CHAPTER 17			PUBLICATION TYPES 
 
 
 
Five citation types were used to describe various types of articles  
in MEDLARS before 1991.  These were HISTORICAL ARTICLE, HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY,  
CURRENT BIOGRAPHY-OBITUARY, MONOGRAPH and REVIEW.  Monographs were chosen for  
indexing for Index Medicus only from 1976 through 1981. Indexers were expected  
to check the appropriate box in Field 19 of the dataform to identify each of  
these citation types. 
 
In 1991 these citation types were replaced with a new MEDLARS data  
element called Publication Type (PT).  The number of publication types was  
expanded to include types which are indexed for other NLM databases in addition  
to Index Medicus and MEDLINE.  All of the rubrics used to qualify titles have  
also become publication types.  See Figure 17.1.  Existing rubrics will be  
retained; see 14.5.1+ for the form of rubrics in titles.   
 
At the request of the History of Medicine Division of NLM the list  
of publication types was expanded in 1997 to include 34 "genre terms" to  
describe the intellectual or literary type of presentation. These will be used  
chiefly for cataloging historical materials, rather than by in-dexers for Index  
Medicus and MEDLINE.  In the interests of completeness, the entire list of  
publication types is included in this chapter, with an indication for those  
publication types not used routinely in MEDLINE indexing. 
 
Every item indexed from 1991 forward is described by one or more of  
the Publication Types.  Publication types are listed in the field (PT) for  
MEDLINE and its back files.  Except for DUPLICATE PUBLICATION, RETRACTED  
PUBLICATION, RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION and SCIENTIFIC INTEGRITY REVIEW, they are  
not used as entry points for the printed Index Medicus. 
 

17.1		Certain main headings which are descriptive of the type of the item  
also have been included in the list of Publi- cation Types.  When both a main  
heading and a publication type exist for the same concept, the publication type  
is used when the indexable item is that type of publication, and the main  
heading is used if it is about that particular literary form.  See Figure 17.2. 
 
 
 
 
				Figure 17.1 
				Publication Types 
 
	17.3+		Abstract [Publication Type] 
	17.4		Academic Dissertations [Publication Type] 
	17.5		Account Books [Publication Type] 
	17.6+		Addresses [Publication Type] 
	17.7		Advertisements [Publication Type] 
	17.8		Almanacs [Publication Type] 
	17.9		Animation [Publication Type] 
	17.10		Annual Reports [Publication Type] 
	17.11		Architectural Drawings [Publication Type] 
	17.12+	Bibliography [Publication Type] 
	17.13+	Biography [Publication Type] 
	17.14		Book Illustrations [Publication Type] 
	17.15		Bookplates [Publication Type] 
	17.16		Broadsides [Publication Type] 
	17.17		Caricatures [Publication Type] 
	17.18		Cartoons [Publication Type] 
	17.19		Catalogs [Publication Type] 
	17.20+	Classical Article [Publication Type].....also a rubric 
	17.21+	Clinical Conference [Publication Type]...also a rubric 
	17.22+	Clinical Trial [Publication Type] 
	17.22.1	Clinical Trial, Phase I [Publication Type] 
	17.22.2	Clinical Trial, Phase II [Publication Type] 
	17.22.3	Clinical Trial, Phase III [Publication Type] 
	17.22.4	Clinical Trial, Phase IV [Publication Type] 
	17.23+	Comment [Publication Type] 
	17.24+	Consensus Development Conference [Publication Type] 
	17.25+	Consensus Development Conference, NIH [Publication Type] 
	17.26+	Controlled Clinical Trial [Publication Type] 
	17.27+	Corrected and Republished Article [Publication Type] 
	17.81		Database [Publication Type] 
	17.28		Diaries [Publication Type] 
	17.29+	Dictionary [Publication Type] 
	17.30+	Directory [Publication Type] 
	17.31		Documentaries and Factual Films [Publication Type] 
	17.32+	Duplicate Publication [Publication Type] 
	17.33+	Editorial [Publication Type] also a rubric 
	17.34		Encyclopedias [Publication Type] 
	17.35		Ephemera [Publication Type] 
	17.36		Eulogies [Publication Type] 
	17.37+	Festschrift [Publication Type] 
	17.38		Funeral Sermons [Publication Type] 
	17.39		Guidebooks [Publication Type 
	17.40+	Guideline [Publication Type] 
	17.41		Herbals [Publication Type] 
	17.42+	Historical Article [Publication Type] 
	17.43		Instruction [Publication Type] 
	17.44+	Interview [Publication Type].............also a rubric 
	17.45+	Journal Article [Publication Type] 
	17.46		Lecture Notes [Publication Type] 
	17.47+	Lectures [Publication Type] 
	17.48+	Legal Brief [Publication Type] 
	17.49+	Letter [Publication Type]................also a rubric 
	17.50		Maps [Publication Type] 
	17.51+	Meeting Report [Publication Type] 
	17.52+	Meta-Analysis [Publication Type] 
	17.53+	Monograph [Publication Type] 
	17.54+	Multicenter Study [Publication Type] 
	17.55+	News [Publication Type]..................also a rubric 
	17.56		Newspaper Article [Publication Type] 
	17.57+	Overall [Publication Type] 
	17.58+	Periodical Index [Publication Type] 
	17.59		Pharmacopoeias [Publication Type] 
	17.60+	Portraits [Publication Type] 
	17.61		Posters [Publication Type] 
	17.62+	Practice Guideline [Publication Type] 
	17.63		Price Lists [Publication Type] 
	17.64		Programs [Publication Type] 
	17.65		Prospectuses [Publication Type] 
	17.66+	Published Erratum [Publication Type] 
	17.67+	Randomized Controlled Trial [Publication Type] 
	17.68		Retracted Publication [Publication Type] 
	17.69+	Retraction of Publication [Publication Type] 
	17.70+	Review [Publication Type] 
	17.71+	Review Literature [Publication Type] 
	17.72+	Review of Reported Cases [Publication Type] 
	17.73+	Review, Academic [Publication Type] 
	17.74+	Review, Multicase [Publication Type] 
	17.75+	Review, Tutorial [Publication Type] 
	17.76+	Scientific Integrity Review [Publication Type] 
	17.77		Sermons [Publication Type] 
	17.78+	Technical Report [Publication Type] 
	17.79+	Twin Study [Publication Type] 
	17.80		Unedited Footage [Publication Type] 
 
