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Drug-induced hypertension

Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance, drug, or medication.

Causes

Blood pressure is determined by the:

  • Amount of blood the heart pumps
  • Condition of the heart valves
  • Pulse rate
  • Pumping power of the heart
  • Size and condition of the arteries

There are several types of high blood pressure.

  • Essential hypertension has no cause that can be found.
  • Secondary hypertension occurs because of another disorder.
  • Drug-induced hypertension is a form of secondary hypertension caused by a response to medication.

Drugs that can cause hypertension include:

  • Acetaminophen
  • Alcohol, amphetamines, ecstasy (MDMA and derivatives), and cocaine
  • Antidepressants (including venlafaxine, bupropion, and desipramine)
  • Caffeine (including the caffeine in coffee and energy drinks)
  • Corticosteroids
  • Cyclosporine
  • Erythropoietin
  • Estrogens (including birth control pills) and other hormones
  • Many over-the-counter medications such as cough/cold and asthma medications -- particularly when the cough/cold medicine is taken with certain antidepressants like tranylcypromine or tricyclics
  • Migraine medications
  • Nasal decongestants
  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 
Drug induced hypertension

Rebound hypertension occurs when blood pressure rises after you stop taking or lower the dose of a drug (typically a high blood pressure medication).

Many other factors can also affect blood pressure, including:

  • Condition of the kidneys, nervous system, or blood vessels
  • Genetics
  • Foods eaten, weight, and other body-related variables
  • Levels of various hormones in the body
  • Volume of water in the body

Alternative Names

Hypertension - medication related

References

Grossman G, Messerli FH. Drug-induced hypertension: An unappreciated cause of secondary hypertension.Am J Med

Victor RG. Systemic hypertension: mechanisms and diagnosis. In: Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, Bonow RO, Braunwald E, eds.Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine

Update Date 11/25/2014

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