prevent the recurrence of kidney stones, but other medications such as chlorthalidone (Hygroton) may be more effective.
- Mania. Early research suggests that taking magnesium plus the drug verapamil reduces manic symptoms better than just verapamil alone. Other early research suggests that giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) reduces the dose of other drugs needed to manage severe mania symptoms.
- Multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnesium might reduce stiff or rigid muscles in people with MS.
- Pregnancy-related leg cramps. Research on the use of magnesium for treating leg cramps caused by pregnancy has been inconsistent. Some studies show that magnesium might reduce leg cramps during pregnancy. However, another study shows no benefit.
- Premature labor. Giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) might prevent contractions when premature labor occurs. Some research suggests that magnesium is more effective at delaying labor by 48 hours compared to some conventional drugs. However, not all experts believe it is beneficial, and some research suggests it is not more effective than conventional drugs.
- Restless leg syndrome. Taking magnesium might decrease the amount of movement and increase the amount of sleep in patients with restless leg syndrome. However, the role of magnesium, if any, in restless leg syndrome is uncertain. Some people with this condition have high levels of magnesium in their blood, while others have low magnesium levels.
- Bleeding in the brain (subarachnoid hemorrhage). There is mixed evidence on the effect of magnesium in managing bleeding in the brain. Some research suggests that giving magnesium intravenously (by IV) reduces the risk of death and vegetative state. However, other research does not support these findings.
- Sudden cardiac death. Some preliminary research suggests that higher levels of magnesium are linked with a lower chance of experiencing sudden cardiac death. However, it is not known if taking a magnesium supplement reduces the risk of sudden cardiac death. Giving magnesium intravenously does not seem to have a benefit.
- Lyme disease.
- Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate magnesium for these uses.
Magnesium is required for the proper growth and maintenance of bones. Magnesium is also required for the proper function of nerves, muscles, and many other parts of the body. In the stomach, magnesium helps neutralize stomach acid and moves stools through the intestine.
Magnesium is LIKELY SAFE for most people when taken by mouth appropriately or when the prescription-only, injectable product is used correctly. In some people, magnesium might cause stomach upset, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and other side effects.
Doses less than 350 mg per day are safe for most adults. When taken in very large amounts, magnesium is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Large doses might cause too much magnesium to build up in the body, causing serious side effects including an irregular heartbeat, low blood pressure, confusion, slowed breathing, coma, and death.
Special precautions & warnings:
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Magnesium is LIKELY SAFE for pregnant or breast-feeding women when taken by mouth in the recommended amounts. These amounts depend on the age of the woman. Check with your healthcare provider to find out what amounts are right for you.
Bleeding disorders: Magnesium seem to slow blood clotting. In theory, taking magnesium might increase the risk of bleeding or bruising in people with bleeding disorders.
Heart block: High doses of magnesium (typically delivered by IV) should not be given to people with heart block.
Kidney problems, such as kidney failure: Kidneys that don’t work well have trouble clearing magnesium from the body. Taking extra magnesium can cause magnesium to build up to dangerous levels. Don’t take magnesium if you have kidney problems.
Be cautious with this combination.
Antibiotics (Aminoglycoside antibiotics)
Some antibiotics can affect the muscles. These antibiotics are called aminoglycosides. Magnesium can also affect the muscles. Taking these antibiotics and getting a magnesium shot might cause muscle problems.
Some aminoglycoside antibiotics include amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin), kanamycin (Kantrex), streptomycin, tobramycin (Nebcin), and others.
Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)
Magnesium might decrease how much antibiotic the body absorbs. Taking magnesium along with some antibiotics might decrease the effectiveness of some antibiotics. To avoid this interaction, take these antibiotics at least 2 hours before, or 4 to 6 hours after, magnesium supplements.
Some of these antibiotics that might interact with magnesium include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), norfloxacin (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), trovafloxacin (Trovan), and grepafloxacin (Raxar).
Antibiotics (Tetracycline antibiotics)
Magnesium can attach to tetracyclines in the stomach. This decreases the amount of tetracyclines that the body can absorb. Taking magnesium along with tetracyclines might decrease the effectiveness of tetracyclines. To avoid this interaction, take calcium 2 hours before, or 4 hours after, taking tetracyclines.
Some tetracyclines include demeclocycline (Declomycin), minocycline (Minocin), and tetracycline (Achromycin).
Magnesium can decrease how much bisphosphate the body absorbs. Taking magnesium along with bisphosphates can decrease the effectiveness of bisphosphate. To avoid this interaction, take bisphosphonate at least two hours before magnesium or later in the day.
Some bisphosphonates include alendronate (Fosamax), etidronate (Didronel), risedronate (Actonel), tiludronate (Skelid), and others.
Digoxin (Lanoxin) helps the heart beat more strongly. Magnesium might decrease how much digoxin (Lanoxin) the body absorbs. By decreasing how much digoxin (Lanoxin) the body absorbs, magnesium might decrease the effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).
Medications for diabetes (Sulfonylureas)
Some magnesium salts might increase how much sulfonylurea the body absorbs. By increasing how much sulfonylurea the body absorbs, magnesium might increase the risk of low blood sugar in some patients.
Some sulfonylurea agents include carbutamide, acetohexamide, chlorpropamide, tolbutamide, gliclazide, glibornuride, glyclopyramide, and glimepiride.
Medications for high blood pressure (Calcium channel blockers)
Some medications for high blood pressure work by blocking calcium from entering cells. These medications are called calcium channel blockers. Magnesium might also block calcium from entering cells. Taking magnesium with these medications might cause blood pressure to go too low.
Some of these medications include nifedipine (Adalat, Procardia), verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan), diltiazem (Cardizem), isradipine (DynaCirc), felodipine (Plendil), amlodipine (Norvasc), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Magnesium might slow blood clotting. Taking magnesium along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.
Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, indomethacin (Indocin), ticlopidine (Ticlid), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Magnesium seems to help relax muscles. Taking magnesium along with muscle relaxants can increase the risk of side effects of muscle relaxants.
Some muscle relaxants include carisoprodol (Soma), pipecuronium (Arduan), orphenadrine (Banflex, Disipal), cyclobenzaprine, gallamine (Flaxedil), atracurium (Tracrium), pancuronium (Pavulon), succinylcholine (Anectine), and others.
Water pills (Potassium-sparing diuretics)
Some "water pills" can increase magnesium levels in the body. Taking some "water pills" along with magnesium might cause too much magnesium to be in the body.
Some "water pills" that increase magnesium in the body include amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium).
Magnesium in the blood is processed by the kidneys and excreted into the urine. It then leaves the body. In women, boron supplements can slow this process down and raise magnesium levels in the blood. In young women, age 18 to 25 years, the effect appears to be greater in less active women than in athletic women. In postmenopausal women, the effect is more marked in women with low dietary magnesium intake. It is not known how important these effects are or whether they occur in men.
Calcium supplements can decrease the absorption of dietary magnesium, but only at very high doses (2600 mg per day). However, in people with adequate magnesium stores, calcium doesn't have any clinically significant effect on long-term magnesium balance. People at high risk for magnesium deficiency should take calcium supplements at bedtime, instead of with meals, to avoid interfering with dietary magnesium absorption. Magnesium does not seem to affect calcium absorption.
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using magnesium along with herbs that can slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, glucosamine, Panax ginseng, and others.
Various forms of vitamin D increase magnesium absorption; especially when taken in high doses. This effect has been used to treat low magnesium in people with conditions that make it difficult for them to absorb magnesium.
High doses of zinc (142 mg/day) appear to decrease magnesium absorption and magnesium balance in healthy adult men. Also, moderately high dietary zinc intake (53 mg per day) seems to increase magnesium loss in postmenopausal women. This might harm bone health. More research is needed to find out how important this interaction is.
There are no known interactions with foods.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For mild magnesium deficiency: magnesium sulfate 3 grams every 6 hours for 4 doses.
- For treating constipation in adults, single doses of magnesium should be taken with a full glass of water and should only be used occasionally. Typical doses are:
- magnesium citrate 8.75-25 grams (150-300 mL of magnesium citrate solution, 290 mg per 5mL).
- magnesium hydroxide 2.4-4.8 grams (30-60 mL of milk of magnesia, 400 mg per 5mL).
- magnesium sulfate 10-30 grams.
- For treating heartburn in adults:
- magnesium hydroxide 400-1200 mg 4 times daily (5-15 mL of milk of magnesia, 400 mg per 5mL)
- magnesium oxide 800 mg daily.
- For reducing the frequency and severity of migraine headaches in adults:
- magnesium citrate 1830-3625 mg in divided doses for up to 3 months.
- magnesium oxide 400 mg twice daily.
- For reducing the frequency and severity of migraine headaches in children: 15 mg per kg body weight of magnesium oxide per day in 3 divided doses for up to 16 weeks.
- For treatment of low magnesium levels in adults with type 2 diabetes: 50 mL of a 5% magnesium chloride solution daily for 16 weeks.
