CHAPTER 10			PAGINATION (Field 8) 
 
Pagination is given in every citation appearing in Index Medicus and its  
derivative publications, and for all MEDLINE databases.  It is supplied by the  
keyboarding contractor and reviewed by the indexer. 
 

10.1		INCLUSIVE PAGINATION 
 
Inclusive pagination, i.e., the first and last pages of an article, is cited.   
It is a very simple form, clearly giving only the digits which change, so that  
unnecessary initial digits need not be repeated. 
 
12-19 is typed 12-9 
21-30 is typed 21-30 
304-310 is typed 304-10 
645-648 is typed 645-8 
1199-1205 is typed 1199-205 
 

10.2		CONTINUED AND CONCLUDED 
 

10.2.1	If an article occurs on non-sequential pages in the same issue,  
specify the pages on which the text appears. 
 
34-6, 87-91, 110-2 
34, 72, 84 
24-32, 64 
432, 438 
 

10.2.2	From the examples above it can be deduced that pagination elements  
can be a single page (34), a sequence of pages (34-6) or a set of continuations  
(34-6, 87-91, 110-2).  If more than three sets are necessary, however, stop  
after the third set of elements and add the word "passim" instead of more  
paging. 
 
34-6, 87-91, 110-2, 123-30 = 34-6, 87-91, 110-2 passim 
34, 72, 84, 96, 101 = 34, 72, 84 passim 
 

10.2.3	If an article is continued in another issue or concluded in another  
issue, this information must be supplied.  The forms "contd" and "concl" will be  
taken to mean that the article is continued or concluded in another issue of the  
journal in hand. 
 
31-7 contd 
176-8 concl 
 
Do not use a period ( . ) after contd or concl for they are clear enough as they  
stand. 
 

10.2.4	If it is necessary to delineate the pagination using the word passim  
as above in addition to contd or concl, follow this form for the relative  
position of passim and contd or concl: 
 
34-6, 87-91, 110-2 passim, contd 
34, 72, 84 passim, concl 
 
Sometimes advertisements intervene between pages of text.  If a few pages  
intervene and their inclusion within the pagination does not give too false a  
picture of the amount of text, ignore the advertisements and include them in the  
paging.  If, however, the number of advertising pages in relation to the number  
of pages of text distorts the information on the approximate length of the  
article, use the form in 10.2.1 and 10.2.2 above. 
 

10.2.5	When an article is issued in parts, with the numerical designation  
of the part appearing in the title, do NOT use contd or concl in the pagination. 
 
Enzyme chemistry.  Part II.  (text on pages 67-109) is cited in the pagination  
field as 
 
67-109 
 
NOT  67-109 contd 
 
The designation contd is not necessary since the reader, seeing evidence of Part  
II, assumes the existence of a Part I and the possible existence of a Part III,  
etc., and some form of "continuation" is implied. 
 
Sometimes an article issued in parts has its bibliographic references printed  
only in the final part.  This does not affect the use above: do not add concl. 
 

10.3		ROMAN NUMERALS 
 
Roman numerals will be typed as they appear in the text: if the pagination in  
the journal is in lower case letters, type the pagination in lower case; if the  
roman numerals are in capital letters, type the pagination in capitals. 
 
iii-viii is typed iii-viii 
III-VIII is typed III-VIII 
XC-CIII is typed XC-CIII 
xc-ciii is typed xc-ciii  
xxi-xxiv is typed xxi-xxiv 
 
Note that whether upper or lower case, they cannot be shortened: xxi-xxiv must  
be typed as xxi-xxiv, not as xxi-iv. 
 

10.4		LETTERS AND NUMBERS 
 
Pagination can contain letters if this is what is in the text.  Follow the usage  
of the journal: reproduce lower case letters as lower case, capitals as  
capitals, letters before the numbers as before, letters after the numbers as  
after.  Dashes and spaces between the letter and numbers are omitted. 
 
P 32 through P 34 is typed P32-4 
S-32 through S-34 is typed S32-4 
I32 through I34   is typed I32-4 
II/45 through II/47 is typed II45-7 
BUT 32S through 34S is typed 32S-34S 
32 P through 34 P is typed 32P-34P 
32-S through 34-S is typed 32S-34S 
32p through 34p   is typed 32p-34p 
p32 through p34   is typed p32-4 
 
The above convention is based on the need for clarity.  That is why the hyphen  
between the numbers and the letter in the pagination given in the second and  
seventh examples is omitted, lest it conflict with the hyphen required in citing  
the paging. 
 

