CHAPTER 14			TITLE (Fields 13 and 14) 

Identification of titles for the input typists is the responsibility of the  
keyboarding contractor's editorial staff.  Occasionally, indexers will select  
from non-English language journals and will have to identify elements of titles  
which are not obvious in the journal.  The instructions to follow in this  
chapter assume that the selection and marking of titles are being carried out by  
the keyboarding contractor's editorial staff.  The same rules should be followed  
if the indexer is adding an article to an online journal.  If the indexer is  
adding an isolated article, no marks need to be made in the journal, since the  
intellectual analysis of the title is immediately followed by typing it into the  

14.1.1	All marks in journals must be made softly and lightly with pencil  
only.  Do not mark with felt-tipped pens or ball point pens.  If the title is  
clearly apparent on the printed page, do not mark it at all. 

14.1.2	If running heads, journal rubrics, editorial comments or the like  
precede or follow the title, the title itself is marked discreetly with half- 
	Invited commentary 
	Treatment of diabetes and its complications  
Since, as stated above, most titles are clearly discernible, it is not necessary  
to mark off every title with half-blocks: mark only those where the typist would  
be confused by words or phrases preceding the title and not a part of it.  NLM  
does not always acquire a second copy of some journals for indexing, hence, each  
issue should be handled as if it were the collection copy, and the amount of  
marking on journal pages should be kept to a minimum.	If what appears to be a journal rubric is printed under the title,  
check the Table of Contents.  If it is indeed a rubric, listed at the top of the  
section in the Table of Contents, do not include it in the title.  If, however,  
it is printed as the second sentence or as a second phrase of the title by the  
journal, include it in the title. 
For example, if an article entitled "Isolation of enterobacteria from the  
intestine" is followed on the next line in different typeface by the words  
"Brief report", check the Table of Contents.  If, in the Table of Contents,  
there is a section in boldface labelled BRIEF REPORTS, under which is the entry  
"Isolation of enterobacteria from the intestine", then the words "Brief report"  
constitute a journal rubric and should not be added to the title.  If, however,  
the journal just lists articles, one of which has the title "Isolation of  
enterobacteria from the intestine: brief report", then "Brief report" is part of  
the title. 

14.1.3	Correction of Published Typographical Errors 
Occasionally we see typographical errors in the published titles of articles.  
Some of these errors were made by the printer of the journal, others appear to  
have been author-generated.  If a word of medical, pharmacological or other  
scientific significance is misspelled and subject to misinterpretation, it will  
be corrected by the indexer during the indexing process.  As discussed in  
38.7.3, it is not necessary to wait for the journal to publish an erratum notice  
before making the correction.  The keyboarding staff are less likely to  
recognize such errors.  If one is suspected, it should be flagged for the  
indexer and reviser to handle.	When the indexer discovers this kind of error, type the correct word  
in situ and follow it with the rubric [correction of ...], with the original  
word typed within the bracket. 
For instance: 
Effect of octopamine on adipose tissue metabolism in hogs.   
The text of the article makes it very clear that the experimental animals used  
were dogs.  The title should be entered as: 
Effect of octopamine on adipose tissue metabolism in dogs [correction of hogs]. 

14.1.4	It is much more common to see typographical errors which result in  
minor obvious misspellings, such as those due to a missing or duplicated letter  
or transposition of two letters.  These are usually recognized by the dictionary  
validation program during initial keyboarding and are usually easily corrected  
by the keyboarding editorial staff.  If there is doubt as to what the correct  
spelling should be, it is flagged for resolution by the Quality Assurance staff  
at NLM. 

The input typist will type the punctuation which appears in the original title,  
English or foreign. 

14.2.1	Punctuation supplied by the keyboarding editor 
If a title is not punctuated by the publisher then the editor must supply it.  A  
change in type face or type size does not always denote a break in continuity of  
thought requiring a need for punctuation.  Read the title for sense before  
inserting punctuation.  In almost all cases the only punctuation which will have  
to be supplied will be a period, semicolon or colon. 
If the title of the article is not clearly punctuated, consult the table of  
contents or journal cover for assistance in supplying punctuation.  If the table  
of contents is no help, rely on sense and good judgment. 
If punctuation must be supplied, follow the rules listed below. 

14.2.2	Period 
The input typist will type a period at the end of the English title in Field 13  
and at the end of the vernacular title in Field 14. (Panel 3 in the online  
In unpunctuated titles use a period to separate main titles from subtitles.  Use  
a period after the main title of a series of studies.  Also use a period after  
the numeral denoting the number of the sequence; note the capitalization. 
Pathology of the placenta. XII. Tumors of the umbilical cord. 
See also 14.2.4 below for use of the colon in unpunctuated titles. 

14.2.3	Semicolon 
Use the semicolon when the printed text uses it. 

14.2.4	Colon 
Use a colon when the printed text uses it.  Supply a colon to separate  
introductory words that are not complete and cannot stand alone, i.e., to  
separate a parenthetical or explanatory word or phrase from the preceding  
Kimmelstiel-Wilson syndrome: the urologist's hypertension. 
If the part following the colon cannot stand alone do not capitalize the it,  
unless, of course, it is a proper noun or adjective. 
Clinical conference: a good means of teaching. 
If the part following the colon can stand alone logically, rather than  
grammatically, capitalize the first word of the subtitle. 
Clinical conference: Drugs and insomnia. 

14.2.5	Parentheses 
Use parentheses when the printed text uses them.  Do not put a period before a  
parenthesis.  Do not capitalize the first word within parentheses unless it is a  
proper noun or adjective. 
Parentheses in the vernacular should be retained in the transliteration and the  

14.2.6	Quotation marks 
Use quotation marks when the printed text uses them.  Retain quotation marks to  
indicate the titles of books, poems, movies, articles, works of art, etc., when  
quoted within a title. 
Marginal note on the description of the combat reaction in "Dr. Zhivago" by  
Boris Pasternak. 

14.2.7	Hyphens 
Use a hyphen when the printed text uses it.  If two dates are given, connected  
in the text by either a hyphen or a dash, enter them with a dash, without a  
space before or after it. 
1975-1989			January 1-March 31 

14.2.8	Dash 
The dash is usually distinguished from the hyphen by its length and by the  
context of the title.  Use the dash when the printed text uses it.  A dash is  
used to indicate an important break in thought or to mean "namely", "in other  
words", "that is", and similar expressions which precede explanations.  Some  
foreign language journals use fairly long hyphens for compound adjectives; these  
should not be confused with, nor entered as, dashes. 
Since the computer keyboards used for entering descriptive data and for online  
indexing are not equipped with dashes, the input typist will convert each dash  
into two hyphens with no space before, between or after the hyphens: 
				Cobalt--a trace element. 


14.3.1	The rules governing the capitalization of words in title of articles  
or translations of titles in Index Medicus are those governing capital- ization  
in English. 
The rules for capitalization are given in the Webster dictionaries supplied to  
all indexers.  Those rules not clearly covered in the English dictionary are  
supplemented by the rules in the Government Printing Office Style Manual (GPO  
Style Manual). 
In English titles, the editor indicates capitalization in the text by pencilling  
two tiny light lines under the letter to be capitalized by the typist.  Care and  
neatness are necessary to avoid defacing the journal.  Input typists will  
capitalize the first letter of every title; English, vernacular or  
transliteration.  It is therefore not necessary to underline the first letter of  
the title.   
Schistosomiasis in Sudan.   
Some journals capitalize all nouns in English titles.  The input typists will  
capitalize only the first word and proper nouns.  A title which is printed as: 
Dietary Fat Regulates Pancreatic Lipase Gene Expression in Rats. 
was correctly entered as: 
Dietary fat regulates pancreatic lipase gene expression in rats. 
If the indexer is adding the article online it is not necessary to mark the  
capital letters, since they are being added immediately upon reading. 

14.3.2	Capitalization of subtitles 
Subtitles fall into two classes: preceded by a "part" designation (Part I, Part  
3, Nota II, Parte VIII, etc.) or not preceded by a part designation.	If a subtitle is preceded by a period after the title, leave the  
period and capitalize the word after the period. 
If a subtitle is preceded by a colon after the title, see 14.2.4 above. 
If a subtitle is preceded by a semicolon after the title, leave the semicolon  
and do not capitalize the word after the semicolon. 
If a subtitle is preceded by a dash after the title, leave the dash and do not  
capitalize the word after the dash.  If the title has a period or a question  
mark before the dash introducing the subtitle, capitalize the word after the  
If the subtitle is preceded by no punctuation, use the punctuation shown in the  
table of contents.  If the style is not detectable from the table of contents,  
use a period after the title and capitalize the word after the period.	Part designations fall into several classes: the part designation  
followed by a period, by a colon, by a dash, by a close parenthesis, or with no  
punctuation following the part designation. 
In all cases, retain the punctuation which follows the part designation and  
capitalize the first word of the subtitle. 
If the part designation is followed by no punctuation, supply a period and  
capitalize the first word of the subtitle. 