- For weak bones (osteoporosis): 300-1800 mg of magnesium hydroxide daily for 6 months, followed by 600 mg of magnesium hydroxide daily for 18 months.
- For premenstrual syndrome (PMS): 333mg of magnesium oxide daily.
The daily Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for elemental magnesium are: Age 1-3 years, 80 mg; 4-8 years, 130 mg; 9-13 years, 240 mg; 14-18 years, 410 mg (boys) and 360 mg (girls); 19-30 years, 400 mg (men) and 310 mg (women); 31 years and older, 420 mg (men) and 320 mg (women). For pregnant women age 14-18 years, the RDA is 400 mg; 19-30 years, 350 mg; 31-50 years, 360 mg. For lactating women age 14-18 years, the RDA is 360 mg; 19-30 years, 310 mg; 31-50 years, 320 mg. For infants less than one year of age, adequate intake (AI) levels are 30 mg from birth to 6 months and 75 mg from 7 to 12 months. The daily upper intake level (UL) for magnesium is 65 mg for children age 1-3 years, 110 mg for 4-8 years, and 350 mg for anyone over 8 years old, including pregnant and breast-feeding women.
Aspartate de Magnésium, Atomic Number 12, Carbonate de Magnésium, Chelated Magnesium, Chlorure de Magnésium, Citrate de Magnésium, Dimagnesium Malate, Epsom Salts, Gluconate de Magnésium, Glycérophosphate de Magnésium, Glycinate de Magnésium, Hydroxyde de Magnésium, Lactate de Magnésium, Lait de Magnésium, Magnesia, Magnesia Carbonica, Magnesia Muriatica, Magnesia Phosphorica, Magnesia Sulfate, Magnesia Sulfurica, Magnesio, Magnésium, Magnesium Ascorbate, Magnesium Aspartate, Magnesium Carbonate, Magnésium Chelaté, Magnesium Chloride, Magnesium Citrate, Magnesium Disuccinate Hydrate, Magnesium Gluconate, Magnesium Glycerophosphate, Magnesium Glycinate, Magnesium Hydroxide, Magnesium Lactate, Magnesium Malate, Magnesium Murakab, Magnesium Orotate, Magnesium Oxide, Magnesium Phosphate, Magnesium Phosphoricum, Magnesium Sulfate, Magnesium Taurate, Magnesium Taurinate, Magnesium Trisilicate, Malate de Magnésium, Milk of Magnesia, Mg, Numéro Atomique 12, Orotate de Magnésium, Oxyde de Magnésium, Phosphate de Magnésium, Sels d’Epsom, Sulfate de Magnésium, Trisilicate de Magnésium.
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).
To see all references for the Magnesium page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/998.html.
- Wilson DR, Strauss AL Manuel MA. Comparison of medical treatments for the prevention of recurrent calcium nephrolithiasis. Urol Res 1984;12
- Khan KS, Chein PFW. Meta-analyses of clinical trials on use of magnesium sulphate therapy in eclampsia and pre-eclampsia. Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 1997;17:216-219.
- Shepherd J, Jones J, Frampton GK, Tanajewski L, Turner D, and Price A. Intravenous magnesium sulphate and sotalol for prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic review and economic evaluation. Health Technology Assessment 2008;12
- Henyan, NN, Coleman, CI, and White, CM. Oral magnesium supplementation to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a meta-analysis. ASHP Midyear Clinical Meeting 2005;40:P-14E.
- Ali G, Kamal M Khan AN. Comparison of the efficacy of magnesium sulphate and diazepam in the control of tetanus spasm. Journal of Postgraduate Medical Institute 2011;25:106-110.
- Tanabe, K., Yamamoto, A., Suzuki, N., Osada, N., Yokoyama, Y., Samejima, H., Seki, A., Oya, M., Murabayashi, T., Nakayama, M., Yamamoto, M., Omiya, K., Itoh, H., and Murayama, M. Efficacy of oral magnesium administration on decreased exercise tolerance in a state of chronic sleep deprivation. Jpn.Circ.J 1998;62:341-346. View abstract.
- Zehender, M., Meinertz, T., Faber, T., Caspary, A., Jeron, A., Bremm, K., and Just, H. Antiarrhythmic effects of increasing the daily intake of magnesium and potassium in patients with frequent ventricular arrhythmias. Magnesium in Cardiac Arrhythmias (MAGICA) Investigators. J Am.Coll.Cardiol. 1997;29:1028-1034. View abstract.
- Chien, P. F., Khan, K. S., and Arnott, N. Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: an overview of the evidence from randomised trials. Br.J Obstet.Gynaecol. 1996;103:1085-1091. View abstract.
- Galloe, A. M. and Graudal, N. A. [Magnesium treatment of patients with acute myocardial infarction. A meta-analysis]. Ugeskr.Laeger 1-23-1995;157:437-440. View abstract.
- Wilson, A. and Vulcano, B. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium sulfate in the ethanol withdrawal syndrome. Alcohol Clin.Exp.Res. 1984;8:542-545. View abstract.
Morrison, A. P., Hunter, J. M., Halpern, S. H., and Banerjee, A. Effect of intrathecal magnesium in the presence or absence of local anaesthetic with and without lipophilic opioids: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2013;110:702-712. View abstract.
- Arsenault, K. A., Yusuf, A. M., Crystal, E., Healey, J. S., Morillo, C. A., Nair, G. M., and Whitlock, R. P. Interventions for preventing post-operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing heart surgery. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2013;1:CD003611. View abstract.
- Wu, X., Wang, C., Zhu, J., Zhang, C., Zhang, Y., and Gao, Y. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on magnesium in addition to beta-blocker for prevention of postoperative atrial arrhythmias after coronary artery bypass grafting. BMC.Cardiovasc.Disord. 2013;13:5. View abstract.
- Powell, C., Dwan, K., Milan, S. J., Beasley, R., Hughes, R., Knopp-Sihota, J. A., and Rowe, B. H. Inhaled magnesium sulfate in the treatment of acute asthma. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;12:CD003898. View abstract.
- Cook, R. C., Yamashita, M. H., Kearns, M., Ramanathan, K., Gin, K., and Humphries, K. H. Prophylactic magnesium does not prevent atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Ann Thorac.Surg 2013;95:533-541. View abstract.
- Albrecht, E., Kirkham, K. R., Liu, S. S., and Brull, R. The analgesic efficacy and safety of neuraxial magnesium sulphate: a quantitative review. Anaesthesia 2013;68:190-202. View abstract.
- Chouinard, G., Beauclair, L., Geiser, R., and Etienne, P. A pilot study of magnesium aspartate hydrochloride (Magnesiocard) as a mood stabilizer for rapid cycling bipolar affective disorder patients. Prog.Neuropsychopharmacol.Biol.Psychiatry 1990;14:171-180. View abstract.
- Haas, D. M., Caldwell, D. M., Kirkpatrick, P., McIntosh, J. J., and Welton, N. J. Tocolytic therapy for preterm delivery: systematic review and network meta-analysis. BMJ 2012;345:e6226. View abstract.
- Rodrigo, C., Samarakoon, L., Fernando, S. D., and Rajapakse, S. A meta-analysis of magnesium for tetanus. Anaesthesia 2012;67:1370-1374. View abstract.
- Garrison, S. R., Allan, G. M., Sekhon, R. K., Musini, V. M., and Khan, K. M. Magnesium for skeletal muscle cramps. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;9:CD009402. View abstract.
- Gordon, M., Naidoo, K., Akobeng, A. K., and Thomas, A. G. Osmotic and stimulant laxatives for the management of childhood constipation. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2012;7:CD009118. View abstract.
- McDonald, S. D., Lutsiv, O., Dzaja, N., and Duley, L. A systematic review of maternal and infant outcomes following magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia in real-world use. Int J Gynaecol.Obstet. 2012;118:90-96. View abstract.
- De Oliveira, G. S. J., Knautz, J. S., Sherwani, S., and McCarthy, R. J. Systemic magnesium to reduce postoperative arrhythmias after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Cardiothorac.Vasc.Anesth. 2012;26:643-650. View abstract.
- Gu, W. J., Wu, Z. J., Wang, P. F., Aung, L. H., and Yin, R. X. Intravenous magnesium prevents atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass grafting: a meta-analysis of 7 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials. Trials 2012;13:41. View abstract.
- Mehrpour, O., Jafarzadeh, M., and Abdollahi, M. A systematic review of aluminium phosphide poisoning. Arh.Hig.Rada Toksikol. 2012;63:61-73. View abstract.
- Doyle, L. W. Antenatal magnesium sulfate and neuroprotection. Curr Opin Pediatr 2012;24:154-159. View abstract.
- Dong, J. Y., Xun, P., He, K., and Qin, L. Q. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Diabetes Care 2011;34:2116-2122. View abstract.
- Kerin, N. Z. and Jacob, S. The efficacy of sotalol in preventing postoperative atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2011;124:875-879. View abstract.
- Ronsmans, C. and Campbell, O. Quantifying the fall in mortality associated with interventions related to hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. BMC.Public Health 2011;11 Suppl 3:S8. View abstract.