 
					Figure 17.2 
			Publication Types with Corresponding Main Headings 
 
		Publication Type 			Main Heading 
Academic Dissertations				Dissertations, Academic 
Advertisements					Advertising 
Almanacs					Almanacs 
Annual Reports					Annual Reports 
Bibliography					Bibliography 
Biography					Biography 
Book Illustrations				Book Illustration see Books,  
Illustrated 
Bookplates					Bookplates 
Broadsides					Broadsides 
Caricatures					Caricatures 
Cartoons					Cartoons 
Catalogs					Catalogs 
Clinical Trial					Clinical Trials 
Clinical Trial, Phase I				Clinical Trials, Phase I 
Clinical Trial, Phase II			Clinical Trials, Phase II 
Clinical Trial, Phase III			Clinical Trials, Phase III 
Clinical Trial, Phase IV			Clinical Trials, Phase IV 
Consensus Development Conference		Consensus Development Conferences 
Consensus Development Conference, NIH		Consensus Development  
Conferences, NIH 
Controlled Clinical Trial			Controlled Clinical Trials 
Database					Databases 
Dictionary					Dictionaries 
Directory					Directories 
Duplicate Publication				Duplicate Publication 
Encyclopedias					Encyclopedias 
Guideline					Guidelines 
Interview					Interviews 
Letter						Letters see Correspondence 
Maps						Maps 
Meta-Analysis					Meta-Analysis 
Multicenter Study				Multicenter Studies 
Newspaper Article				Newspapers 
Pharmacopoeias					Pharmacopoeias 
Portraits					Portraits 
Practice Guideline				Practice Guidelines 
Randomized Controlled Trial			Randomized Controlled Trials 
Retraction of Publication			Retraction of Publication 
Review Literature				Review Literature 
Twin Study					Twin Studies 
 
 

17.2		The initial group of publication types were singular in form in  
order to distinguish them from their correspon- ding main headings which were  
plurals (e.g. Clinical Trial [Publication Type] vs Clinical Trials (main  
heading).  Those added for 1997 are plural, to agree with the format of genre  
terms used by catalogers at NLM and beyond.  Thus the publication type and the  
main heading appear identical except for the phrase [Publication Type].  All  
publication types should be entered into the indexing system followed by (PT).  
The online system gives warnings to remind indexers to choose between the  
publication type and the corresponding main heading.    
 
