Testicular self-examination is an examination of the testicles. The testicles (also called the testes) are the male reproductive organs that produce sperm and the hormone testosterone. They are located in the scrotum under the penis.
Perform this test during or after a shower. This way, the scrotal skin is warm and relaxed. It's best to do the test while standing.
A testicular self-exam is done to check for testicular cancer. Medical experts do not recommend doing regular self-exams if you are not in a high-risk group.
Normal testicles contain blood vessels and other structures that can make the exam confusing. If you notice any lumps or changes in your testicle, you need to contact your health care provider, even if you don't regularly perform self-exams.
You may perform a testicular self-exam every month if you have any of the following risk factors:
Each testicle should feel firm, but not rock hard. One testicle may be lower or slightly larger than the other.
Always ask your health care provider if you have any doubts or questions.
If you find a small, hard lump (like a pea), have an enlarged testicle, or notice any other concerning differences, see your health care provider as soon as you can.
Call your health care provider if:
Sudden, severe (acute) pain in the scrotum or testicle that lasts for more than a few minutes is an emergency. If you have this type of pain, seek immediate medical attention.
A lump on the testicle is often the first sign of testicular cancer. If you find a lump, see a health care provider immediately. Keep in mind that some cases of testicular cancer do not show symptoms until they reach an advanced stage, and most testicular cancers are very treatable.
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Wampler SM, Llanes M. Common scrotal and testicular problems. Prim Care. 2010;37:613-626.
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U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for testicular cancer. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force reaffirmation recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:483-486.
Updated by: Linda J. Vorvick, MD, Medical Director, MEDEX Northwest Division of Physician Assistant Studies, University of Washington, School of Medicine; Louis S. Liou, MD, PhD, Chief of Urology, Cambridge Health Alliance, Visiting Assistant Professor of Surgery, Harvard Medical School. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
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