14.3.3	Corporate Names 
A corporate name is the name of a society, association, institution, government  
agency or department or bureau, university department, clinical trial study  
group or other distinctive, more or less organized body.  In English the first  
letter of each element of a corporate name is capitalized except for  
prepositions and other internal particles. 
	American Medical Association 
	Kansas State University Hospital Medical Center 
	Department of Molecular Biology and Biophysics 
	The German Testicular Cancer Cooperative Study Group 
Foreign corporate names in vernacular titles will follow the capitalization of  
the language, but foreign corporate names not translated in translated titles  
will be capitalized according to the English rule given above.  See also 14.6.8. 
	Société Française de Biologie Clinique 
	Sociedad Espana de Diabetes 
	Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin 
	Federation Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer 

14.3.4	Geographic Names 
Capitalize all geographic names in English and foreign titles.  See also  
translations of geographic names in 14.6.14. 

14.3.5	Drugs and Chemicals 
Ordinarily the names of drugs and chemicals are not capitalized. 
The symbols for chemical elements are capitalized if they are a single letter;  
the initial letter is capitalized for two-letter symbols. 
Na  K  Fe  Co  P  N 
Do not capitalize the full names of elements. 
sodium	cobalt	nitrogen	uranium 
Capitalize trade names of drugs appearing in titles.  Do not include anything  
for the symbol (r) for a registered trade name.	Some chemicals are written in the text with a letter, number or  
other hyphenated prefix indicating the structural position of substituents.  If  
a title begins with such a chemical, capitalize the first letter of the name of  
the chemical after the prefix: 
beta-Methylheptadecanoic acid 
o-Nitro-p-phenylenediamine as a mutagen 
p-Hydroxybenzoic acid analysis by chromatography 
Here is a partial list of prefixes to be handled as in the examples above: 
all Greek letters	dl-	m-	p-	syn-	anti-	endo-	meta-	para-	tert-	asym 
erythro-	n-	rac-	threo-	cis-	exo-	o-	sec-	trans-	d- 
l-	ortho-	sym-	The rule for non-capitalization of Greek letters at the beginning of  
titles applies only when the Greek letter is merely an indicator of position  
within a chemical.  If alpha, beta, gamma, delta, etc., are used as classifiers  
they should be capitalized. 
			gamma Vinyl GABA 
			beta-Phenyl-gamma-amino butyric acid 
			Alpha 2 adrenergic receptors 
			Beta thalassemia 
			Beta blockers 
			Epsilon chain 
			1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine	There are single letters at the beginning of chemicals which have  
two different meanings depending on capitalization: N or n, O or o, P or p, D or  
d, L or l.  These can be easily checked in the text: follow that capitalization.   
Then apply this rule: if the text capitalizes the first letter of the chemical,  
use the capital but do not capitalize the next word.  If the text does not  
capitalize the first word of the chemical, type it in lower case but capitalize  
the first word. 
If the above rules are not sufficient to make a decision, flag the article for  
QA review. 

14.3.6	Numerals 
If numerals appear as the first element of a title, it is not necessary to  
capitalize the word after the numeral. 
12 cases of acne		NOT  12 Cases of acne 
3 rare types of blood		NOT  3 Rare types of blood 
1992 progress in biology	NOT  1992 Progress in biology 
These examples follow the "first up" rule in the GPO Style Manual, which states  
that whatever stands as the first word of a title or sentence, whether the  
concept is capitalized or not, is considered the first element, and the word  
following it is not capitalized.  Note that we do not apply this rule for  
chemicals in the examples given above. 

14.3.7	Titles of Books, Poems, etc. 
For titles of books, poems, articles, works of art, etc. quoted within a title  
or translation, capitalize the first word of the title, and any proper nouns,  
following standard cataloging rules.  Journal titles should be capitalized at  
all significant words. 
Men in White and Yellow Jack as Mirrors of the Medical Profession. (The  
underlined titles were in italics.) 
was correctly entered as: 
Men in white and Yellow jack as mirrors of the medical profession. 
A Christmas Carol: Charles Dickens and the birth of orthopaedics. 
was entered as: 
A Christmas carol: Charles Dickens and the birth of orthopaedics. 
Note that only the first word and the proper nouns of each title were  
capitalized.	Letters to the editor sometimes are titled with the title and  
bibliographic reference of the item being commented on.  If the bibliographic  
reference is printed as part of the title, it should be included exactly as  
written, even if it is not in Index Medicus format. 
Re: Biologic Width and Crown Lengthening, (Letter to the Editor)(J Periodontol  
was entered as: 
Re: Biologic width and crown lengthening, (letter to the editor)(J Periodontol  
1993;64:240-241) [letter] 
The author of the original item may also appear in the letter title: 
RE: S. Iwarson: New Vaccines against Hepatitis A Enter the Market--But Who  
Should Be Vaccinated? (Infection 20 [1992] 192-193) 
Re: S. Iwarson: New vaccines against hepatitis A enter the market--but who  
should be vaccinated? (Infection 20 [1992] 192-193] [letter] 
If the title, author and/or bibliographic reference are on separate lines, take  
only the title as given. 
	Ruben F. Gittes and Steven Varady 
	J. Urol., 126:297-300, 1984 
where Gittes and Varady were the authors of the original article, not the letter  
in hand, is entered as: 
Re: Nephroscopy in chronic unilateral hematuria [letter] 
In the above examples, our rules on capitalization were followed, but the format  
of the bibliographic reference, if used, was not changed from that given in the  
journal.  Re should be entered as Re:, not RE:.  Sometimes Re: is replaced by  
Correspondence re:.   

14.3.8	Scientific Names 
All scientific names in biological taxonomy will be capitalized except species  
and variants. 
		Arthropoda		(a phylum) 
		Crustacea		(a class) 
		Carnivora		(an order) 
		Myxococcaceae		(a family) 
		Clostridium		(a genus) 
		Aconitum wilsoni	(a genus and species) 
		Shigella flexneri	(a genus and species) 
Common or derivative terms from scientific names will not be capitalized. 
arthropod	crustacean	carnivore 
The names of bacteria and other micro-organisms will be capitalized when in the  
Latin plural; they will not be capitalized when in the English plural. 
	Salmonellae (Latin)	but salmonellas (English) 
	Sarcinae (Latin)	but sarcinas (English) 
	Mycobacteria (Latin)	or mycobacteria (English) 
In examples of the last type, follow the form within the text. 
In translations, follow the form of the vernacular, i.e., if in Latin,  
capitalize; if in the vernacular, don't capitalize. 
The personal names or initials following the names of species, such as those of  
the discoverer or classifier, are capitalized. 
			Eremitalpa granti Broom 
			Dipylidium caninum L. (for Linnaeus) 
			Dermestes lardarius Linn. (for Linnaeus) 

14.3.9	X-rays 
Special attention is drawn to the words X-ray, X-irradiation, X-irradiated, etc. 
There is no consistency in the way this is printed in titles in any language  
although Webster says "usually capitalized".  Sometimes a text gives x-ray,  
sometimes X-ray.  No attempt will be made to make this uniform: follow the text. 

14.3.10	Routes of administration of drugs 
The abbreviations for intravenous administration, intramuscular, subcutaneous  
appear variously as i.v., I.V., iv, IV, etc.  Different medical dictionaries  
give different forms.  We will be consistent and always use lower-case letters,  
with periods: i.v., i.m., s.c.   

14.3.11	Adjectives derived from proper nouns 
Anatomic or other descriptive words based on proper nouns will generally be  
lower case, but follow the format used within sentences in the text.  The intent  
is to be consistent with the abstract text which is added to the online record.   
harderian glands			bancroftian filariasis 
gram-negative bacteria 
If the proper noun is used in the possessive case it remains capitalized: 
Harder's glands 
Henle's loop	(or loop of Henle) 
		Gram's stain 
		Heinz granules 

The following instructions for typography apply to both titles and English  

14.4.1	Accents and Diacritical Marks 
All titles in the vernacular must be supplied with accents as required by the  
rules of the language.  Accents will be supplied for words to be printed in  
lower case only.  No accents are needed for capital letters.  Accents not  
supplied by the publisher may sometimes be determined by examining the table of  
contents or the text of the article. 
The keyboarding contractor's editorial staff will use a soft pencil to mark all  
accents neatly and lightly, placing them directly over the letter to be accented  
so there is no doubt in the typist's mind. 
The indexer working online should carefully check that the vernacular title has  
been entered accurately and that accents and diacritical marks are correct. 
The following accents and diacritical marks are available: 
accent grave	`		tilde			~ 
circumflex		^	macron		Ż 
accent acute	´		umlaut		¨ 
angstrom		°	breve			 
cedilla		¸		Swedish o		ř 
Polish l		 
If the text uses open and closed quotation marks (" or ") they will be input  
simply as straight quotes: ". 