- Jabeen, M., Yakoob, M. Y., Imdad, A., and Bhutta, Z. A. Impact of interventions to prevent and manage preeclampsia and eclampsia on stillbirths. BMC.Public Health 2011;11 Suppl 3:S6. View abstract.
- Wong, G. K., Boet, R., Poon, W. S., Chan, M. T., Gin, T., Ng, S. C., and Zee, B. C. Intravenous magnesium sulphate for aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: an updated systemic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care 2011;15:R52. View abstract.
- Conde-Agudelo, A., Romero, R., and Kusanovic, J. P. Nifedipine in the management of preterm labor: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am J Obstet.Gynecol. 2011;204:134-20. View abstract.
- Duley, L., Henderson-Smart, D. J., Walker, G. J., and Chou, D. Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD000127. View abstract.
- Duley, L., Gulmezoglu, A. M., Henderson-Smart, D. J., and Chou, D. Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD000025. View abstract.
- Duley, L., Gulmezoglu, A. M., and Chou, D. Magnesium sulphate versus lytic cocktail for eclampsia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD002960. View abstract.
- Han, S., Crowther, C. A., and Moore, V. Magnesium maintenance therapy for preventing preterm birth after threatened preterm labour. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2010;:CD000940. View abstract.
- Ma, L., Liu, W. G., Zhang, J. M., Chen, G., Fan, J., and Sheng, H. S. Magnesium sulphate in the management of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a meta-analysis of prospective controlled trials. Brain Inj. 2010;24:730-735. View abstract.
- Zhao, X. D., Zhou, Y. T., Zhang, X., Zhuang, Z., and Shi, J. X. A meta analysis of treating subarachnoid hemorrhage with magnesium sulfate. J Clin Neurosci. 2009;16:1394-1397. View abstract.
- Costantine, M. M. and Weiner, S. J. Effects of antenatal exposure to magnesium sulfate on neuroprotection and mortality in preterm infants: a meta-analysis. Obstet.Gynecol. 2009;114(2 Pt 1):354-364. View abstract.
- Aydin, H., Deyneli, O., Yavuz, D., Gozu, H., Mutlu, N., Kaygusuz, I., and Akalin, S. Short-term oral magnesium supplementation suppresses bone turnover in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2010;133:136-143. View abstract.
- Conde-Agudelo, A. and Romero, R. Antenatal magnesium sulfate for the prevention of cerebral palsy in preterm infants less than 34 weeks' gestation: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Am.J Obstet.Gynecol. 2009;200:595-609. View abstract.
- Darmstadt, G. L., Yakoob, M. Y., Haws, R. A., Menezes, E. V., Soomro, T., and Bhutta, Z. A. Reducing stillbirths: interventions during labour. BMC.Pregnancy Childbirth. 2009;9 Suppl 1:S6. View abstract.
- Arango, M. F. and Bainbridge, D. Magnesium for acute traumatic brain injury. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;:CD005400. View abstract.
- Koseoglu, E., Talaslioglu, A., Gonul, A. S., and Kula, M. The effects of magnesium prophylaxis in migraine without aura. Magnes.Res 2008;21:101-108. View abstract.
- Teo, K. K., Yusuf, S., Collins, R., Held, P. H., and Peto, R. Effects of intravenous magnesium in suspected acute myocardial infarction: overview of randomised trials. BMJ 12-14-1991;303:1499-1503. View abstract.
- Mohammed, S. and Goodacre, S. Intravenous and nebulised magnesium sulphate for acute asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis. Emerg.Med J 2007;24:823-830. View abstract.
- Doyle, L. W., Crowther, C. A., Middleton, P., and Marret, S. Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;:CD004661. View abstract.
- Onalan, O., Crystal, E., Daoulah, A., Lau, C., Crystal, A., and Lashevsky, I. Meta-analysis of magnesium therapy for the acute management of rapid atrial fibrillation. Am.J Cardiol. 6-15-2007;99:1726-1732. View abstract.
- Schulze, M. B., Schulz, M., Heidemann, C., Schienkiewitz, A., Hoffmann, K., and Boeing, H. Fiber and magnesium intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a prospective study and meta-analysis. Arch.Intern.Med 5-14-2007;167:956-965. View abstract.
- Ho, K. M., Sheridan, D. J., and Paterson, T. Use of intravenous magnesium to treat acute onset atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis. Heart 2007;93:1433-1440. View abstract.
- Li, J., Zhang, Q., Zhang, M., and Egger, M. Intravenous magnesium for acute myocardial infarction. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2007;:CD002755. View abstract.
- Thwaites, C. L., Yen, L. M., Loan, H. T., Thuy, T. T., Thwaites, G. E., Stepniewska, K., Soni, N., White, N. J., and Farrar, J. J. Magnesium sulphate for treatment of severe tetanus: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 10-21-2006;368:1436-1443. View abstract.
- Burgess, D. C., Kilborn, M. J., and Keech, A. C. Interventions for prevention of post-operative atrial fibrillation and its complications after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Eur Heart J 2006;27:2846-2857. View abstract.
- Song, Y., He, K., Levitan, E. B., Manson, J. E., and Liu, S. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomized double-blind controlled trials. Diabet.Med 2006;23:1050-1056. View abstract.
- Duley, L., Henderson-Smart, D. J., and Meher, S. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;3:CD001449. View abstract.
- Henyan, N. N., Gillespie, E. L., White, C. M., Kluger, J., and Coleman, C. I. Impact of intravenous magnesium on post-cardiothoracic surgery atrial fibrillation and length of hospital stay: a meta-analysis. Ann.Thorac.Surg. 2005;80:2402-2406. View abstract.
- Magee, L. A., Miremadi, S., Li, J., Cheng, C., Ensom, M. H., Carleton, B., Cote, A. M., and von Dadelszen, P. Therapy with both magnesium sulfate and nifedipine does not increase the risk of serious magnesium-related maternal side effects in women with preeclampsia. Am.J Obstet.Gynecol. 2005;193:153-163. View abstract.
- Sedrakyan, A., Treasure, T., Browne, J., Krumholz, H., Sharpin, C., and van der, Meulen J. Pharmacologic prophylaxis for postoperative atrial tachyarrhythmia in general thoracic surgery: evidence from randomized clinical trials. J Thorac.Cardiovasc.Surg. 2005;129:997-1005. View abstract.
- Alghamdi, A. A., Al Radi, O. O., and Latter, D. A. Intravenous magnesium for prevention of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Card Surg. 2005;20:293-299. View abstract.
- Miller, S., Crystal, E., Garfinkle, M., Lau, C., Lashevsky, I., and Connolly, S. J. Effects of magnesium on atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis. Heart 2005;91:618-623. View abstract.
- Cheuk, D. K., Chau, T. C., and Lee, S. L. A meta-analysis on intravenous magnesium sulphate for treating acute asthma. Arch.Dis.Child 2005;90:74-77. View abstract.
- Azria, E., Tsatsaris, V., Goffinet, F., Kayem, G., Mignon, A., and Cabrol, D. [Magnesium sulfate in obstetrics: current data]. J Gynecol.Obstet.Biol.Reprod.(Paris) 2004;33(6 Pt 1):510-517. View abstract.
- Hornyak, M., Haas, P., Veit, J., Gann, H., and Riemann, D. Magnesium treatment of primary alcohol-dependent patients during subacute withdrawal: an open pilot study with polysomnography. Alcohol Clin Exp.Res 2004;28:1702-1709. View abstract.
- Shiga, T., Wajima, Z., Inoue, T., and Ogawa, R. Magnesium prophylaxis for arrhythmias after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am.J Med 9-1-2004;117:325-333. View abstract.
- Nageris, B. I., Ulanovski, D., and Attias, J. Magnesium treatment for sudden hearing loss. Ann.Otol.Rhinol.Laryngol. 2004;113:672-675. View abstract.
- Dagdelen, S., Yuce, M., Toraman, F., Karabulut, H., and Alhan, C. The value of P dispersion on predicting atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery; effect of magnesium on P dispersion. Card Electrophysiol.Rev. 2003;7:162-164. View abstract.
- Dumont, L., Lysakowski, C., Tramer, M. R., Junod, J. D., Mardirosoff, C., Tassonyi, E., and Kayser, B. Magnesium for the prevention and treatment of acute mountain sickness. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106:269-277. View abstract.
- Horner, S. M. Efficacy of intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction in reducing arrhythmias and mortality. Meta-analysis of magnesium in acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 1992;86:774-779. View abstract.
- Gordin, A., Goldenberg, D., Golz, A., Netzer, A., and Joachims, H. Z. Magnesium: a new therapy for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Otol.Neurotol. 2002;23:447-451. View abstract.
- Shechter, M., Merz, C. N., Paul-Labrador, M., Meisel, S. R., Rude, R. K., Molloy, M. D., Dwyer, J. H., Shah, P. K., and Kaul, S. Beneficial antithrombotic effects of the association of pharmacological oral magnesium therapy with aspirin in coronary heart disease patients. Magnes.Res. 2000;13:275-284. View abstract.