Publication types are not listed in the main heading field of a MEDLINE printout  
because they are classified as a different data element.  However, they are  
listed in the alphabetic Annotated Medical Subject Headings immediately  
following the corresponding main heading if the forms are identical.  All  
publication types are followed by the phrase [Publication Type] as shown in  
Figure 17.1.  They are also listed in the front of the Annotated MeSH, in a  
format similar to that of the alphabetic list of main headings.  In addition to  
the definition, there is an annotation giving guidelines for all MEDLINE users.   
For purposes of discussion in this chapter, publication types will always be  
qualified with (PT). 
 

17.2.1	Indexers must identify the appropriate publication type(s) for  
each item.  In the majority of cases this will be Journal Article (PT).  In many  
cases, more than one publication type will be needed.  The item could be a  
Letter (PT) and a Comment (PT), or a Journal Article (PT) and a Multicenter  
Study (PT).  Online indexers will enter the publication type on Panel 6,  
followed by (PT), at any point intermixed with check tags and main headings.  
Various shorter forms for publication types are also available when indexing  
online, such as RCT PT for Randomized Controlled Trial (PT).  Indexers who are  
indexing on data forms will type the publication type followed by (PT) near the  
bottom of the dataform.   
  

17.2.2	The online indexing system adds the publication types  
Classical Article (PT), Clinical Conference (PT), Editorial (PT), Letter (PT) or  
News (PT) when the corresponding rubric has been added to the article title.   
Any item which does not have one of these rubrics is automatically given the  
publication type Journal Article (PT).  The online indexer must change it if a  
different publication type is required.   
 
 
Sections 17.3 - 17.80 give a description of the use of all of the publication  
types.   More complete instruc-tions are given for those which are used by  
MEDLINE in- dexers, compared to those which are used for cataloging current  
materials and cataloging historical materials.  See Figures 17.3, 17.4 and 17.5. 
 
					Figure 17.3 
		Publication Types Used for Current Article Indexing 
	Abstract *					Journal Article 
	Addresses					Lectures 
	Bibliography					Legal Brief 
	Biography					Letter 
	Classical Article				Meeting Report 
	Clinical Conference				Meta-Analysis 
	Clinical Trial					Monograph ** 
	Clinical Trial, Phase I				Multicenter Study 
	Clinical Trial, Phase II			News 
	Clinical Trial, Phase III			Newspaper Article * 
	Clinical Trial, Phase IV			Overall 
	Comment						Periodical Index 
	Consensus Development Conference		Practice Guideline 
	Consensus Development Conference, NIH		Published Erratum 
	Randomized Controlled Trial			Retracted Publication 
	Controlled Clinical Trial			Retraction of Publication 
	Corrected and Republished			Review 
	Article						Review, Academic 
	Dictionary					Review Literature 
	Directory					Review, Multicase 
	Duplicate Publication				Review of Reported Cases 
	Editorial					Review, Tutorial 
	Festschrift					Scientific Integrity Review 
	Guideline					Technical Report 
	Historical Article				Twin Study 
	Interview 
 
		* not used in MEDLINE, used for AIDSLINE 
		** used in MEDLINE 1976-81 
 
 
					Figure 17.4 
		Publication Types Used for Cataloging of Current Materials 
 
	Consensus Development Conference		Meta-Analysis 
	Consensus Development Conference, NIH		Practice Guideline 
	Retracted Publication				Review Literature 
	Festschrift					Scientific Integrity Review 
	Guideline					Technical Report 
		Database  
 
The NLM Cataloging Section uses form subheadings to describe the  
format of most current materials.  See the section on Cataloging Practices in  
the introduction to the Annotated MeSH. 
 
 
					Figure 17.5 
		Publication Types Used for Cataloging of Historical Materials 
 
	Academic Dissertations					Encyclopedias 
	Account Books						Ephemera 
	Addresses						Eulogies 
	Advertisements						Funeral Sermons 
	Almanacs						Guidebooks 
	Animation						Herbals 
	Annual Reports						Instruction 
	Architectural Drawings					Lecture Notes 
	Biography						Lectures 
	Book Illustrations					Maps 
	Bookplates						Pharmacopoeias 
	Broadsides						Portraits 
	Caricatures						Posters 
	Cartoons						Price Lists 
	Catalogs						Programs 
	Diaries							Prospectuses 
	Documentaries and					Sermons 
	Factual Films						Unedited Footage 
 
 

17.3		Abstract (PT) 
"For abstracts of presentations at meetings, congresses,  conferences, symposia,  
colloquia, seminars, workshops, round tables, and other professional  
gatherings." 
 