14.4.2	Ampersand 
In English titles, retain the & as printed and do not convert it to "and".  In  
translated titles, however, translate & as "and". 

14.4.3	Greek letters 
Individual Greek letters appearing in titles and abstracts must be converted to  
their named equivalents. 
	?	convert to 	alpha		?	convert to 	nu 
	ß			beta		?			xi 
	?			gamma		?			omicron 
	d	, 		delta		p			pi 
	e			epsilon	?				rho 
	?			zeta		s			sigma 
	?			eta		t			tau 
	?			theta		?			upsilon 
	?			iota		f			phi 
	?			kappa		?			chi 
	?			lambda	?				psi 
	µ			mu		?			omega 
Greek letters and arabic numerals often appear in juxtaposition in chemical  
terms.  When the Greek is converted to the form above, separate the numeral and  
the transliteration with a space only: do not use a hyphen.  Note below also the  
spacing with regard to the commas. 
17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone 
9 alpha,11 beta-dichlorocorticoids 
1,-cyclohexaneacetic acid: 
delta 1,alpha-cyclohexaneacetic acid 
7-keto-delta 8-euphenol 
The spelled-out Greek-letter prefix of a chemical will not be capitalized at the  
beginning of a title.  Instead, the word after the Greek-letter name will be  
capitalized.  See 
See 14.7.10 for the transliteration of Greek words appearing in titles. 

14.4.4	Bold print, italics and underlining 
Bold print and italics appearing in the titles of articles cannot be reproduced  
as such in Index Medicus or MEDLINE citations.  Standard type will be used for  
all printing.  Although underlining could physically be reproduced, our policy  
also does not copy it from titles or abstracts. 

14.4.5	Numerals 
Since it is the policy of Index Medicus to copy titles in English and the  
vernacular as they appear in the text, all numerals - whether arabic or roman  
will be copied as they appear regardless of length or unwieldiness. 
Penicillin chemistry. 3  is typed Penicillin chemistry. 3. 
Copper metabolism. III   is typed Copper metabolism. III. 
Moreover, if the numerals are written out (two hundred sixty-four, for example)  
these will not be converted to figures.  This extends even to unusual cases  
where numerals are written out after the word Part (or any synonym) denoting one  
of a series of articles. 
Penicillin chemistry. Part three. 
		is typed  Penicillin chemistry. Part three. 
The computer keyboards used by indexers do not carry fractions (1/2, 1/4, etc.). 
If a fraction is required for a title, use arabic numbers separated by a slash  
(1/2, 1/4, 3 1/2, 6 1/2, 8 2/3, 16 2/3, etc.).  Do not convert fractions to  
decimal numbers. 
Roman numerals in English and foreign titles will be typed in upper case  
letters: I ,  II ,  V ,  XIX ,  XLIII. 

14.4.6	Articles in Parts 
All parts of articles published in series are indexed separately for Index  
Medicus and MEDLINE.  The part is generally numbered in the title and usually  
constitutes a subtitle to the main title. 
The word "part" and its synonyms or counterparts in all languages (parte, note,  
nota, series, Mitteilung, comunicacion, etc.) will be retained in both the  
English and vernacular titles in accordance with the policy of not tampering  
with titles. 
Such words, however, add nothing to the translation and may be omitted from it.   
Be sure to retain the roman or arabic numeral denoting the part in hand as it is  
useful in showing priority or sequence.  Remember to leave the roman number  
roman and the arabic arabic.	Occasionally part designations are spelled out in words as in the  
following example: 
	(Second of Two Parts) 
This should be input as 
Diet and cancer--an overview (2). 
If the part designation had not been enclosed in parentheses, it would have been  
Diet and cancer--an overview. 2. 
This is one of the few times that editors are permitted to modify text. 

14.4.7	Signs and Symbols 
Only the following signs and symbols are available to Index Medicus titles and  
may be typed as they are printed in the title of the article indexed: 
				@  +  :  &  *  /  %  =  -  O  >  <  #	Angstrom (°) 
Although the angstrom symbol is available, its use is restricted to a position  
over a letter, as in the Scandinavian languages (e.g., ĺ).  It is used only over  
lower case letters.  It cannot be used alone as in 90°.  The circle for degree  
(°) must be spelled out, as 90 degrees, 32 degrees, etc.  The indexer must  
supply the appropriate translations for the word "degrees" in foreign language  
This symbol is also used with various meanings other than "degree", frequently  
to designate the base state in scientific formulas.  The indexer or reviser who  
understands the subject matter will have to determine the best words to convey  
the context.  If in doubt, flag for Quality Assurance.	> and < 
These symbols, which stand for "greater than" and "less than", may also be used  
to create arrows by combining with two hyphens: --> and <--.  Thus chemical  
reactions, carbohydrate formulas and amino acid sequences are translated as  
Hb Al-Ain Abu Dhabi [18(A16)GlyAsp] 
will be typed as Hb Al-Ain Abu Dhabi [alpha 18(A16) Gly-->Asp] 
In genetic formulas  
Partial Trisomy 22q12qter in Prenatal Diagnosis 
will be typed as  
		Partial trisomy 22q12-->qter in prenatal diagnosis. 
When the text has "greater than or equal to" represented by , type "> or =".   
Similarly, "less than or equal to" () is "< or =". 
A chemical equilibrium is typed <==>  
and a reversible reaction is <-->.	Other signs and symbols 
The following signs and symbols occur in titles and abstracts.  When they occur  
in the English language, their meaning must be spelled out as below, since the  
MEDLARS programs cannot reproduce any of the symbols in the Index Medicus  
citation.  If the symbol appears in a foreign title, the vernacular name for the  
symbol will be supplied by the indexer proficient in the language.  Naturally in  
the translated title the English below will be used. 
		      male 	      female     	o   hermaphrodite 
Pluses and minuses  + or - or ±  or  : 
Type these symbols, whether in linear or subscript or superscript position on  
the same line as the letters or numbers to which they are affixed.  + may be  
typed as +, - may be typed as -, but ±  must be typed as +/- and   must be typed  
as -/+. 
Similarly, cationic and anionic forms will have the positive or negative charges  
typed on the same line. 
		K+   = K+      Cl-   = Cl-      Mg2+   = Mg2+ 

14.4.8	Subscripts and Superscripts 
The MEDLARS programs do not print subscripts and superscripts, so these must  
appear on the same line as the letters or numbers to which they are attached. 
Most subscripts and superscripts appearing perforce on the same line will be  
clear to the reader as they appear in context but others, we realize, may give  
pause for thought.  Index Medicus practice is based on the need for  
intelligibility within the printing limitation.  We shall use a space or a  
hyphen or parentheses only when necessary to avoid a possible misreading or  
misunderstanding.  See the discussion on numbers with numbers in 14.4.10 below.   
106 cannot be typed as 106 or 10-6: 10(6) does the least harm. 

14.4.9	Combinations of numbers and letters 
In general, a letter with a number sub- or superscript or a number with a letter  
sub- or superscript or a letter with a letter will be typed on the same line  
without hyphens and without spaces, in the order in which they appear in the  
CO2  = CO2			H2O  = H2O		132Cs  = 132Cs 
NH4Cl  = NH4Cl			CCl4 = CCl4		I131  = I131 
O2  = O2			226Ra  = 226Ra	P32  = P32	 
Rh0  = Rh0			A1Leb  = A1Leb 	Dia  = Dia 
162fg  = 162fg 			ET  = ET		ces  = ces 
For complex readings such as is often seen in blood-group titles or in genetics  
titles, type with spaces as in the examples here: 
Phenotypes OHm, OBHm and OABHm 
This will be input at O Hm, O B Hm, O AB Hm. 
If a letter (or number) has both a subscript and a superscript, enter them in  
the order in which a physician or scientist would say them during oral  
communication.  If this is not known, flag for Quality Assurance to review.  In  
general, the superscript will be entered first, followed by the subscript. 
Arrows pointing directly up or down ( or ) will be omitted. 