10.5		SUPPLEMENTARY PAGES 
 
Often an issue contains two sets of paging: one for the basic text and another  
for supplementary material which is indexable.  The supplementary pages are  
sometimes in roman numerals, sometimes in arabic.  The base pagination is  
customarily arabic.  Since in a given issue the roman is easily distinguishable  
from the arabic and seldom leads to confusion, cite supplementary paging in  
roman as shown in 10.3. 
 
If, however, the supplementary pages are in arabic, to avoid confusion with the  
base pagination in arabic, type "suppl" in front of the paging citing the  
supplementary matter: 
 
suppl 3 
suppl 4-7 
suppl 113-20 
 
Note that suppl is lower case and there is no period after it. 
 
Do not add suppl if the supplementary pages are already identified with a letter  
prefix or suffix as shown in 10.4. 
 

10.6		SUPPLEMENTARY ISSUES 
 
Supplements to a journal may be published as separate issues.  They are  
identified when the issue is logged into the Serial Records Section of NLM.   
Pagination in such supplements often includes both roman and arabic numerals,  
where the roman numerals reflect the supplement number.  Both portions of the  
pagination should be entered in the pagination field. 
 
I-3 through I-6 is typed I3-6 
II/45 through II/51 is typed II45-51 
 

10.7		DOUBLE PAGINATION 
 
Some journals carry two sets of pagination: one, continuous for the volume; the  
other, specific to the issue.  Frequently the issue-specific pagination includes  
all of the advertisements. 
 
For the MEDLINE and Index Medicus citation, use the continuous pagination for  
the volume: ignore the separate paging for the issue in hand. 
 

10.8		DISCUSSIONS 
 
Many articles contain a discussion by the author in addition to his or her  
summary and conclusions.  Since this forms an integral part of the article it  
will naturally be included in the pagination of the article. 
 
In past years when a discussion by someone other than the author immediately  
followed the end of an article, the pagination for the discussion was included  
in the pagination for the article.  However, this frequently created confusion  
for users when trying to check the accuracy of their references because other  
databases don't include these discussions in their pagination for the article.   
Therefore, as of 1989, discussions by anyone other than the author are  
identified as discussions in the pagination field as shown below. 
 
A discussion of the article immediately preceding it will be reflected only in  
the pagination; the author or authors of the discussion are ignored. 
 
Text of article:	13-20 
Text of discussion:	21-4 
Citation of article:	13-20; discussion 21-4 
 
Two or more separate discussions of an article immediately preceding them will  
be reflected only in the pagination; the authors are ignored. 
 
Text of article:	1-13 
Text of discussion 1:	14-5 
Text of discussion 2:	16-7 
Text of discussion 3:	18-20 
 
Citation of article: 	1-13; discussion 14-20 
 
A discussion which follows the last of a sequence of articles and discusses the  
articles separately or - as is more common - jointly, is reflected only in the  
pagination of each of the articles discussed; the author or authors of the  
discussion are ignored. 
 
Text of article 1:	1-9 
Text of article 2:	10-4 
Text of article 3:	15-20 
Text of discussion:	21-6 
 
Citation of article 1:	1-9; discussion 21-6 
Citation of article 2:	10-4; discussion 21-6 
Citation of article 3:	15-20; discussion 21-6 
 
See 14.5.1.5 for the use of discussion in the reply to letters. 
 
When the discussion following an article appears in toto on the last page of the  
article itself, it is not mentioned at all in the pagination for the article  
because it is already included in the pagination for the article.  It is not our  
intention to highlight discussions as such, but rather to clarify that portion  
of the pagination which is the article itself and that portion which is  
discussion of points raised in the article by someone other than the author(s)  
of the article. 
 
If the discussion begins on the last page of the article, for instance following  
the references, and continues for additional pages, the actual pagination of the  
discussion is given. 
 
Text of article:		348-56 
Text of discussion:	356-9 
 
Citation of article: 348-56; discussion 356-9 
 
When a discussion of a preceding article bears a distinctive, substantive title,  
it is indexed separately under its own pagination, its own title and its own  
author(s).  Discussions such as these are given prominence in the table of  
contents by citing both the author and the title of the discussion.  This type  
of discussion will be treated as a "comment within the issue" and will be cited  
and linked in accordance with the rules given in Section 39. 
 

