A nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of a nerve for examination.
How the Test is Performed
A nerve biopsy is most often done on a nerve in the ankle, forearm, or along a rib.
The health care provider will apply medicine to numb the area before the procedure. The doctor makes a small surgical cut and removes a piece of the nerve. The nerve sample is sent to a lab, where it is examined under a microscope.
How to Prepare for the Test
There is no special preparation.
How the Test Will Feel
When the numbing medicine (local anesthetic) is injected, you will feel a prick and a mild sting. The biopsy site will be sore for a few days after the test.
Why the Test is Performed
Nerve biopsy may be done to help diagnose:
- Axon degeneration (destruction of the axon portion of the nerve cell)
- Damage to the small nerves
- Demyelination (destruction of parts of the myelin sheath covering the nerve)
- Inflammatory nerve conditions (neuropathies)
Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
A normal result means the nerve appears normal.
Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your doctor about the meaning of your specific test results.
What the Risks Are
- Allergic reaction to the local anesthetic
- Discomfort after the procedure
- Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
- Permanent nerve damage (uncommon; minimized by careful site selection)
Nerve biopsy is invasive and is useful only in certain situations. Talk to your doctor about your options.
Biopsy - nerve
Shy ME. Peripheral neuropathies. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier. 2007: chap 446.
- Alcoholic neuropathy
- Axillary nerve dysfunction
- Brachial plexopathy
- Central pontine myelinolysis
- Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
- Common peroneal nerve dysfunction
- Distal median nerve dysfunction
- Metabolic neuropathies
- Mononeuritis multiplex
- Necrotizing vasculitis
- Peripheral neuropathy
- Primary amyloidosis
- Radial nerve dysfunction
- Tibial nerve dysfunction
Update Date 5/28/2013
Updated by: Luc Jasmin, MD, PhD, FRCS (C), FACS, Department of Neurosurgery at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles CA; Department of Surgery at Los Robles Hospital, Thousand Oaks CA; Department of Surgery at Ashland Community Hospital, Ashland OR; Department of Surgery at Cheyenne Regional Medical Center, Cheyenne WY; Department of Anatomy at UCSF, San Francisco CA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.