- Alter, H. J., Koepsell, T. D., and Hilty, W. M. Intravenous magnesium as an adjuvant in acute bronchospasm: a meta-analysis. Ann.Emerg.Med 2000;36:191-197. View abstract.
- Rowe, B. H., Bretzlaff, J. A., Bourdon, C., Bota, G. W., and Camargo, C. A., Jr. Intravenous magnesium sulfate treatment for acute asthma in the emergency department: a systematic review of the literature. Ann.Emerg.Med. 2000;36:181-190. View abstract.
- Newhouse, I. J. and Finstad, E. W. The effects of magnesium supplementation on exercise performance. Clin J Sport Med. 2000;10:195-200. View abstract.
- Rodrigo, G., Rodrigo, C., and Burschtin, O. Efficacy of magnesium sulfate in acute adult asthma: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am.J.Emerg.Med. 2000;18:216-221. View abstract.
- Heiden, A., Frey, R., Presslich, O., Blasbichler, T., Smetana, R., and Kasper, S. Treatment of severe mania with intravenous magnesium sulphate as a supplementary therapy. Psychiatry Res 12-27-1999;89:239-246. View abstract.
- Giannini, A. J., Nakoneczie, A. M., Melemis, S. M., Ventresco, J., and Condon, M. Magnesium oxide augmentation of verapamil maintenance therapy in mania. Psychiatry Res. 2-14-2000;93:83-87. View abstract.
- Pearle, M. S., Roehrborn, C. G., and Pak, C. Y. Meta-analysis of randomized trials for medical prevention of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. J Endourol. 1999;13:679-685. View abstract.
- Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. Enhancement of drug absorption by antacids. An unrecognised drug interaction. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1994;27:120-8. View abstract.
- Kivistö KT, Neuvonen PJ. Enhancement of absorption and effect of glipizide by magnesium hydroxide. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991;49:39-43. View abstract.
- Neuvonen PJ, Kivistö KT. The effects of magnesium hydroxide on the absorption and efficacy of two glibenclamide preparations. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1991;32:215-20. View abstract.
- Ravn HB, Vissinger H, Kristensen SD, et al. Magnesium inhibits platelet activity--an infusion study in healthy volunteers. Thromb Haemost. 1996;75:939-44. View abstract.
- Ravn HB, Kristensen SD, Vissinger H, et al. Magnesium inhibits human platelets. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1996;7:241-4. View abstract.
- Ravn HB, Vissinger H, Kristensen SD, et al. Magnesium inhibits platelet activity--an in vitro study. Thromb Haemost. 1996;76:88-93. View abstract.
- Allen MD, Greenblatt DJ, Harmatz JS, et al. Effect of magnesium--aluminum hydroxide and kaolin--pectin on absorption of digoxin from tablets and capsules. J Clin Pharmacol. 1981;21:26-30. View abstract.
- Brown DD, Juhl RP. Decreased bioavailability of digoxin due to antacids and kaolin-pectin. N Engl J Med. 1976;295:1034-7. View abstract.
- Waisman GD, Mayorga LM, Cámera MI, et al. Magnesium plus nifedipine: potentiation of hypotensive effect in preeclampsia? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1988;159:308-9. View abstract.
- Snyder SW, Cardwell MS. Neuromuscular blockade with magnesium sulfate and nifedipine. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;161:35-6. View abstract.
- Koontz SL, Friedman SA, Schwartz ML. Symptomatic hypocalcemia after tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate and nifedipine. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:1773-6. View abstract.
- Haas DM, Imperiale TF, Kirkpatrick PR, et al. Tocolytic therapy: a meta-analysis and decision analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113:585-94. View abstract.
- Riss P, Bartl W, Jelincic D. [Clinical aspects and treatment of calf muscle cramps during pregnancy]. Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd. 1983;43:329-31. View abstract.
- Visser PJ, Bredero AC, Hoekstra JB. Magnesium therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Neth J Med. 1995 Mar;46:156-65. View abstract.
- Lu XY, Zhou JY. [Comparison of different vehicles for nebulized salbutamol in treatment of bronchial asthma exacerbations: a Meta-analysis]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006;35:336-41. View abstract.
- Albrecht E, Kirkham KR, Liu SS, et al. Peri-operative intravenous administration of magnesium sulphate and postoperative pain: a meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2013;68:79-90. View abstract.
- Chien, P. F., Khan, K. S., and Arnott, N. Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia: an overview of the evidence from randomised trials. Br.J Obstet.Gynaecol. 1996;103:1085-1091. View abstract.
- Kass L, Weekes J, Carpenter L. Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 2012;66:411-8. View abstract.
- Fernández-Fernández FJ, Sesma P, Caínzos-Romero T, Ferreira-González L. Intermittent use of pantoprazole and famotidine in severe hypomagnesaemia due to omeprazole. Neth J Med 2010;68:329-30. View abstract.
- Faulhaber GA, Furlanetto TW. Could magnesium depletion play a role on fracture risk in PPI users? Arch Intern Med 2010;170:1776. View abstract.
- Cundy T, Mackay J. Proton pump inhibitors and severe hypomagnesaemia. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2011;27:180-5. View abstract.
- Regolisti G, Cabassi A, Parenti E, et al. Severe hypomagnesemia during long-term treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;56:168-74. View abstract.
- Hoorn EJ, van der Hoek J, de Man RA, et al. A case series of proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesemia. Am J Kidney Dis 2010;56:112-6. View abstract.
- Broeren MA, Geerdink EA, Vader HL, van den Wall Bake AW. Hypomagnesemia induced by several proton-pump inhibitors. Ann Intern Med 2009;151:755-6. View abstract.
- François M, Lévy-Bohbot N, Caron J, Durlach V. [Chronic use of proton-pump inhibitors associated with giardiasis: A rare cause of hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism?]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2008;69:446-8. View abstract.
- Epstein M, McGrath S, Law F. Proton-pump inhibitors and hypomagnesemic hypoparathyroidism. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1834-6. View abstract.
- Doornebal J, Bijlsma R, Brouwer RM. [An unknown but potentially serious side effect of proton pump inhibitors: hypomagnesaemia]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 2009;153:A711. View abstract.
- Cundy T, Dissanayake A. Severe hypomagnesaemia in long-term users of proton-pump inhibitors. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2008;69:338-41. View abstract.
- Kuipers MT, Thang HD, Arntzenius AB. Hypomagnesaemia due to use of proton pump inhibitors--a review. Neth J Med 2009;67:169-72. View abstract.
- Mackay JD, Bladon PT. Hypomagnesaemia due to proton-pump inhibitor therapy: a clinical case series. QJM 2010;103:387-95. View abstract.
- Safety Alert. Proton Pump Inhibitor drugs (PPIs): Drug Safety Communication - Low Magnesium Levels Can Be Associated With Long-Term Use. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, March 2, 2011. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/SafetyInformation/ SafetyAlertsforHumanMedicalProducts/ucm245275.htm
- Nygaard IH, Valbø A, Pethick SV, Bøhmer T. Does oral magnesium substitution relieve pregnancy-induced leg cramps? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2008;141:23-6. View abstract.
- Mooren FC, Krüger K, Völker K, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Diabetes Obes Metab 2011;13:281-4. View abstract.
- Chiuve SE, Korngold EC, Januzzi JL Jr, et al. Plasma and dietary magnesium and risk of sudden cardiac death in women. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:253-60. View abstract.
- Larsson SC, Wolk A. Magnesium intake and risk of type-2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. J Intern Med 2007:262:208-14. View abstract.
- Vectibix (panitumumab) product information. Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, CA. June 2007.
- Erbitux (cetuximab) product information. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ. May 2007.
- Fakih M. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody-induced hypomagnesaemia. Lancet Oncol 2007;8:366-7. View abstract.
- Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Campbell F, et al. Magnesium supplementation for the management of essential hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004640. View abstract.
- Young GL, Jewell D. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;:CD000121. View abstract.
- He K, Liu K, Daviglus ML, et al. Magnesium intake and incidence of metabolic syndrome among young adults. Circulation 2006;113:1675-82. View abstract.
- Firoz M, Graber M. Bioavailability of US commercial magnesium preparations. Magnes Res 2001;14:257-62.. View abstract.
- McCarty MF. Magnesium may mediate the favorable impact of whole grains on insulin sensitivity by acting as a mild calcium antagonist. Med Hypotheses 2005;64:619-27. . View abstract.
- De Leeuw I, Engelen W, De Block C, Van Gaal L. Long term magnesium supplementation influences favourably the natural evolution of neuropathy in Mg-depleted type 1 diabetic patients (T1dm). Magnes Res 2004;17:109-14.. View abstract.
- Gullestad L, Jacobsen T, Dolva LO. Effect of magnesium treatment on glycemic control and metabolic parameters in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care 1994;17:460-1. View abstract.
- Eibl NL, Kopp HP, Nowak HR, et al. Hypomagnesemia in type II diabetes: effect of a 3-month replacement therapy. Diabetes Care 1995;18:188-92.. View abstract.
