Blind loop syndrome occurs when digested food slows or stops moving through part of the intestines. This causes an overgrowth of bacteria in the intestines. It also leads to problems absorbing nutrients.
The name of this condition refers to the "blind loop" formed by part of the intestine that is bypassed. This blockage does not allow digested food to flow normally through the intestinal tract.
The substances needed to digest fats (called bile salts) do not work as they should when a section of the intestine is affected by blind loop syndrome. This prevents fat and fat-soluble vitamins from being absorbed into the body. It also leads to fatty stools. Vitamin B12 deficiency may occur because the extra bacteria that form in the blind loop use up this vitamin.
Blind loop syndrome is a complication that occurs:
- After many operations, including subtotal gastrectomy (surgical removal of part of the stomach) and operations for extreme obesity
- As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease
Treatment most often starts with antibiotics for the excess bacteria growth, along with vitamin B12 supplements. If antibiotics are not effective, surgery may be needed to help food flow through the intestines.
Many people get better with antibiotics. If surgical repair is needed, the outcome is often very good.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of blind loop syndrome.
Stasis syndrome; Stagnant loop syndrome
Semrad CE. Approach to the patient with diarrhea and malabsorption. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 142.
Update Date 2/11/2014
Updated by: Todd Eisner, MD, Private practice specializing in Gastroenterology, Boca Raton, FL. Affiliate Assistant Professor, Florida Atlantic University School of Medicine. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.