Falls can be a serious problem in the hospital. Factors that increase the risk of falls include:
- Poor lighting
- Slippery floors
- Equipment in rooms and hallways that gets in the way
- Being weak from illness or surgery
- Being in new surroundings
Hospital staff often do not see patients fall. But falls require attention right away to lessen the risk of injury.
When the Patient Falls
If you are with a patient when he or she begins to fall:
- Use your body to break the fall.
- Protect your own back by keeping your feet wide apart and your knees bent.
- Make sure the patient's head does not hit the floor or any other surface.
After the Fall
Stay with the patient and call for help.
- Check the patient's breathing, pulse, and blood pressure. If the patient is unconscious, not breathing, or does not have a pulse, call a hospital emergency code and start CPR.
- Check for injury, such as cuts, scrapes, bruises, and broken bones.
- If you were not there when the patient fell, ask the patient or someone who saw the fall what happened.
If the patient is confused, shaking, or shows signs of weakness, pain, or dizziness:
- Stay with the patient. Provide blankets for comfort until medical staff arrives.
- Do not raise the patient's head if he or she may have a neck or back injury. Wait for medical staff to check for a spinal injury.
Once medical staff decides the patient can be moved, you need to choose the best way.
- If the patient is not hurt or injured and does not appear ill, have another staff member help you. Both of you should help the patient into a wheelchair or into bed. Do not help the patient on your own.
- If the patient cannot support most of his or her own body weight, you may need to use a backboard or a lift.
Watch the patient closely after the fall. You may need to check the person's alertness, blood pressure and pulse, and possibly blood sugar.
Document the fall according to your hospital's policies.
Rubenstein LZ, Dillard D. Falls. In: Ham RJ, Sloane PD, Warshaw GA, Bernard MA, Potter JF, Flaherty E, eds. Primary Care Geriatrics: A Case-Based Approach. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 20.
Update Date 2/24/2014
Updated by: Diane M. Horowitz, MD, Rheumatologist and Continuing Medical Education Director, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.