Abstracts are not indexed for Index Medicus.  Individual abstracts are indexed  
for AIDSLINE and some other MEDLARS databases.  This PT will be used only for  
those other databases.   
 

17.3.1	This PT is not to be used to indicate that a journal article is  
accompanied by an abstract.  Such situations are handled by adding an English  
language abstract to the MEDLINE record (See Manual Section 16) and checking ENG  
ABST for foreign language articles.   
 

17.3.2	For a presentation of all of the abstracts presented at a meeting or  
symposium, see Meeting Report (PT) (17.51) and Overall (PT) (17.57). 
 

17.3.3	For articles about abstracts, use the main heading ABSTRACTING  
AND INDEXING. 
 

17.4		Academic Dissertations (PT) 
"Formal written discourses presented, usually, to fulfill requirements for an  
academic degree." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about dissertations, use the main heading DISSERTATIONS, ACADEMIC. 
 

17.5		Account Books (PT) 
"Books in which personal or commercial accounts of financial transactions are  
recorded." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about account books, use the main heading ACCOUNTING. 
 

17.6		Addresses (PT) 
"Speeches, orations, or written statement, usually for- mal, directed to a  
particular group of persons. It is to be differentiated from LECTURES  
[Publication Type] in that lectures are usually delivered to classes for the  
purpose of instruction." 
 

17.6.1	The choice between Addresses (PT) and Lectures (PT) will be  
determined by the terminology of the journal.  If an item is labeled a  
presidential address, use Addresses (PT). If it is designated a Nobel Prize  
Lecture, use Lec- tures (PT). It is not necessary to attempt to determine the  
nature of the audience or the type of occasion being addressed. 
 

17.6.2	Do not add Journal Article (PT) if Addresses (PT) is used. 
 

17.7		Advertisements (PT) 
"Public notices, usually as paid announcements and usually printed in newspapers  
and magazines or posted on billboards. It includes motion picture or television  
advertising." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about advertisements, use the main heading ADVERTISING. 
 

17.8		Almanacs (PT) 
"Works containing a calendar of days, weeks, and months, together with  
information such as astronomical data, various statistics, etc." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about almanacs, use the main heading ALMANACS. 
 

17.9		Animation (PT) 
"A film or video wholly or partially created by photo- graphing drawings,  
sculptures, or other inanimate things in sequence to create the illusion of  
motion. Animations are also generated by computers." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about animation, consider the main headings MOTION PICTURES or  
COMPUTER GRAPHICS. 
 

17.10		Annual Reports (PT) 
"Annual statements concerning the administrative and operational functions of an  
institution or organization." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about annual reports, use the main heading ANNUAL REPORTS. Do not  
index business or organizational or administrative reports of institutions  
(4.6.25). 
 

17.11		Architectural Drawings (PT) 
"Drawings of architecture and architectural projects, whether the project was  
executed or not." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about architectural drawings, consider the main heading  
ARCHITECTURE. 
 

17.12		Bibliography (PT) 
"A list of books, articles, documents, publications, and other items, usually on  
a single subject or related subjects." 
 
The Publication Type Bibliography (PT) is to be used for bibliographies  
published as articles, and for biograph- ical articles which are accompanied by  
a list of the publications of the biographee.  In the past indexers  
distinguished between articles which were bibliographies and the publications of  
a biographee by making the main heading IM or NIM, respectively.  This  
distinction will no longer be made.  Both types of bibliographies will take only  
Bibliography (PT). 
 

17.12.1	Note, however, that most review articles and many arti- cles on  
original research are accompanied by a list of references which appear to be a  
bibliography.  If an article is identified as one of the review publication  
types or as a journal article, do not also apply the publication type  
Bibliography (PT).  
 

17.12.2	For articles about bibliographies as a concept, use the main heading  
BIBLIOGRAPHY or one of its indentions.  "How accurate are bibliographic  
references?" is indexed as BIBLIOGRAPHY (IM) and Journal Article (PT). 
 

17.12.3	Articles indexed under BIOBIBLIOGRAPHY or BIBLIOGRAPHY OF MEDICINE   
will take Bibliography (PT).  See 33.6 and 33.9 for discussion of these terms. 
 

17.12.4	In most cases, Journal Article (PT) should not be added if  
Bibliography (PT) is present.  The only exception will be for biographical  
articles which are accompanied by a list of the publications of the biographee.   
When a bibliography accompanies a biographical article, the presence of  
Bibliography (PT), Biography (PT) and Journal Article (PT) will be required.  
 