10.9		APPENDIX TO ARTICLES 
 
An appendix to an article appears in various forms and is cited in tables of  
contents in various ways: 
 
- after an article, written by different authors from the parent article 
 
- after an article with a slightly different title or with a very different  
title 
 
- with the word APPENDIX centered above the appendix title or printed on the  
same line as the appendix title 
 
- entered in the table of contents with the parent article or entered separately  
from the parent or not entered at all 
 
If the appendix is written by the author of the article to which it is appended,  
ignore it and include it in the pagination of the indexed article - whether it  
has a different title or not.  Usually the subjects are related and any  
different slant can be handled by the indexing terms assigned.  Sometimes only  
some of the authors of the parent article have written the appendix.  Since  
these authors are already credited at the parent article, there is no need to  
index the appendix separately. 
 
If the appendix is written by different authors (including the author of the  
original or not), index under the authors of the appendix, the title of the  
appendix and the pagination of the appendix, but do not start the title with the  
word "appendix". In addition, include the pagination of the appendix within the  
pagination of the parent article. 
 

10.10		UNNUMBERED PAGES 
 
There are two types of situations in which indexable material appears on pages  
which have not been numbered by the publisher: multi-paged supplements and  
certain indexable erratum notices. 
 

10.10.1	Articles (or issues of journals) which have not been numbered by the  
publisher are usually found in supplements.  The number of pages must be counted  
by hand and entered in the pagination field followed by p. Thus supplement 3 to  
volume 17, which was 27 pages long, is entered in the pagination field as 27 p. 
 
The citation appears as: 
 
J Mol Cardiol 1985 Sep;17 Suppl 3:27 p. 
 
Note that there must be a period following the letter "p" in the pagination  
field. 
 

10.10.2	Indexable erratum notices sometimes appear preceding or following  
the table of contents, or following the last numbered page of text.  For a one- 
page item, the location is indicated by "preceding" or "following" the  
identified page. 
 
preceding table of contents 
following table of contents 
following 329 
 
Do not extrapolate to the next number before or beyond that printed, since it  
may be used in the preceding issue or the next issue of the journal. 
 
If there is more than one unnumbered page in the item being indexed, the number  
of pages is given followed by "p" (without a period). 
 
4 p following 97 
2 p preceding table of contents 
 
If the item is more than one page removed from a numbered page, indicate with  
"following" or "preceding" but do not attempt to indicate how many pages  
intervene.  Such cases occur usually when advertisements are present, and we  
will assume that the user will be able to match the title given with the text in  
the journal.  Thus, if two pages of advertisements appear before a one-page  
indexable item, we will use simply: 
 
1 p following 97 
 

10.11		CONTINUING EDUCATION QUIZZES 
 

10.11.1	We do not index continuing education quizzes as separate articles.   
Beginning in 1993, continuing education articles which are accompanied by a quiz  
on the contents of that article will indicate the presence of the quiz in the  
pagination field. 
 
Text of article:   47-56 
Text of quiz:      57-60 
 
Citation of article: 47-56; quiz 57-60 
 

10.11.2	If the quiz starts in the middle of the last page of the article,  
use the same pattern as for discussions (last example in 10.9). 
 
Text of article:   122-7 
Text of quiz:      127-9 
 
Citation of article: 122-7; quiz 127-9 
 
If the quiz appears entirely on the last page of the article, do not enter  
"quiz" in the pagination field. 
 

10.11.3	Some journals devote several articles, or an entire issue, to a  
single continuing education topic, followed by a single quiz for all the  
articles.  We will not input pagination for these quizzes, and will not attempt  
to link each individual article to the quiz. 
 

10.11.4	Even if the journal labels a quiz as "test" or "self-assessment" or  
"examination", etc., use "quiz" in the pagination. 
 

10.11.5	If it is necessary to use "passim" for the pagination of the article  
which bears a quiz, use the following format: 
 
36-7, 87-91, 93-5 passim; quiz 96-8 
 
In this case, the fact that the article has an accompanying continuing education  
quiz is sufficiently important that we do not want it to be disguised by  
"passim".