14.4.10	Combinations of numbers and numbers 
Type all numeral sub- and superscripts on the same line as the numbers to which  
they are affixed, enclosing them within parentheses, without a hyphen or a  
106 = 10(6)			10-6 = 10(-6) 
106 = 10(6)			-610 = (-6)10 


14.5.1	Rubrics 
Several common rubrics used by editors to characterize their  
material will be standardized by NLM and will qualify the titles of much we  
index. These are editorials, letters to the editor, clinico-pathological  
conferences, interviews and news.  These are to herald indexable material to be  
differentiated from what is or could be called "original articles". 
Although we index material on the basis of subject content regardless of form,  
the realities of research sometimes make it necessary to inform the Index  
Medicus user of the relative length or substance of a citation retrieved without  
injecting a value judgment.  Hence the informative, descriptive rubrics as a  
part of the title cited.  The user of MEDLINE is able to identify the type of  
material with the PT (publication type) field.	The indexer will make a part of the title of an article these  
rubrics thus: 
 [editorial]         [clinical conference]        [interview] 
 [letter]             [classical article]            [news] 
The rubric is typed within square brackets.  For a translated title, parentheses  
are used, since the translation itself is delineated by square brackets.  See 
Editorials, letters and clinico-pathologic conferences entered the system as  
rubrics in 1974, interview and news in 1979.  A fifth, [proceedings], was used  
from 1974 through 1981.  The rubric for classical articles was added in 1988;  
see and 32.9 for a full discussion.  The identity of any one of these  
is usually clearly indicated by the editor of the publication in the form of  
stereotyped rubrics which will give the indexer no trouble. 
Additional rubrics for comments, corrected and republished articles and  
retractions are added to titles by the Quality Assurance Unit at the time the  
citation is linked to a previous MEDLINE citation.  See 17.23, 17.27 and 17.69  
for an explanation of these publication types.	The dataform indexer will type each of the rubrics as appropriate in  
Field 13: 
When the typist sees a rubric in Field 13, it will be typed after the title from  
the text, following the normal handling of titles, with the proper  
capitalization.  The title with the rubric will appear in the citation thus, for  
                   Where are we headed? [editorial] 
                   Primary medical care [letter] 
It is not necessary to put a period at the end of the title when it is followed  
by a rubric.  All other terminal punctuation is retained.	The rubrics will be typed for English or translated titles only.   
For foreign languages, ignore the rubric in the vernacular, ignore the rubric in  
the transliteration, but use the rubric in the translated title, typed within  
                   [Medico-social ecology (letter)] 
                   [Gastroscopy: hazards (editorial)]	Editorials 
Only substantive editorials are indexed.  See 4.6.5, and Figure 
If the rubric is in the text before the title, the editor will mark the journal  
after the rubric, then type the rubric as described above. 
		Printed text with editor's marks: 
Typing on Panel 3: 
Where are we headed? [editorial] 
"Editorials" or "guest Editorial" will be typed in Panel 3 as [editorial]. 
If EDITORIAL is the only title printed in the journal, the indexer will create a  
very brief title constructed from the first few, most meaningful words in the  
first sentence of the editorial as printed, and then add [editorial].  See below  
for identical instructions on untitled letters. 
See 17.33 for discussion of EDITORIAL (PT).	Letters 
Only substantive letters are indexed.  See 4.6.6, and Figure 
Letters labeled by the editor as "Correspondence" will read on Panel 3 in Field  
13 as [letter].  Likewise "Letters" and "Letter to the Editor" will be converted  
to [letter] and typed that way on Panel 3. 
If LETTER is the only title printed in the journal, the indexer will create a  
very brief title constructed from the first few, most meaningful words in the  
first sentence of the letter as printed, and will then add [letter].  The same  
procedure is followed for untitled editorials. 
Most letters are written as comments on articles previously published in the  
journal in hand.  If this is so, remember to flag the letter for pro- cessing by  
the Quality Assurance Unit as a COMMENT (PT).  See 17.49 on LETTER (PT) and  
17.23 and Chapter 39 on COMMENT (PT). 
If a substantive letter is followed immediately by the response of the     
original author whose article generated the correspondence, include the response  
in the pagination of the letter taken and ignore the author- respondent.  In  
other words, if A. White writes a letter commenting on B. Redd's article and  
White's letter is followed by Redd's reply, index White's letter with White as  
author and do not cite Redd: merely include his reply in the paging assigned to  
White-plus-reply.  If the original author's reply was given a separate title, it  
should not be indexed separately.  Include it with the commenting letter as  
described above. 
For many years, if a journal grouped several letters under one title, we  
treated those letters as a single unit and did not cite any of the authors of  
the individual letters.  Effective with 1992 publication dates, such letters are  
indexed separately, citing each individual author and using the same journal- 
supplied title for each letter.  If there is a response from the original author  
at the end of the group of letters, the pagination for each letter should  
include the response as a discussion. 
Example: The original letter was by Redd.  The journal has grouped several  
comments under a single bold print title, with Redd's reply at the end. 
Text of letter by White: 15 
Text of letter by Greene: 15-6 
		Text of letter by Black: 17-8 
		Response by Redd to all three: 18-20 
		Letter with White as author: 15; discussion 18-20 
		Letter with Greene as author: 15-6; discussion 18-20 
		Letter with Black as author: 17-8; discussion 18-20 
		Redd was not cited as an author. 
Note that it is not necessary to use "discussion" in the pagination for a single  
letter with its reply, even if the reply is on the next page. 	Proceedings 
The use of [proceedings] as a rubric was discontinued with 1981 Index Medicus.   
Prior to that time, this rubric was used to identify indexable material  
presented at society meetings.  When individual proceedings were no longer  
indexed, all of the proceedings or abstracts presented at a meeting were covered  
by an overall.  As of 1991, MEETING REPORT (PT) or (prior to 1995) CONGRESS (PT)  
is used in conjunction with OVERALL (PT) to cover proceedings as a group. 	Clinical Conference 
This will probably be designated by the author as a "clinico-pathological  
conference", the conventional CPC, but also under aliases such as  
"clinicopathological case reports", "medical staff conference", "medical grand  
rounds", "surgical grand rounds", "allergy forum", "nephrology consultant", etc.   
All are characterized by the presentation of a patient's case, possible  
diagnoses, and a final answer, frequently from the pathologist.  Do not add any  
of the above journal designations to the title.  The rubric [clinical  
conference] will suffice.  If the identity as a clinical conference is an  
integral part of the title (as in  New England Journal of Medicine, "Case  
records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological  
exercises. Case 12-1994"), add the rubric [clinical conference] as well.  For  
online indexing, the presence of [clinical conference] in the title will  
generate the addition of CLINICAL CONFERENCE (PT).  See 17.21. 
If the clinical conference does not have a title describing the case in  
question, create a brief title taken from the final pathological diagnosis given  
in the text.  See 18.11.8 - 18.11.15 for a discussion of the indexing of  
clinical conferences.	Interview 
An interview constitutes a "little article" and is therefore indexable. The  
content is usually not at issue; only the title, which appears in many forms,  
the person interviewed and the interviewer need be discussed. 
Titles vary: 
All about health care: Dr. Jane Doe interviewed by Tom Brown 
All about health care: an interview with Dr. Jane Doe 
All about health care 
All titles are marked for input as they appear in the text, adding the  rubric  
[interview] if it does not already appear in the title. 
All about health care: Dr. Jane Doe interviewed by Tom Brown 
All about health care: an interview with Dr. Jane Doe 
All about health care [interview] 
An interview with Nancy L. Johnson and Patricia Schroeder [interview by Virginia  
The person being interviewed becomes the author and his or her name should be  
typed in Field 10 (Panel 3) in the usual form. 
If the name of the interviewer appears in the title, it will be included as part  
of the title.  If the interviewer's name appears anywhere else, [interview] may  
be modified to [interview by ...], with the interviewer's name as it appears in  
the text.  In such cases, first names are not converted to initials.  Do not  
type the interviewer's name in Field 10 (author field).   
Text			Form for title 
Ann Belle Jones   [interview by Ann Belle Jones] 
Ann B. Jones	[interview by Ann B. Jones] 
A. Belle Jones    [interview by A. Belle Jones] 
A. B. Jones		[interview by A. B. Jones] 
If the interviewer is not identified by name use simply [interview]. See Figure 
Interviews will take INTERVIEW (PT).  See 17.44.  Do not handle the interview as  
a biography of the person being interviewed. 	News 
Material in sections of journals labeled by the editor as "News" is indexed if  
substantive.  While most news is ephemeral, substantive news will generally be  
on a timely, important, sometimes controversial subject of interest to both the  
public and scientific research community. Substantive news will usually extend  
beyond the size of a one- or two-inch item. However, brief news items will be  
selected if they are about AIDS.  See also Figure  NEWS (PT) will  
also be added.  See 17.55.	Classical article 
Articles reprinted under publishers' rubrics such as Classics, Classic pages,  
Classical reprint, Landmarks, etc., are indexed since they are important to  
modern readers as historical milestones in the history of medicine. 
The rubric [classical article] will identify all such articles and will appear  
as part of the title in the Index Medicus citation.  CLASSICAL ARTICLE (PT) will  
also appear in the MEDLINE record.  See 17.20. 
The Index Medicus citation will appear in the Author Section under the name of  
the classical author as author in the usual form.  The title will contain, in  
general, the title of the original work and often either the publication date of  
the original work or the original journal reference with date.   
The indexer will use discretion about omissions or inclusions in the title.   
That is, a long subtitle of a classical article need not be picked up.  In many  
cases, the indexer should carefully review the title as identified by the  
keyboarding contractor's editorial staff.   
For example, a title which appeared as: 
	Historical and Practical Treatise on Vaccination 
which includes a summary of the origins and results of the observations and  
experiments on vaccines, with an impartial examination of the advantages and  
objections that have been put forth concerning the use of the new method of  
was correctly entered merely as: 
Historical and practical treatise on vaccination [classical article] 
The authors will also be covered by historical biography check tags (publication  
type and dates). 
	For indexing of classical articles see 32.9+ and 32.16.14.	Guidelines for selection of rubricked items 
See also section 4.6+. 
Substantive editorials from all journals will be indexed regularly.  They will  
be indexed as if non-depth.  Editorials which are actually multi-page lead  
articles with numerous references will be indexed with moderate depth.  See  
A letter (from priority 1, 2 and 3 journals in any language) will be indexed if  
- contains a case report 
- reports adverse effects of drugs or procedures 
- gives substantive data accompanied by bibliographic references 
- comments on a previously published article provided it is substantive or  
documented by bibliographic references other than the citation of the original  
- reports progress or summary activity of official committees, study groups or  
task forces 
- notes a factual error on a previously published article (errors in dosage,  
measurement, drug name, chemical formula, incidence of cases,     etc.) 
- provides additional reference(s) not cited in a previously published article 
A letter will not be indexed if it 
- is less than 125 words long.  Shorter letters containing case reports or  
reports of adverse effects must be taken. 
- expresses undocumented or personal opinion 
- is commenting on a book review, since the original book review would not have  
been indexed 
- is on parochial matters (provincial salaries for interns, local insurance  
practices, fellowship shortages in obscure areas, etc.) 
- contains humorous notes, medical jokes, personal anecdotes, trivial  
reminiscences, poetry, etc. 
Flag all letters not covered by the above guidelines for perusal by the  
selection specialist.  Exceptions are always made for worthy candidate letters  
as well as for editorials and other indexable items. 
See for letters signed by corporate bodies.	Use judgment in indexing "articles" with above-mentioned rubrics.  
All rubrics were designed to distinguish for the Index Medicus and MEDLINE user  
a substantive article from a brief or even opinionated statement on a subject.   
Non-substantive editorials, letters, news, etc. are not indexed at all, but the  
editorials, letters, news, etc. which are indexed are identified as such by the  
rubric device.  The rubric itself makes no judgment: it merely identifies to our  
readers the nature of the subject matter for their information.  The readers may  
use it or reject it. The rubrics must be accompanied by the corresponding  
publication types. 
				Selection of rubricked items. 
	Item							Action 
	case report					index 
	adverse effects					index 
	substantive data				index 
	substantive comment				index 
	report of commission				index 
	factual error-original author			index,  PUBLISHED ERRATUM (PT) 
	factual error-other authors			index,  COMMENT (PT) 
	supplying additional reference			index 
	less than 125 words, unless case report 	do not index,  flag for reviser 
		or adverse effects 
	non-substantive					do not index,  flag for reviser 
	personal anecdotes				do not index,  flag for reviser 
	[editorial]					index only if substantive 
	[news]						index only if substantive 
	[interview]					index, flag for reviser 
	[overall]					do not index, flag for  
	Hist Biog					index, flag for specialist 
	Biog Obit 
		birthday or death notice		do not index 
		as substantive article			index, flag  for specialist 
		with bibliography			index, flag  for specialist 
These criteria apply to all priority journals and all languages.  All indexable  
items in this figure should be indexed non-depth. 