- Paolisso G, Scheen A, Cozzolino D, et al. Changes in glucose turnover parameters and improvement of glucose oxidation after 4-week magnesium administration in elderly noninsulin-dependent (type II) diabetic patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:1510-4.. View abstract.
- Guerrero-Romero F, Tamez-Perez HE, Gonzalez-Gonzalez G, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial. Diabetes Metab 2004;30:253-8.. View abstract.
- Paolisso G, Sgambato S, Gambardella A, et al. Daily magnesium supplements improve glucose handling in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1992;55:1161-7.. View abstract.
- Walti MK, Zimmermann MB, Walczyk T, et al. Measurement of magnesium absorption and retention in type 2 diabetic patients with the use of stable isotopes. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:448-53.. View abstract.
- Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Relationship between serum magnesium levels and C-reactive protein concentration, in non-diabetic, non-hypertensive obese subjects. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:469-74.. View abstract.
- Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Low serum magnesium levels and metabolic syndrome. Acta Diabetol 2002;39:209-13.. View abstract.
- King DE, Mainous AG 3rd, Geesey ME, Woolson RF. Dietary magnesium and C-reactive protein levels. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:166-71. . View abstract.
- Huerta MG, Roemmich JN, Kington ML, et al. Magnesium deficiency is associated with insulin resistance in obese children. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1175-81.. View abstract.
- Lopez-Ridaura R, Willett WC, Rimm EB, et al. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women. Diabetes Care 2004;27:134-40. View abstract.
- Fung TT, Manson JE, Solomon CG, et al. The association between magnesium intake and fasting insulin concentration in healthy middle-aged women. J Am Coll Nutr 2003;22:533-8.. View abstract.
- Guerrero-Romero F, Rodriguez-Moran M. Complementary therapies for diabetes: the case for chromium, magnesium, and antioxidants. Arch Med Res 2005;36:250-7. . View abstract.
- Barbagallo M, Dominguez LJ, Galioto A, et al. Role of magnesium in insulin action, diabetes and cardio-metabolic syndrome X. Mol Aspects Med 2003;24:39-52. View abstract.
- Sabra R, Branch RA. Amphotericin B nephrotoxicity. Drug Saf 1990;5:94-108. . View abstract.
- Dunn CJ, Goa KL. Risedronate: a review of its pharmacological properties and clinical use in resorptive bone disease. Drugs 2001;61:685-712.. View abstract.
- L'Hommedieu CS, Nicholas D, Armes DA, et al. Potentiation of magnesium sulfate--induced neuromuscular weakness by gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin. J Pediatr 1983;102:629-31.. View abstract.
- Muir KW, Lees KR, Ford I, et al. Magnesium for acute stroke (Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Stroke trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;363:439-45.. View abstract.
- Ziegelstein RC, Hilbe JM, French WJ, et al. Magnesium use in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction in the United States (observations from the Second National Registry of Myocardial Infarction). Am J Cardiol 2001;87:7-10.. View abstract.
- Nameki M, Ishibashi I, Miyazaki Y, et al. Comparison between nicorandil and magnesium as an adjunct cardioprotective agent to percutaneous coronary intervention in acute anterior myocardial infarction. Circ J 2004;68:192-7.. View abstract.
- Santoro GM, Antoniucci D, Bolognese L, et al. A randomized study of intravenous magnesium in acute myocardial infarction treated with direct coronary angioplasty. Am Heart J 2000;140:891-7.. View abstract.
- Magnesium in Coronaries (MAGIC) Trial Investigators. Early administration of intravenous magnesium to high-risk patients with acute myocardial infarction in the Magnesium in Coronaries (MAGIC) Trial: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;360:1189-96.. View abstract.
- Davey MJ, Teubner D. A randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Ann Emerg Med 2005;45:347-53.. View abstract.
- Iseri LT, Fairshter RD, Hardemann JL, Brodsky MA. Magnesium and potassium therapy in multifocal atrial tachycardia. Am Heart J 1985;110:789-94.. View abstract.
- McCord JK, Borzak S, Davis T, Gheorghiade M. Usefulness of intravenous magnesium for multifocal atrial tachycardia in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Cardiol 1998;81:91-3.. View abstract.
- Christiansen EH, Frost L, Andreasen F, et al. Dose-related cardiac electrophysiological effects of intravenous magnesium. A double-blind placebo-controlled dose-response study in patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. Europace 2000;2:320-6.. View abstract.
- Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW, et al. Effect of magnesium sulfate given for neuroprotection before preterm birth: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2003;290:2669-76. . View abstract.
- Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW. Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;4:CD001060. . View abstract.
- Witlin AG, Sibai BM. Magnesium sulfate therapy in preeclampsia and eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 1998;92:883-9.. View abstract.
- Altman D, Carroli G, Duley L, et al. Do women with pre-eclampsia, and their babies, benefit from magnesium sulphate? The Magpie Trial: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:1877-90.. View abstract.
- Mittendorf R, Dambrosia J, Pryde PG, et al. Association between the use of antenatal magnesium sulfate in preterm labor and adverse health outcomes in infants. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2002;186:1111-8.. View abstract.
- Jeyabalan A, Caritis SN. Pharmacologic inhibition of preterm labor. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2002;45:99-113. View abstract.
- Fine KD, Santa Ana CA, Porter JL, et al. Intestinal absorption of magnesium from food and supplements. J Clin Invest 1991;88:396-402.. View abstract.
- Sompolinsky D, Samra Z. Influence of magnesium and manganese on some biological and physical properties of tetracycline. J Bacteriol 1972;110:468-76.. View abstract.
- Johnson S. The multifaceted and widespread pathology of magnesium deficiency. Med Hypotheses 2001;56:163-70.. View abstract.
- Nechifor M, Vaideanu C, Palamaru I, et al. The influence of some antipsychotics on erythrocyte magnesium and plasma magnesium, calcium, copper and zinc in patients with paranoid schizophrenia. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:549S-51S. View abstract.
- Hanus M, Lafon J, Mathieu M. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fixed combination containing two plant extracts (Crataegus oxyacantha and Eschscholtzia californica) and magnesium in mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20:63-71. View abstract.
- Yokota K, Kato M, Lister F, et al. Clinical efficacy of magnesium supplementation in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:506S-509S. . View abstract.
- Ford ES, Mokdad AH. Dietary magnesium intake in a national sample of US adults. J Nutr 2003;133:2879-82. View abstract.
- Cohen N, Almoznino-Sarafian D, Zaidenstein R, et al. Serum magnesium aberrations in furosemide (frusemide) treated patients with congestive heart failure: pathophysiological correlates and prognostic evaluation. Heart 2003;89:411-6. View abstract.
- Vetter T, Lohse MJ. Magnesium and the parathyroid. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2002;11:403-10. View abstract.
- FDA. Dietary Supplement Enforcement Report July 2003. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/oc/whitepapers/chbn_summary.html
- Rude RK. Magnesium deficiency: a cause of heterogeneous disease in humans. J Bone Miner Res 1998;13:749-58. View abstract.
- Abraham GE, Grewal H. A total dietary program emphasizing magnesium instead of calcium. Effect on the mineral density of calcaneous bone in postmenopausal women on hormonal therapy. J Reprod Med 1990;35:503-7. View abstract.
- Ilich JZ, Kerstetter JE. Nutrition in bone health revisited: a story beyond calcium. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:715-37. View abstract.
- Tranquilli AL, Lucino E, Garzetti GG, Romanini C. Calcium, phosphorus and magnesium intakes correlate with bone mineral content in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol 1994;8:55-8. View abstract.
- New SA, Bolton-Smith C, Grubb DA, Reid DM. Nutritional influences on bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1831-9. View abstract.
- Houtkooper LB, Ritenbaugh C, Aickin M, et al. Nutrients, body composition and exercise are related to change in bone mineral density in premenopausal women. J Nutr 1995;125:1229-37. View abstract.
- Tucker KL, Hannan MT, Chen H, et al. Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:727-36. View abstract.
- Rude RK, Gruber HE, Norton HJ, et al. Bone loss induced by dietary magnesium reduction to 10% of the nutrient requirement in rats is associated with increased release of substance P and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. J Nutr 2004;134:79-85. View abstract.
- Stendig-Lindberg G, Koeller W, Bauer A, Rob PM. Experimentally induced prolonged magnesium deficiency causes osteoporosis in the rat. Eur J Intern Med 2004;15:97-107. View abstract.
- Nielsen FH, Milne DB. A moderately high intake compared to a low intake of zinc depresses magnesium balance and alters indices of bone turnover in postmenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:703-10. View abstract.
- Maizels M, Blumenfeld A, Burchette R. A combination of riboflavin, magnesium, and feverfew for migraine prophylaxis: a randomized trial. Headache 2004;44:885-90. View abstract.
- Trauninger A, Pfund Z, Koszegi T, Czopf J. Oral magnesium load test in patients with migraine. Headache 2002;42:114-9. View abstract.
