A lump in the abdomen is a small area of swelling or bulge of tissue in the belly.
Most often, a lump in the abdomen is caused by a hernia. An abdominal hernia occurs when there is weak spot in the abdominal wall. This allows the internal organs to bulge through the muscles of the abdomen. A hernia may appear after you strain, or lift something heavy, or after a long period of coughing.
There are several types of hernias, based on where they occur:
Other causes of a lump in the abdominal wall include:
Call your doctor if you have a lump in your abdomen that becomes larger, changes color, or is painful.
If you have a hernia, call your doctor if:
The blood supply may be cut off to the organs that stick out through the hernia. This is called a strangulated hernia. This condition is very rare, but it is a medical emergency when it occurs.
The doctor will examine you and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, such as:
During the physical exam, you may be asked to cough or strain.
Surgery may be needed to correct hernias that do not go away or cause symptoms. The surgery may be done through a large surgical cut, or through a smaller cut into which the surgeon inserts a camera and other instruments.
Abdominal hernia; Hernia - abdominal; Abdominal wall defects; Lump in the abdominal wall; Abdominal wall mass
Malangoni MA, Rosen MJ. Hernias. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 46.
Turnage RH, Badgwell B. Abdominal wall, umbilicus, peritoneum, mesenteries, omentum, and retroperitoneum. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 45.
Updated by: John A. Daller, MD, PhD., Department of Surgery, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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