14.5.2	Presidential addresses 
Only substantive presidential addresses will be indexed.  If the presidential  
address carries a substantive title, use only that, omitting the words  
"Presidential address". 
If the "Presidential address" is the only title for the indexable article for  
which the journal title makes it clear that the author is the president of the  
body issuing the journal, then use a two-sentence title in which the first  
sentence is "Presidential address" and the second sentence is created from the  
first few lines of the article. 
Addresses by officials presiding over congresses or conferences, when the  
journal itself is not identified with a particular society, should use only the  
conventional scientific title of the article.  Do not include the words  
"Presidential address" as part of such titles. 
For indexing of presidential addresses, see section 35.10. 

14.5.3	Memorial and award lectures 
Articles written as memorial or award lectures will have the title marked to  
include the memorial or award aspects. 
Parrish lecture.  New horizons in GI radiology. 
The Smythe Award.  Experiments on DNA in plants. 
Instructions for indexing memorial lectures are given in 32.16.13. 

14.5.4	Questions and answers 
See 4.6.10 for selection of Questions and Answers.  The title format for  
Questions and Answers is variable, but the following represent the most commonly  
seen formats. 
a. If a standard title is printed above the question, use it. 
b. If no standard title is printed, but the question consists of one relatively  
short sentence, use it as the title. 
c. If no standard title is printed above the question and the question is fairly  
lengthy or more than one sentence long, a brief title should be created from the  
words of the question.  The created title need not be in the form of a question. 

14.5.5	Series of articles 
In a series of articles on one subject often the main title appears on only the  
lead article and succeeding articles do not carry the main or "collective"  
If the title of the individual article when standing alone makes sense and  
reflects the substance of the collective title, only the title of the individual  
article need be marked off. 
If the title of the individual article when standing alone does not make sense  
and does not reflect the substance or meaning of the collective title, the  
indexer must reproduce the collective title from the first article, from the  
title page, from the table of contents or from the cover, and must type the  
collective title with the individual title in Field 13. 
The matter of a collective title usually arises when articles from symposia,  
panel discussions, round tables, etc., are indexed.  Regardless of the nature of  
the source, follow the above procedure.  This is based not on the identity of  
the individual paper in relation to the whole, but on the sense of the title if  
it is retrieved by itself as part of an online search.  "Introduction" is  
meaningless unless the indexer supplies the collective title informing the  
reader about what the article indexed is an introduction to.  "Metabolism" is  
too general as a title when in reality the user should be oriented to "The  
biology of the guinea pig. Metabolism." 
If the title of an individual article can stand alone, but is introduced by Part  
1, or I. or 1. or Part II, etc., omit the part designation. 
	Part I. Reduced Hepatic Blood Flow Does Not Limit Gluconeogenesis in Awake  
			Endotoxic Minipigs 
should be entered as: 
	Reduced hepatic blood flow does not limit gluconeogenesis in awake  
endotoxic minipigs. 

