Opisthotonos is a condition in which a person holds their body in an abnormal position. The person is usually rigid and arches their back, with their head thrown backward. If a person with opisthotonos lies on their back, only the back of their head and heels touch the surface they are on.
Opisthotonos is much more common in infants and children than in adults. It is also more extreme in infants and children because of their less mature nervous systems.
Opisthotonos may occur in infants with meningitis. It may also occur as a sign of reduced brain function or injury to the nervous system.
Other causes may include:
- A problem with the structure of the brain called Arnold-Chiari syndrome
- Brain tumor
- Gaucher disease, which causes a buildup of fatty tissue in certain organs
- Growth hormone deficiency (occasionally)
- Forms of chemical poisoning called glutaric aciduria and organic acidemias
- Krabbe Disease, which destroys the coating of nerves in the central nervous system
- Severe electrolyte imbalance
- Severe head injury
- Stiff-person syndrome (a condition that makes a person rigid and have spasms)
- Bleeding in the brain
Some antipsychotic medicines can cause a side effect called acute dystonic reaction. Opisthotonos may be part of this reaction.
In rare cases, infants born to women who drink large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy may have opisthotonus due to alcohol withdrawal.
A person who develops opisthotonos will need to be cared for in a hospital.
When to Contact a Medical Professional
Go to the emergency room or call your local emergency number (such as 911) if symptoms of opisthotonos occur. Typically, opisthotonos is a symptom of other conditions that are serious enough for a person to seek medical attention.
What to Expect at Your Office Visit
This condition will be evaluated in a hospital, and emergency measures may be taken.
Your health care provider will take a medical history and perform a physical examination to look for the cause of opisthotonos
Medical history questions may include:
- When did this behavior start?
- Is it always the same type of posturing?
- What other symptoms came before or with the abnormal posturing (such as fever, stiff neck, or headache)?
- Is there any recent history of illness?
The physical examination will include a complete checkup of the nervous system.
Tests may include:
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Update Date 6/1/2015
Updated by: Daniel Kantor, MD, Kantor Neurology, Coconut Creek, FL and Immediate Past President of the Florida Society of Neurology (FSN). Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.