- Song Y, Manson JE, Buring JE, Liu S. Dietary magnesium intake in relation to plasma insulin levels and risk of type 2 diabetes in women. Diabetes Care 2004;27:59-65. View abstract.
- Sojka J, Wastney M, Abrams S, et al. Magnesium kinetics in adolescent girls determined using stable isotopes: effects of high and low calcium intake. Am J Physiol 1997;273:R710-5.. View abstract.
- Rodriguez-Moran M, Guerrero-Romero F. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and metabolic control in type 2 diabetic subjects: A randomized double-blind controlled trial. Diabetes Care 2003;26:1147-52.. View abstract.
- Wang F, Van Den Eeden SK, Ackerson LM, et al. Oral magnesium oxide prophylaxis of frequent migrainous headache in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Headache 2003;43:601-10.. View abstract.
- Pfaffenrath V, Wessely P, Meyer C, et al. Magnesium in the prophylaxis of migraine--a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Cephalalgia 1996;16:436-40.. View abstract.
- Kozielec T, Starobrat-Hermelin B. Assessment of magnesium levels in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Magnes Res 1997;10:143-8.. View abstract.
- Rolla G, Bucca C. Magnesium, beta-agonists, and asthma. Lancet 1988;1:989. View abstract.
- Stanton MF, Lowenstein FW. Serum magnesium in women during pregnancy, while taking contraceptives, and after menopause. J Am Coll Nutr 1987;6:313-9.. View abstract.
- Seelig MS. Interrelationship of magnesium and estrogen in cardiovascular and bone disorders, eclampsia, migraine, and premenstrual syndrome. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:442-58.. View abstract.
- Muneyyirci-Delale O, Nacharaju VL, Dalloul M, et al. Serum ionized magnesium and calcium in women after menopause: inverse relation of estrogen with ionized magnesium. Fertil Steril 1999;71:869-72.. View abstract.
- Krejs GJ, Nicar MJ, Zerwekh JE, et al. Effect of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on calcium and magnesium absorption in the healthy human jejunum and ileum. Am J Med 1983;75:973-6.. View abstract.
- Fukumoto S, Matsumoto T, Tanaka Y, et al. Renal magnesium wasting in a patient with short bowel syndrome with magnesium deficiency: effect of 1-alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 treatment. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1301-4.. View abstract.
- Charles P, Mosekilde L, Sondergard K, Jensen FT. Treatment with high-dose oral vitamin D2 in patients with jejunoileal bypass for morbid obesity. Effects on calcium and magnesium metabolism, vitamin D metabolites and faecal lag time. Scand J Gastroenterol 1984;19:1031-8.. View abstract.
- Hardwick LL, Jones MR, Brautbar N, Lee DB. Magnesium absorption: mechanisms and the influence of vitamin D, calcium and phosphate. J Nutr 1991;121:13-23.. View abstract.
- Allen RD, Hunnisett AG, Morris PJ. Cyclosporine and magnesium. Lancet 1985;1:1283-4. View abstract.
- Thompson CB, Sullivan KM, June CH, Thomas ED. Association between cyclosporine neurotoxicity and hypomagnesemia. Lancet 1984;2:1116-20. View abstract.
- Gottlieb SS. Importance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. Am J Cardiol 1989;63:39G-42G.. View abstract.
- Cantilena LR, Klaassen CD. The effect of chelating agents on the excretion of endogenous metals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 1982;63:344-50. View abstract.
- Kleeman CR, Levi J, Better O. Kidney and adrenocortical hormones. Nephron 1975;15:261-78.. View abstract.
- Quamme GA. Renal handling of magnesium: drug and hormone interactions. Magnesium 1986;5:248-72.. View abstract.
- Runeberg L, Miettinen TA, Nikkila EA. Effect of cholestyramine on mineral excretion in man. Acta Med Scand 1972;192:71-6. View abstract.
- Martin M, Diaz-Rubio E, Casado A, et al. Intravenous and oral magnesium supplementation in the prophylaxis of cisplatin-induced hypomagnesemia. Results of a controlled trial. Am J Clin Oncol 1992;15:348-51. View abstract.
- Hirschel-Scholz S, Paunier L, Bonjour JP. Interference of WR-2721 with magnesium metabolism: mechanism of action. Miner Electrolyte Metab 1988;14:114-20.. View abstract.
- Spencer H, Norris C, Williams D. Inhibitory effects of zinc on magnesium balance and magnesium absorption in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:479-84.. View abstract.
- Nielsen FH, Hunt CD, Mullen LM, Hunt JR. Effect of dietary boron on mineral, estrogen, and testosterone metabolism in postmenopausal women. FASEB J 1987;1:394-7. View abstract.
- Heidenreich O. Mode of action of conventional and potassium-sparing diuretics--aspects with relevance to Mg-sparing effects. Magnesium 1984;3:248-56.. View abstract.
- Seelig MS. Increased need for magnesium with the use of combined oestrogen and calcium for osteoporosis treatment. Magnes Res 1990;3:197-215.. View abstract.
- Niederstadt C, Steinhoff J, Erbsloh-Moller B, et al. Effect of FK506 on magnesium homeostasis after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 1997;29:3161-2. View abstract.
- Gradon JD, Fricchione L, Sepkowitz D. Severe hypomagnesemia associated with pentamidine therapy. Rev Infect Dis 1991;13:511-2.. View abstract.
- Burnett RJ, Reents SB. Severe hypomagnesemia induced by pentamidine. DICP Ann Pharmacother 1990;24:239-40.. View abstract.
- Palestine AG, Polis MA, De Smet MD, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of foscarnet in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS. Ann Int Med 1991;115:665-73.. View abstract.
- Ehrenpreis ED, Wieland JM, Cabral J, et al. Symptomatic hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and hyperphosphatemia sceondary to Fleet's Phospho-Soda colonoscopy preparation in a patient with a jejunoileal bypass. Dig Dis Sci 1997;42:858-60. View abstract.
- Schwarz RE, Zagala-Nevarez K. Significant hypomagnesemia after celiotomy: implications of preoperative bowel cleansing with sodium phosphate purgative. Surgery 2002;131:236. View abstract.
- Hollifield JW. Magnesium depletion, diuretics, and arrhythmias. Am J Med 1987;82:30-7.. View abstract.
- Ryan MP. Diuretics and potassium/magnesium depletion: directions for treatment. Am J Med 1987;82:38-47.. View abstract.
- Watkins DW, Khalafi R, Cassidy MM, Vahouny GV. Alterations in calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc metabolism by dietary cholestyramine. Dig Dis Sci 1985;30:477-82.. View abstract.
- Nielsen FH. Biochemical and physiologic consequences of boron deprivation in humans. Environ Health Perspect 1994;102:59-63.. View abstract.
- Whyte KF, Addis GJ, Whitesmith R, Reid JL. Adrenergic control of plasma magnesium in man. Clin Sci 1987;72:135-8.. View abstract.
- Selby PL, Peacock M, Bambach CP. Hypomagnesemia after small bowel resection: treatment with 1-alpha-hydroxylated vitamin D metabolites. Br J Surg 1984;71:334-7.. View abstract.
- Rickers H, Deding A, Christiansen C, Rodbro P. Mineral loss in cortical and trabecular bone during high-dose prednisone treatment. Calcif Tissue Int 1984;36:269-73.. View abstract.
- Lund B, Storm TL, Lund B, et al. Bone mineral loss, bone histomorphometry and vitamin D metabolism in patients with rheumatoid arthritis on long-term glucocorticoid treatment. Clin Rheumatol 1985;4:143-9.. View abstract.
- Rolla G, Bucca C, Bugiani M, et al. Hypomagnesemia in chronic obstructive lung disease: effect of therapy. Magnes Trace Elem 1990;9:132-6.. View abstract.
- Pere AK, Lindgren L, Tuomainen P, et al. Dietary potassium and magnesium supplementation in cyclosporine-induced hypertension and nephrotoxicity. Kidney Int 2000;58:2462-72.. View abstract.
- Rossier P, van Erven S, Wade DT. The effect of magnesium oral therapy on spasticity in a patient with multiple sclerosis. Eur J Neurol 2000;7:741-4.. View abstract.
- Demirkaya S, Dora B, Topcuoglu MA, et al. A comparative study of magnesium, flunarizine and amitriptyline in the prophylaxis of migraine. J Headache Pain 2000;1:179-86.
- Ceremuzynski L, Gebalska J, Wolk R, Makowska E. Hypomagnesemia in heart failure with ventricular arrhythmias. Beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation. J Intern Med 2000;247:78-86.. View abstract.
- Ciarallo L, Brousseau D, Reinert S. Higher-dose intravenous magnesium therapy for children with moderate to severe acute asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:979-83.. View abstract.
- Schenk P, Vonbank K, Schnack B, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate for bronchial hyperreactivity: a randomized, controlled, double-blind study. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001;69:365-71.. View abstract.
- Belfort MA, Anthony J, Saade GR, Allen JC Jr. A comparison of magnesium sulfate and nimodipine for the prevention of eclampsia. N Engl J Med 2003;348:304-11.. View abstract.