14.5.6	Identity of Corporate Bodies	Frequently a title is amplified by some statement identifying the  
article as the official report of a specific committee or special body.  
Since a corporate name is never used as an author in Index Medicus (see 13.1.5),  
show the identity of the committee or other body by making it a part of the  
title.  The keyboarding contractor's editorial staff will usually have been able  
to identify such corporate bodies for the online indexing system.  All major  
elements of the corporate name will be capitalized as described in 14.3.3. 
Effects of smoking. 
		Report of the American Medical Association 
is entered as: 
Effects of smoking. Report of the American Medical Association.	The corporate body must be included whether it appears as part of  
the title, as part of a subtitle or in author position.  If only a committee  
name appears in the title, but the sponsoring organization is discernable from  
the text, the name should be supplemented. 
Committee on Nutrition 
Imitation and substitute milks 
could be identified from the text as issuing from the American Academy of  
Pediatrics.  It should be entered as: 
American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition. Imitation and substitute  
In the above example the committee name appeared at the beginning of the title.   
Usually, the corporate body appears following the title or as a subtitle.  In  
such cases, the title from the text should end with a period and the corporate  
name should be added at the end of the title.	When only the issuing body is shown in the title or author position,  
the article is entered as Anonymous in Field 11. 
When the members of the committee are printed in author position, include the  
corporate name in the title as directed above and enter the personal authors in  
the author field.  If personal names are in a footnote or at the end of the  
article, they are ignored. 
If a letter is signed by a corporate body, supply the title of the letter in  
Field 13, adding the corporate name as part of the title as above.  If only the  
corporate body signs the letter, enter it as anonymous.  If members of the  
corporate body sign the letter, include them in the author field as personal  
authors in the usual way.	If the article title already contains most of the corporate name,  
repetition of the corporate name would be redundant and would not add any  
additional words which could be used for text-word searching.  In such cases do  
not repeat the corporate name. 
A letter from the Recombinant Interferon-Gamma in Condylomata Acuminata Study  
Group was titled "Recombinant interferon-gamma in condylomata acuminata".  It  
was input correctly as: 
Recombinant interferon-gamma in condylomata acuminata.	If the name of a corporate body is abbreviated in a title, the full  
name of the corporate body should be added if it can be determined from the  
journal in hand, preceded by a period at the end of the title as it appeared in  
the text. 
Air pollution. AIHA report. 
AIHA can be identified from the journal as standing for American Industrial  
Hygiene Association.  The title is input as: 
Air pollution. AIHA report. American Industrial Hygiene Association. 
Note that nothing was supplied except the full name of the corporate body.   
Although the above example represents the simplest occurrence, there may be less  
simple examples to be dealt with.  At all times do as little tampering as  
possible with the author's title: supply only the name; do not supply well-meant  
additional verbiage. 
For foreign corporate names, see 14.6.8. 

The vernacular title of foreign articles appears in the Author Index of Index  
Medicus.  Exceptions in the case of several languages are given in 14.7.6.  The  
translation of the title of foreign articles appears in the Index Medicus  
citation in the Subject Index. 

14.6.1	Brackets 
All foreign titles of articles indexed in Index Medicus are translated.  They  
are recognized by the fact that the translated title is enclosed in square  
brackets.  If a rubric is added to identify the type of item, it is enclosed in  
parentheses, within the brackets (see 
[Treatment of gonorrheal arthritis] 
[Insulin resistance (editorial)] 
The translated title is typed without a period and enclosed in brackets.  If the  
title ends with another type of punctuation, it is retained. 
[How safe is dental anesthesia?]  

14.6.2	Capitalization 
For translations follow the rules for capitalization within English titles (see  
14.3).  For capitalization of German titles, see 14.7.2. 

14.6.3	Punctuation 
Use the punctuation as it appears in the original title.  For rules on  
punctuation which must be supplied follow those given in 14.2.   
Do not use a period at the end of the translated title, but retain any other  
terminal punctuation.  The same rule applies if a rubric is added.  See examples  
above in 14.6.1. 

14.6.4	Style of Translation 
Indexers should translate carefully, retaining the wording and word order of the  
original title in the translated title, as far as possible, consistent with  
acceptable English. 
Use English that is clear, accurate, smooth and competent.  Avoid  
"translatorese" and so-called translations which are no more than  
transliterations.  A translation should read as if it were written originally in  
English and should show no awkwardness. 
Before leaving a translation, read it aloud to yourself.  If it sounds un- 
English, awkward, unsophisticated linguistically or medically, make the required  
See Figure 14.6.4 for a list of examples of wrong and right translations for  
commonly recurring words and phrases.  
					Figure 14.6.4 
	Wrong							Right 
according to Barr, as in			by the Barr technique 
clamping according to Barr 
action mechanism				mechanism of action 
actual, as in actual status			current 
alimentation					food or nutrition 
apparatus, as in respiratory apparatus	tract or system 
association, as in the 				combination 
association of iodine and iron 
casuistic					case, case record, case study 
cerebrospinal liquor				cerebrospinal fluid 
certain						various, several or omitted 
changes of					changes in 
clinic, as in the clinic,			clinical aspects, 
in clinic, in the clinic			clinical medicine 
confronted by					in relation to 
consecutive to					following 
content in ascorbic acid			ascorbic acid content 
decennial					decade 
disturbances					disorders 
dosage, as in the dosage of hemoglobin	determination 
during the course of				in the course of or merely in 
during 40 years					for 40 years or in the past 40 years  
						or in the last 40 years 
-emia, as in glycemia,				blood, as in blood sugar, 
cupremia 					blood copper 
encephalon					brain 
essays						trials 
fight against cancer				campaign against cancer  
						or cancer campaign 
frequency of disease				incidence of  disease 
frequency of pulse				pulse rate 
ganglion, as in ganglionic			lymph node metastasis 
grave						severe 
gravid						pregnant 
hydro-electrolyte balance			water-electrolyte balance 
in connection with				in relation to 
in liver of the rat				in rat liver 
in men						in the male or in man or in the human 
in the course of				in or associated  with 
in the organism (all right			in the body 
	with microorganisms) 
industrial, as in industrial milk		commercial 
infantile, as in infantile psychiatry	child  
interest					importance or significance 
intoxication, as in lead intoxication	poisoning 
investigations					research or study 
liquor						fluid or liquid 
medicaments					drugs 
medullary					bone marrow or spinal cord 
methodics					methodology 
middle, as in Middle Asia			central 
morbose, as in morbose states			disease states 
navigating personnel (in aviation)		flight personnel 
nervous, as in nervous physiology		neural or nerve 
newborns					newborn infants 
notions						concepts 
observations, as in 6 observations		case reports 
paludal						malarial 
palustral					malarial 
parotiditis					parotitis 
particularities					peculiarities or character or nature 
patients of cancer				cancer patients 
patients of geriatric surgery			geriatric surgery patients 
plasmatic					plasma 
polyradiculitis Guillain- Barré		Guillain-Barré polyradiculitis 
ponderal					weight 
primitive, as in primitive cancer		primary 
professional, as in professional		occupational 
prophylaxis					prevention 
provoked, provocation				induced, induction 
psychopharmacon					psychopharmacological agent 
reaction, as in psychological			test 
re-adaptation					rehabilitation 
reanimation					resuscitation 
re-education					rehabilitation or retraining 
revision of the literature			review of the  literature 
sanitary, as in sanitary 			health or medical 
	personnel or sanitary aspects 
sensibility					sensitivity 
seric						serum 
signification					significance or meaning 
syndrome of ileus				ileus syndrome 
tensio-active					surface-active 
tissular					tissue 
traps						pitfalls 
traumatisms					injuries 
utilization					use 
vegetative, as in vegetative			autonomic 
	nervous system 

14.6.5	Introductory Words and Phrases 
Many foreign titles begin with stereotyped introductory words and phrases which  
are meaningless or which, at best, contribute little to the substance of the  
title.  We see again and again Sobre, Su, Sur, Über, Zur - all meaning "On" -  
and such phrases usually translated from all languages as "Considerations on",  
"Contribution on", "Contribution to the study of", "Apropos of", "Notes on", "On  
the question of", "On the problem of", "Observations on", "Remarks on",  
"Research on", "Study of", "Studies on".  Such stereotyped words and phrases are  
to be omitted from the translations of the titles in all languages.  These  
phrases are of no significant value in text word searching. 
In Figure 14.6.5 we give some examples to illustrate the intent and pattern  
adopted by Index Medicus: the substance remains while the unnecessary verbiage  
is dropped. 
However, do not omit "Mise en évidence", which should be translated as  
Occasionally the indexer will come upon a title with introductory words about  
which there is some doubt.  In cases of doubt, include the word or phrase in the  
translation, rather than excluding it. 
Note that the rule on the omission of words refers to words and phrases at the  
beginning of foreign titles or subtitles.  The rule does not apply to these  
words in other contexts elsewhere in the title. 
					Figure 14.6.5 
	Vernacular Title					Translation 
Ŕ PROPOS DE la maladie de Crohn			Apropos of Crohn's disease 
IM form: Crohn's disease 
A PROPOSITO DI un caso clinico			Apropos of a clinical case 
IM form: Clinical case of ... 
BEITRAG ZUR Tuberkulose				Contribution on tuberculosis 
IM form: Tuberculosis 
BEMERKUNGEN ZUR Tuberkulose			Observations on tuberculosis 
IM form: Tuberculosis 
CONSIDERAZIONI su un caso di..			Considerations on a case of.. 
IM form: Case of 
CONTRIBUTION Ŕ L'ÉTUDE DES tumeurs		Contribution to the study of tumors 
IM form: Tumors 
ESTUDO DOS estados diabeticos			Study of diabetic states 
IM form: Diabetic states 
K VOPROSU O refleksov				Apropos of reflexes or 		 
							On the problem of reflexes 
IM form: Reflexes 
O primenenii kofeina				On the use of caffeine 
IM form: Use of caffeine 
OBSERVAÇŐES SOBRE a biopsia..			Observations on biopsy.. 
IM form: Biopsy ... 
OSSERVAZIONI SULL'impiego del-l'acido		Observations.on the use of acid 
IM form: Use of acid .. 
PRZYCZYNEK DO ZAGADNIENIA 			Contribution to the problem of 
sezonowych wahan ..				seasonal changes  
IM form: Seasonal changes .. 
SOBRE EL ESTUDIO de la biopsia..		On the study of biopsy.. 
IM form: Biopsy .. 
SUL pancreas anulare				On the annular pancreas 
IM form: Annular pancreas 
ÜBER die subcelluläre Verteilung		On the subcellular distribution 
IM form: Subcellular distribution 
UNTERSUCHUNGEN ZUR FRAGE der			Studies on the problem of oxytocin 
Oxytocin-Resistenz				resistance  
IM form: Oxytocin resistance 
W SPRAWIE alergii ..				On the problem of allergy 
IM form: Allergy .. 
ZUR Diagnose des Zwergwuchses			On the diagnosis of dwarfism 
IM form: Diagnosis of dwarfism 
ZUR FRAGE der Metastasierung von Gliomem	On the problem of the metastasis 
			   				of glioma 
IM form: Metastasis of glioma 

