Both the male and female reproductive systems play a role in pregnancy. Problems with these systems can affect fertility and the ability to have children. Something that affects reproductive health is called a reproductive hazard. Examples include:
- Metals such as lead and mercury
- Chemicals such as pesticides
- Some viruses
For men, a reproductive hazard can affect the sperm. For a woman, a reproductive hazard can cause different effects during pregnancy, depending on when she is exposed. During the first 3 months of pregnancy, it might cause a birth defect or a miscarriage. During the last 6 months of pregnancy, it could slow the growth of the fetus, affect the development of its brain, or cause premature labor.
- X-Rays, Other Scans Generally Safe in Pregnancy: Report (09/03/2015, HealthDay)
- Hair Treatments and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF Available in Spanish
- Mercury and Pregnancy (March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation) Available in Spanish
- Methylmercury and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF Available in Spanish
- Paint and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF
- Pesticides and Pregnancy (Organization of Teratology Information Specialists) - PDF Available in Spanish
- Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure (Health Physics Society)
- X-Rays, Pregnancy and You (Food and Drug Administration)
Journal ArticlesReferences and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Cardiovascular screening by Women's Health Nurses.
- Article: For every woman, every child, everywhere: a universal agenda for...
- Article: Recognition by Women's Health Care Providers of Long-Term Cardiovascular Disease...
- Reproductive Hazards -- see more articles
- Male reproductive health -- see more articles
Finance and Policy
- Reproductive Hazards in the Workplace (Occupational Safety and Health Administration)
- Tests for Reproductive Health (Department of Health and Human Services, Office on Women's Health) - PDF