- Popoviciu L, Asgian B, Delast-Popoviciu D, et al. Clinical, EEG, electromyographic and polysomnographic studies in restless legs syndrome caused by magnesium deficiency (abstract). Rom J Neurol Psychiatry 1993;31:55-61.. View abstract.
- Hornyak M, Voderholzer U, Hohagen F, et al. Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study. Sleep 1998;21:501-5.. View abstract.
- Jee SH, Miller ER 3rd, Guallar E, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Am J Hypertens 2002;15:691-6.. View abstract.
- Liske E, Hanggi W, Henneicke-von Zepelin HH, et al. Physiological investigation of a unique extract of black cohosh (Cimicifugae racemosae rhizoma): a 6-month clinical study demonstrates no systemic estrogenic effect. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11:163-74.. View abstract.
- Rahman MA, Ing TS. Cyclosporine and magnesium metabolism. J Lab Clin Med 1989;114:213-4. View abstract.
- Stendig-Lindberg G, Tepper R, Leichter I. Trabecular bone density in a two year controlled trial of peroral magnesium in osteoporosis. Magnes Res 1993;6:155-63. View abstract.
- Muir KW, Lees KR. Dose optimization of intravenous magnesium sulfate after acute stroke. Stroke 1998;29:918-23. View abstract.
- Ascherio A, Rimm EB, Hernan MA, et al. Intake of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber and risk of stroke among US men. Circulation 1998;98:1198-204. View abstract.
- Suter PM. The effects of potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber on risk of stroke. Nutr Rev 1999;57:84-8. View abstract.
- Muir KW, Lees KR. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of intravenous magnesium sulfate in acute stroke. Stroke 1995;26:1183-8. View abstract.
- Bhargava B, Chandra S, Agarwal VV, et al. Adjunctive magnesium infusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction. Int J Cardiol 1995;52:95-9. View abstract.
- Altura BT, Memon ZI, Zhang A, et al. Low levels of serum ionized magnesium are found in patients early after stroke which result in rapid elevation in cytosolic free calcium and spasm in cerebral vascular muscle cells. Neurosci Lett 1997;230:37-40. View abstract.
- Lote CJ, Thewles A, Wood JA, Zafar T. The hypomagnesaemic action of FK506: urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium and the role of parathyroid hormone. Clin Sci 2000;99:285-92.. View abstract.
- Rahman ARA, McDevitt DG, Struthers AD, Lipworth BJ. The effects of enalapril and spironolactone on terbutaline-induced hypokalemia. Chest 1992;102:91-5.. View abstract.
- Kozeny GA, Nicolas JD, Creekmore S, et al. Effects of interleukin-2 immunotherapy on renal function. J Clin Oncol 1988;6:1170-6.. View abstract.
- Shah GM, Alvarado P, Kirschenbaum MA. Symptomatic hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia with renal magnesium wasting associated with pentamidine therapy in a patient with AIDS. Am J Med 1990;89:380-2. View abstract.
- Gearhart MO, Sorg TB. Foscarnet-induced severe hypomagnesemia and other electrolyte disturbances. Ann Pharmacother 1993;27:285-9.. View abstract.
- De Souza MC, Walker AF, Robinson PA, Bolland K. A synergistic effect of a daily supplement for 1 month of 200 mg magnesium plus 50 mg vitamin B6 for the relief of anxiety-related premenstrual symptoms: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2000;9:131-9. View abstract.
- Sabatier M, Arnaud MJ, Kastenmayer P, et al. Meal effect on magnesium bioavailability from mineral water in healthy women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:65-71. View abstract.
- Sacks FM, Willett WC, Smith A, et al. Effect on blood pressure of potassium, calcium, and magnesium in women with low habitual intake. Hypertension 1998;31:131-8. View abstract.
- Ettinger B, Citron JT, Livermore B, Dolman LI. Chlorthanlidone reduces calcium oxalate calculous recurrence but magnesium hydroxide does not. J Urol 1988;139:679-84. View abstract.
- Frankel BL, Patten BM, Gillin JC. Restless leg syndrome. Sleep-electroencephalographic and neurologic findings. JAMA 1974;230:1302-3. View abstract.
- Birrer RB, Shallash AJ, Totten V. Hypermagnesemia-induced fatality following epsom salt gargles. J Emerg Med 2002;22:185-8. View abstract.
- Cohen JS. High-dose oral magnesium treatment of chronic, intractable erythromelalgia. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:255-60. View abstract.
- Grether JK, Hoogstrate J, Walsh-Greene E, Nelson KB. Magnesium sulfate for tocolysis and risk of spastic cerebral palsy in premature children born to women without preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2000;183:717-25. View abstract.
- Kosch M, Hausberg M, Westermann G, et al. Alterations in calcium and magnesium content of red cell membranes in patients with primary hypertension. Am J Hypertens 2001;14:254-8. View abstract.
- Teragawa H, Kato M, Yamagata T, et al. The preventive effect of magnesium on coronary spasm in patients with vasospastic angina. Chest 2000;118:1690-5. View abstract.
- Seelig M, Altura BM. How best to determine magnesium requirement: need to consider cardiotherapeutic drugs that affect its retention. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:4-6. View abstract.
- Costello RB, Moser-Veillon PB, DiBianco R. Magnesium supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Nutr 1997;16:22-31. View abstract.
- Douban S, Brodsky MA, Whang DD, Whang R. Significance of magnesium in congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 1996;132:664-71. View abstract.
- Deulofeu R, Gascon J, Gimenez N, Corachan M. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;338:641. View abstract.
- Gantz NM. Magnesium and chronic fatigue. Lancet 1991;338:66. View abstract.
- Young IS, Trimble ER. Magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;337;1094-5. View abstract.
- Clague JE, Edwards RH, Jackson MJ. Intravenous magnesium loading in chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1992;340:124-5. View abstract.
- Hinds G, Bell NP, McMaster D, McCluskey DR. Normal red cell magnesium concentrations and magnesium loading tests in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Ann Clin Biochem 1994;31:459-61. View abstract.
- Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson D. Red blood cell magnesium and chronic fatigue syndrome. Lancet 1991;337:757-60. View abstract.
- Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309063507/html/index.html.
- Tramer MR, Schneider J, Marti RA, Rifat K. Role of magnesium sulfate in postoperative analgesia. Anesthesiology 1996;84:340-7. View abstract.
- Bendich A. The potential for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. J Am Coll Nutrition 2000;19:3-12. View abstract.
- Crosby V, Wilcock A, Corcoran R. The safety and efficacy of a single dose (500 mg or 1 g) of intravenous magnesium sulfate in neuropathic pain poorly responsive to strong opioid analgesics in patients with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manage 2000;19:35-9. View abstract.
- Meyer KA, Kushi LH, Jacobs DR, et al. Carbohydrates, dietary fiber, and incident type 2 diabetes in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:921-30. View abstract.
- Swain R, Kaplan-Machlis B. Magnesium for the next millennium. South Med J 1999;92:1040-7. View abstract.
- Anderson PO, Knoben JE. Handbook of Clinical Drug Data. 8th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1997.
- Geerling BJ, Badart-Smook A, Stockbrugger RW, Brummer RJ. Comprehensive nutritional status in patients with long-standing Crohn disease currently in remission. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;67:919-26. View abstract.
- Galland L. Magnesium and inflammatory bowel disease. Magnesium 1988;7:78-83. View abstract.
- Lipworth BJ, McDevitt DG. Beta-adrenoceptor responses to inhaled salbutamol in normal subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;36:239-45.. View abstract.
- Gustafson T, Boman K, Rosenhall L, et al. Skeletal muscle magnesium and potassium in asthmatics treated with oral beta-2-agonists. Eur Resp J 1996;9:237-40.. View abstract.
- Bos WJ, Postma DS, van Doormaal JJ. Magnesiuric and calciuric effects of terbutaline in man. Clin Sci 1988;74:595-7.. View abstract.
- Khilnani G, Parchani H, Toshniwal G. Hypomagnesemia due to beta 2-agonist use in bronchial asthma. J Assoc Physicians India 1992;40:346.. View abstract.
- Bremme K, Eneroth P, Nordstrom L, Nilsson B. Effects of infusion of the beta-adrenoceptor agonist terbutaline on serum magnesium in pregnant women. Magnesium 1986;5:85-94. View abstract.
- Peikert A, Wilimzig C, Kohne-Volland R. Prophylaxis of migraine with oral magnesium: results from a prospective, multi-center, placebo-controlled and double-blind randomized study. Cephalalgia 1996;16:257-63. View abstract.
- Spencer H, Fuller H, Norris C, Williams D. Effect of magnesium on the intestinal absorption of calcium in man. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;15:485-92. View abstract.
- Schwinger RH, Eromann E. Heart failure and electrolyte disturbances. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 1992;14:315-25. View abstract.
- Seelig MS. Auto-immune complications of D-penicillamine - A possible result of zinc and magnesium depletion and of pyridoxine inactivation. J Am Coll Nutr 1982;1:207-14. View abstract.