14.6.6	Accuracy 
Do not add to nor subtract from the original title.  The single exception to the  
principle of not omitting words was given in 14.6.5. 
Refrain from unnecessarily changing the word order or from using a synonym when  
the original word is perfectly good English.  For example, "tuberculose  
pulmonaire" is translated "pulmonary tuberculosis" and NOT "tuberculosis of the  
lung".  On the other hand, "tuberculose du poumon" should be translated  
"tuberculosis of the lung" and not "pulmonary tuberculosis". 
This concept of accuracy, however, does not mean that "algie faciale" should be  
translated as "facial algia" merely because "algia" is in the medical  
dictionary.  Use intelligence and smooth English. 

14.6.7	Latin 
When a literary or historical Latin phrase is used in a title, it is usually  
well enough known to remain untranslated and is indeed frequently  
untranslatable.  Leave such phrases (Ad astra per aspera, Nil nocere, In  
flagrante delicto, In memoriam, etc.) untranslated. 
Zur Standesatire in Bernardino Ramazzinis De Morbis Artificum Diatriba. 
is translated as: 
[Occupational satire in Bernardino Ramazzini's De morbis artificum diatriba] 
When a Latin phrase like those above comprises the entire title of a foreign  
article, enter the phrase in the title field in brackets and indicate the  
language of the article in the usual way in Field 9. 
When the Latin is a technical, anatomical, physiological, chemical or similar  
word or phrase translated easily or naturally into English, use the English  
form.  For example, arteria carotis interna or corpus vitreum have no particular  
advantage over internal carotid artery or vitreous body.  Retain the Latin names  
of diseases which are given in Dorland.  Retain the Latin names of diseases not  
in Dorland when a translation would be inexact, unwieldy or awkward. 

14.6.8	Corporate Names 
Corporate names will be given in the original language if the words are clearly  
familiar to the American or English reader as English cognates.  That is, retain  
Institut Pasteur, Societŕ Italiana di Cardiologia, Instituto Nacional de  
Cancerología and other such bodies equally clear.  If the corporate name is not  
obviously translatable by the American or English reader, it should be  
translated: Gesellschaft für das Gute und Gemeinnützige and Akadmiia Nauk  
Armianskoi SSR have little meaning for American users and should be translated. 
If a foreign title contains a corporate name which was originally in another  
language, translate the corporate name into English regardless of the linguistic  
families involved.  In other words, if a French title contains the name of a  
German corporate entity in French, do not leave the name in French and do not  
convert it to German: translate it into English.  If a Russian title contains  
reference to a French corporate name, translate the corporate name into English,  
not into French. 
In the case of inflected forms, as in German, the corporate name MUST be given  
in the nominative form only in the translated title.  If there is any doubt  
about the spelling of the endings of the various grammatical cases within the  
corporate name, the language expert for the specific language should be  
Translate international corporate names into English, using the official name of  
the organization, for example, World Health Organization, not Organisation  
Mondiale de la Santé.  If the official name is not ascertainable from the text,  
bibliographic references or personal knowledge, consult the Head, Index Section,  
who will consult the Reference Section. 

14.6.9	If the original title uses an abbreviation, as "Das ERG..." use the  
abbreviation in the translation, "ERG..." and not "Electroretinography..."  If  
the original title spells out "Elektrokardiogram", translate as  
"electrocardiogram" and not "ECG". 
If the original abbreviation has a well-known English equivalent, substitute the  
English abbreviation; e.g. DNA for ADN or DNS; AIDS for SIDA; ENT for HNO. 
If the original abbreviation is not well known and the words are ascertainable  
from the text, retain the abbreviation in the vernacular but translate the  
abbreviation in full in the translation.  Thus RS in a title, identified from  
the text as Rekruiten-Schulung, will remain RS in the vernacular title but will  
be translated as recruit training in Field 13. 
Acronyms for corporate names (ENDE for Empresas Nacionales de Energ´ia, ENPI for  
Ente Nazionale per la Prevensione degli Infortuni, etc.) will be left as they  
appear in the title.  Acronyms with well-known English equivalents may be  
replaced by the English form in the translation (e.g. WHO is used for OMS). 

14.6.10	Chemical Terms 
In translating titles containing chemical terms, follow the original even though  
the English is not precisely the same.  For example, "sodio de feniletil- 
acetato" should be translated "sodium phenylethylacetate" even though American  
practice shows this to be sodium 2-phenylbutyrate.  The translation should not  
be confused with the subject headings, and the terminology used in a translation  
does not have to match subject-heading terminology. 

14.6.11	Ampersand 
Do not use the ampersand ( & ) in the translated title: instead write out "and". 

14.6.12	Numerals 
Numerals in vernacular titles appear in Index Medicus citations just as they  
appear in the journal: seis appears as seis, 6 appears as 6, VI appears as VI. 
In translating numerals in titles, use arabic figures even when the original  
writes out the number or uses roman numerals. 
deux cas			is written  2 cases 
tres operaciones		is written  3 operations 
In translations, arabic numerals may be used at the beginning of a sentence (the  
only deviation from GPO practice): it is not necessary to spell out the numeral.   
Do not capitalize the word following the numeral. 
[12 cases of acne] 
[1990 progress in immunology] 
In translations follow the approved form below (GPO Style Manual) to cover the  
following type of expression often seen in titles; note TWO hyphens: 
3-month-old infant 
2-day-old infant 
6-year-old boys 
50-year-old primipara 
3 1/2-month-old dog 
	but:  lasting 6 months 
If roman numerals are used in foreign titles to designate one of a series of  
articles, retain the roman numerals in the translation. 
In translating ordinals, use the customary arabic form in standard practice:  
1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 20th, 50th, 150th. 
Foreign dates (seen usually in biographical matter) often differ from American  
dates. 6.4.11 probably means 6 April 1911 in German and other European journals,  
while in an American journal, if used at all, it would mean June 4, 1911. 
To avoid confusion in the American reader's mind, always translate by spelling  
out the date thus: 6 April 1911;  This clarifies the month, it follows the order  
of the text and avoids the internal comma. 

14.6.13	Articles in parts in translations 
See 14.4.5 and 14.4.6 for the handling of numerals and parts.   
The various words for "part" in foreign languages will be retained in the  
vernacular but will be omitted from the translation of the title and subtitle.   
The identifying numeral, however, must appear in both vernacular and  
translation.  Use the roman or arabic just as it appears in the text: do not  
interchange them.  But a spelled-out numeral in the vernacular will be converted  
to arabic in the translation. 
As illustrated in 14.5.5, if the title begins with a number indicating that the  
article is part of a series, the number should be dropped. 
	1. Dysmorphies oculo-faciales mineures 
is translated as 
	[Minor oculo-facial abnormalities] 
and entered in the vernacular title field as: 
	Dysmorphies oculo-faciales mineures. 

14.6.14	Geographic names 
In translations of titles, use the English form of place-names: do not use the  
vernacular.  Here are some examples: 
   United States	not Etats-Unis 
   Moscow		not Moskva 
   Marseilles	not Marseille 
   Warsaw		not Warszawa 
   Lyons		not Lyon 
   Rome		not Roma 
   Maritime Alps	not Alpes Maritimes 
   Turin		not Torino 
   Belgian Congo	not Congo Belge 
   Milan		not Mailand 
   Brussels		not Bruxelles 
   Majorca		not Mallorca 
   Ghent		not Gand 
   Florence		not Firenze 
   Zurich		not Zürich	 
   Vienna		not Wien 

14.6.15	Proper names 
For names of persons use the spelling of the original name.  For example,  
convert the Spanish Gregorio Juan Mendel to Gregor Johann Mendel; convert the  
French Guillaume Osler to William Osler.  If in doubt, use as basic authorities  
Dorland, Webster or, especially in the history of medicine, Garrison. 

14.6.16	Quoted titles 
For titles of books, poems, works of art, etc. quoted in foreign titles, use the  
original titles if possible.  If the original title of the work can not be  
ascertained without involved research, leave it in the vernacular in your  
translation.  When an English title is well known, use it. 
Les traitements inéprouvés dans Le pavillon des cancéreux d'A. Soljenitsyne. 
was entered as: 
[Untested treatments in Cancer ward by A. Solzhenitsin] 
Note that only the first word of the quoted title is capitalized (14.3.7).  The  
translation of the author's name uses the direct transliteration from his native  
Russian (14.6.15). 

14.6.17	Rubrics 
These are discussed in 14.5.1+.  Such rubrics in the text will appear in  
translated titles in Field 13 but will not be included in the vernacular title. 

14.6.18	Translated titles supplied by the text 
In some articles the vernacular title is supplemented by a translated title  
supplied by the publisher.  In most cases the publisher's translated title  
appears immediately below the vernacular title or somewhat below it as in the  
case of a title attached to an English abstract on the same page.  Other  
journals, particularly Russian ones, have an English table of contents following  
the vernacular table of contents. 
Many of these publisher-supplied translations are inaccurate in that they often  
omit words from the vernacular or add to them.  Sometimes too they are awkward  
or contain transpositions or even incorrect translations.  Occasionally the  
publisher-supplied translation does not include the translation of the subtitle.   
Indexers should not use such publisher-supplied translations; they should  
provide their own translation of the vernacular title.  Since indexers handling  
foreign literature have language expertise, their translations are likely to be  
superior to those supplied by foreign publishers. 
Prior to 1984 under certain conditions publisher-supplied translations were  
acceptable as the Index Medicus translations.  In such cases, they were  
identified as (author's transl) at the end of the title.  As of 1984 all  
translations of titles are supplied by indexers in accordance with Index Medicus  
rules and good American medical usage and sense.  Publishers' and authors'  
translations are not acceptable. 
An indexer may want to examine the publisher's or author's translation for a  
helpful hint on a form or a word but the translation of the title must be the  
indexer's and must be typed on the dataform or in the online indexing system  
within brackets. 

14.6.19	Selection of translations of articles 
Sometimes journals publish an article in two or more languages.  A complete  
article may be followed by a full translation.  An article is sometimes printed  
in two columns, with one language in one column and the other language in the  
other column.  Sometimes the article and its translation appear on facing pages. 
If an article is published in full in two or more languages in the same issue of  
a journal, 
- take the English title if one of the languages is English but do not put  
brackets around it; ignore the vernacular; 
- type the English translation of the original title in Field 13 in the usual  
way if the languages are foreign; 
- take whichever foreign title comes first as the vernacular title; 
- in the language field specify the languages in which the article is written  
according to the instructions in 11.3 - 11.5, using the three-letter language  
symbols given there, in the order in which the texts appear; 
- cite inclusive pagination for all of the texts, the original and the  
translation(s).	If a translation of an article is published without the original in  
the same issue, index the translation only if the original article was published  
in a journal which is NOT in the List of Serials Indexed for Online Users.  If  
it is a translation of an article which originally appeared in a MEDLINE  
journal, there is no point in republishing a citation to it. 
The indexer is advised to distinguish carefully between a full translation of an  
original text and an abstract or condensation of an original.  The above rules  
pertain only to full or complete translations.  We do not index translated  
abstracts or condensations. 


14.7.1	Most vernacular titles are picked by the keyboarding contractor  
directly from the text and entered into Field 14.  The same rules for  
punctuation and capitalization are followed as for English titles entered in  
Field 13 (see 14.2+ and 14.3+).  Keep the punctuation given in the vernacular,  
capitalize the first word of the title and those words which are capitalized  
within the text of the article. 

14.7.2	In German articles all nouns are capitalized and must be indicated  
by the editor for the input typist.  If the title is printed completely in  
upper-case letters, consult the table of contents to determine which words  
should be capitalized.  If there is still doubt, flag for the German-reading  
indexer to resolve.  For titles in which the publisher supplies both lower-case  
and upper-case letters, the editor marks the keyboarding dataform in Field 14 
Vernacular titles in German frequently contain hyphenated words at the end of a  
line of text.  These words are not necessarily compound words, and should not  
contain the hyphen.  Check the table of contents to confirm whether it is  
The indexer of German articles should be sure to review the vernacular title  
online for accuracy and correct capitalization. 

14.7.3	Sometimes a collective title to a series of articles needs to be  
supplied in the vernacular as well as in English.  The indexer who is fluent in  
the foreign language will add the collective title to the beginning of the  
vernacular title in Field 14 where needed.  See 14.5.5 for a discussion of  
collective titles. 

14.7.4	Occasionally a foreign text has an English title but no vernacular  
title.  Fill in Field 9 with the required language symbol and type the  
translated title within brackets in Field 13 (lest the user, seeing an English  
title without brackets, thinks the text is in English).  Type the English title  
without brackets in Field 14.  The addition of the English title is Field 14  
satisfies the programming of the online indexing system, which requires that all  
foreign language articles must have a vernacular title unless they are among  
those listed in 14.7.6.	The opposite can also occur: an article in English may have a  
foreign title.  The language field takes only ENG.  Enter the foreign title in  
Field 13, followed by its translation in brackets.  Do not enter anything in  
Field 14.  See 14.6.7 for Latin titles. 

14.7.5	Although the keyboarding contractor supplies vernacular titles for  
most foreign languages, indexers are responsible for entering transliterations  
of titles in Field 14.  The following languages are routinely transliterated in  
Field 14: Greek and the Slavic languages Bulgarian, Russian, Serbian and  

14.7.6	The following languages cannot be reproduced in Index Medicus so  
titles in these languages do not appear in the vernacular, only in translations:  
Arabic, Armenian, Azerbaijani, Chinese, Georgian, Hebrew, Indonesian, Japanese,  
Korean, Persian, Pushto, Thai, Vietnamese.  For these, the indexer will supply a  
translated title for Field 13. 

14.7.7	Transliterated titles in Field 14 will be translated in Field 13 by  
all applicable rules on translations.  All the rules of accent, punctuation,  
capitalization and style which apply to English titles and translated titles  
will apply to transliterated vernacular titles. 

14.7.8	For signs and symbols which must be spelled out as words, the  
vernacular name for the symbols will be supplied by the indexer proficient in  
that language. 

14.7.9	See Figure 14.7.9 for a table of Greek transliterations.  14.4.3  
gives the table for transliteration of individual Greek letters appearing in  
titles and abstracts. 

14.7.10	See Figure 14.7.10 for a table of Slavic transliterations. 

14.7.11	Rubrics such as editorials, letters, etc., are discussed at length  
in 14.5.1 through  While these appear in translated titles, they are  
not supplied in Field 14 for vernacular titles. 

14.7.12	The various words for "part" are discussed in 14.4.5, 14.4.6 and  
14.6.13.  The words will be retained in the vernacular title and in the  
transliterated title but they will be omitted from the translated title.  Use  
roman or arabic numerals just as they appear in the vernacular: do not  
interchange them. 
				Greek Transliteration 
		a	convert to	a		?	convert to	n 
		ß			b		?			x 
		?			g		?			o 
		d			d		p 			p 
		e			e		?			r 
		?			z		s			s 
		?			e		t			t 
		?			th		?			u 
		?			i		f			ph 
		?			k		?			ch 
		?			l		?			ps 
		µ			m		?			o 
µ	in chemical contexts is converted to mu 
µl	in chemical contexts is converted to microliter 
µg	in chemical contexts is converted to microgram 
µm	in chemical contexts is converted to micron or micrometer 
mµ	in chemical contexts is converted to millimicron 
µµ	in chemical contexts is converted to micromicron 
µ alone can be interpreted differently in many disciplines.  It is micron when  
a unit of length; mean when in statistical settings, etc.  When it stands alone,  
consult with your reviser for conversion if you have any question. 
					Figure 14.7.9