- Murry JJ, Healy MD. Drug-mineral interactions: a new responsibility for the hospital dietician. J Am Diet Assoc 1991;91:66-73. View abstract.
- Anderson PO, Knoben JE, Troutman WG. Handbook of Clinical Drug Data. 9th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.
- Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol 1995;22:953-8. View abstract.
- Hansten PD, Horn JR. Drug Interactions Analysis and Management. Vancouver, WA: Applied Therapeutics Inc., 1997 and updates.
- Weller E, Bachert P, Meinck HM, et al. Lack of effect of oral Mg-supplementation on Mg in serum, blood cells, and calf muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30:1584-91. View abstract.
- Maughan RJ, Sadler DJ. The effects of oral administration of salts of aspartic acid on the metabolic response to prolonged exhausting exercise in man. Int J Sports Med 1983;4:119-23. View abstract.
- Hagan RD, Upton SJ, Duncan JJ, et al. Absence of effect of potassium-magnesium aspartate on physiologic responses to prolonged work in aerobically trained men. Int J Sports Med 1982;3:177-81. View abstract.
- Golf SW, Happel O, Graef V, Seim KE. Plasma aldosterone, cortisol and electrolyte concentrations in physical exercise after magnesium supplementation. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1984;22:717-21. View abstract.
- Golf SW, Bender S, Gruttner J. On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 1998;12:197-202. View abstract.
- de Haan A, van Doorn JE, Westra HG. Effects of potassium plus magnesium aspartate on muscle metabolism and force development during short intensive static exercise. Int J Sports Med 1985;6:44-9. View abstract.
- Tveskov C, Djurhuus MS, Klitgaard NAH, Egstrup K. Potassium and magnesium distribution, ECG changes, and ventricular ectopic beats during beta-2-adrenergic stimulation with terbutaline in healthy subjects. Chest 1994;106:1654-9.. View abstract.
- Johansson G, Backman U, Danielson BG, et al. Biochemical and clinical effects of the prophylactic treatment of renal calcium stones with magnesium hydroxide. J Urol 1980;124:770–4. View abstract.
- Li MK, Blacklock NJ, Garside J. Effects of magnesium on calcium oxalate crystallization. J Urol 1985;133:23. View abstract.
- Moghissi KS. Risks and benefits of nutritional supplements during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1981;58:68S-78S. View abstract.
- McGuire JK, Kulkarni MS, Baden HP. Fatal hypermagnesemia in a child treated with megavitamin/megamineral therapy. Pediatrics 2000;105:e18. View abstract.
- Skorodin MS, Tenholder MF, Yetter B, et al. Magnesium sulfate in exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 1995;155:496-500. View abstract.
- Attias J, Weisz G, Almog S, et al. Oral magnesium intake reduces permanent hearing loss induced by noise exposure. Am J Otolaryngol 1994;15:26-32. View abstract.
- Brodsky MA, Orlov MV, Capparelli EV, et al. Magnesium therapy in new-onset atrial fibrillation. Am J Cardiol 1994;73:1227-9. View abstract.
- Rattan V, Sidhu H, Vaidyanathan S. Effect of combined supplementation of magnesium oxide and pyridoxine in calcium-oxalate stone formers. Urol Res 1994;22:161-5. View abstract.
- Widman L, Wester PO, Stegmayr BK, et al. The dose-dependent reduction in blood pressure through administration of magnesium. A double blind placebo controlled cross-over study. Am J Hypertens 1993;6:41-5. View abstract.
- Galloe AM, Rasmussen HS, Jorgensen LN, et al. Influence of oral magnesium supplementation on cardiac events among survivors of an acute myocardial infarction. BMJ 1993;307:585-7. View abstract.
- Purvis JR, Cummings DM, Landsman P, et al. Effect of oral magnesium supplementation on selected cardiovascular risk factors in non-insulin-dependent diabetics. Arch Fam Med 1994;3:503-8. View abstract.
- Plum-Wirell M, Stegmayr BG, Wester PO. Nutritional magnesium supplementation does not change blood pressure nor serum or muscle potassium and magnesium in untreated hypertension. A double-blind crossover study. Magnes Res 1994;7:277-83.. View abstract.
- Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;173:175-80. View abstract.
- Hoogerbrugge N, Cobbaert C, de Heide L, et al. Oral physiological magnesium supplementation for 6 weeks with 1 g/d magnesium oxide does not affect increased Lp(a) levels in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Magnes Res 1996;9:129-32. View abstract.
- Sanjuliani AF, de Abreu Fagundes VG, Francischetti EA. Effects of magnesium on blood pressure and intracellular ion levels of Brazilian hypertensive patients. Int J Cardiol 1996;56:177-83. View abstract.
- Lichodziejewska B, Klos J, Rezler J, et al. Clinical symptoms of mitral valve prolapse are related to hypomagnesemia and attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Am J Cardiol 1997;79:768-72. View abstract.
- Thel MC, Armstrong AL, McNulty SE, et al. Randomised trial of magnesium in in-hospital cardiac arrest. Duke Internal Medicine Housestaff. Lancet 1997;350:1272-6. View abstract.
- Starobrat-Hermelin B, Kozielec T. The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Positive response to magnesium oral loading test. Magnes Res 1997;10:149-56. View abstract.
- Walker AF, De Souza MC, Vickers MF, et al. Magnesium supplementation alleviates premenstrual symptoms of fluid retention. J Womens Health 1998;7:1157-65. View abstract.
- Facchinetti F, Borella P, Sances G, et al. Oral magnesium successfully relieves premenstrual mood changes. Obstet Gynecol 1991;78:177-81. View abstract.
- Facchinetti F, Sances G, Borella P, et al. Magnesium prophylaxis of menstrual migraine: effects on intracellular magnesium. Headache 1991;31:298-301. View abstract.
- Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, Altura BM. Intravenous magnesium sulphate relieves migraine attacks in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels: a pilot study. Clin Sci (Lond) 1995;89:633-6. View abstract.
- Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Intravenous magnesium sulfate relieves cluster headaches in patients with low serum ionized magnesium levels. Headache 1995;35:597-600. View abstract.
- Mauskop A, Altura BT, Cracco RQ, et al. Deficiency in serum ionized magnesium but not total magnesium in patients with migraines. Possible role of ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio. Headache 1993;33:135-8. View abstract.
- Yamori Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S, et al. Nutritional factors for stroke and major cardiovascular diseases: international epidemiological comparison of dietary prevention. Health Rep 1994;6:22-7. View abstract.
- Lasserre B, Spoerri M, Moullet V, et al. Should magnesium therapy be considered for the treatment of coronary heart disease? II. Epidemiological evidence in outpatients with and without coronary heart disease. Magnes Res 1994;7:145-53. View abstract.
- Witteman JC, Grobbee DE, Derkx FH, et al. Reduction of blood pressure with oral magnesium supplementation in women with mild to moderate hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:129-35. View abstract.
- Hill J, Micklewright A, Lewis S, et al. Investigation of the effect of short-term change in dietary magnesium intake in asthma. Eur Respir J 1997;10:2225-9. View abstract.
- Lima M, Cruz T, Pousada JC, et al. The effect of magnesium supplementation in increasing doses on the control of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 1998;21:682-6. View abstract.
- de Valk HW, Verkaaik R, van Rijn HJ, et al. Oral magnesium supplementation in insulin-requiring Type 2 diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1998;15:503-7. View abstract.
- Preuss HG, Gondal JA, Lieberman S. Association of macronutrients and energy intake with hypertension. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:21-35. View abstract.
- Scheen AJ. Perspective in the treatment of insulin resistance. Hum Reprod 1997;12:63-71. View abstract.
- Durlach J, Bac P, Durlach V, et al. Magnesium status and ageing: an update. Magnes Res 1998;11:25-42. View abstract.
- Shils M, Olson A, Shike M. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea and Febiger, 1994.
- Meacham SL, Taper LJ, Volpe SL. Effect of boron supplementation on blood and urinary calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus, and urinary boron in athletic and sedentary women. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;61:341-5. View abstract.
- Whitney E, Cataldo CB, Rolfes SR, eds. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1998.
- Young DS. Effects of Drugs on Clinical Laboratory Tests 4th ed. Washington: AACC Press, 1995.
- Covington TR, et al. Handbook of Nonprescription Drugs. 11th ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association, 1996.
- Rodin SM, Johnson BF. Pharmacokinetic interactions with digoxin. Clin Pharmacokinet 1988;15:227-44. View abstract.
- McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
- Show more references
- Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 10/13/2014
This copyrighted, evidence-based medicine resource is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database disclaims any responsibility related to consequences of using any product. This monograph should not replace advice from a healthcare professional and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition.
Copyright © 1995 - 2015 Therapeutic Research Faculty
, publishers of Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database
, Prescriber’s Letter
, Pharmacist’s Letter
. All rights reserved. For scientific data on natural medicines, professionals may consult the Professional Version of Natural Medicines Comprehensive DatabaseNatural Medicines Comprehensive Database (http://www.naturaldatabase.com/)