17.13		Biography (PT) 
"An account of the events, works, and achievements, personal and professional,  
during a person's life.  It includes articles on the activities and  
accomplishments of living persons as well as the presentation of an obituary." 
 
Prior to 1991 this concept was represented by two citation types, CURRENT BIOG- 
OBIT and HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY.  These terms became publication types which were  
used through 1996.  The distinction between the two terms depended upon the date  
of publication of the journal item relative to the date of death of the deceased  
person. All citations indexed with either of these publication types have been  
converted to Biography (PT). 
 

17.13.1	See 32.16 for an explanation of indexing policy for biographies.   
Only substantive biographies are indexed.  This means that the biography should  
include a discussion of the individual's significant contributions to a field of  
medicine or science.  As a general rule, biographies which are one or two pages  
long are not sufficiently substantive and are thus not to be indexed.   
 

17.13.2	Biography (PT) also must take Historical Article (PT).  The format  
will probably be either Journal Article (PT) or (much less frequently) Letter  
(PT) or Editorial (PT). 
 

17.14		Book Illustrations (PT) 
"Photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps,  
tables, or other represen- tations or systematic arrangements of data designed  
to elucidate or decorate the contents of a publication." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about book illustra- tions, consider the main heading BOOK  
ILLUSTRATION see BOOKS, ILLUSTRATED. 
 

17.15		Bookplates (PT) 
Book owner's identification labels. They are usually intended for pasting inside  
a book." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about bookplates, use the main heading BOOKPLATES. 
 

17.16		Broadsides (PT) 
"Separately published pieces of paper or other material, usually printed on one  
side and intended to be read unfolded and usually intended to be posted,  
publicly distributed, or sold, e.g. proclamations, handbills, newssheets, etc." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about broadsides, use the main heading BROADSIDES. 
 

17.17		Caricatures (PT) 
"Works portraying in a critical or facetious way a real individual or group, or  
a figure representing a social, political, ethnic, or racial type.  The effect  
is usually achieved through distortion or exaggeration of character- istics." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about caricatures, use the main heading CARICATURES. 
 

17.18		Cartoons (PT) 
"Humorous, satirical, or ridiculing images executed in a broad or abbreviated  
manner." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about cartoons, use the main heading CARTOONS. 
 

17.19		Catalogs (PT) 
"Files of bibliographic records, created according to specific and uniform  
principles of construction and under the control of an authority file, which  
describe the materials contained in a collection, library or group of libraries.   
Catalogs include also lists of materials prepared for a particular purpose, such  
as exhibition catalogs, sales catalogs, garden catalogs, medical supply  
catalogs." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about catalogs, use the main heading CATALOGS or one of its  
indentions. 
 

17.20		Classical Article (PT) 
"The current presentation of a previously printed seminal article marking a  
milestone in the history of medicine or science.  It is usually accompanied by  
introductory remarks heralding its reprinting, often on the anniversary of its  
original publication or on an anniversary of the author's birth or death.  It is  
usually reprinted in full, with complete bibliographical reference to the  
original appearance." 
 
A classical article may date from any time in the past: the nineteenth century,  
early in the twentieth century, or even from within the time span encompassed by  
the MEDLINE databases (1966 forward).  If the journal indi- cates that it is  
being reprinted, either in whole or in part, because of its importance in the  
history of the field, it will be indexed for MEDLINE and Index Medicus following  
the instructions given in 32.9 and adding Classical Article (PT).  The rubric  
[classical article] is added at the end of the title in order to tell the user  
of Index Medicus what kind of an article it is. 
 

17.20.1	The author of a classical article is listed both in the author field  
and as the biographical subject.  The title is marked in order to make clear to  
the reader the orig- inal date of publication and the source, if it appears in  
the title of the classic. 
 

17.20.2	Most classical reprints will be of journal articles, and will thus  
also take Journal Article (PT).  The original source may be from a book or  
monograph, but it will still take Journal Article (PT) for MEDLINE.  A reprint  
of a letter to the editor would take Letter (PT) and Classical Article (PT).   
 

17.21		Clinical Conference (PT) 
"A conference of physicians on their observations of a patient at the bedside,  
regarding his physical state, laboratory and other diagnostic findings, clinical  
mani- festations, results of current therapy, etc. A clinical conference usually  
ends with a confirmation or correction of clinical findings by a pathological  
diagnosis performed by a pathologist. 'Clinical conference' is often referred to  
as a 'clinico-pathological conference.'" 
 
Clinical conferences are also designated as "grand rounds", "surgical grand  
rounds", "nephrology consult", etc., depending on the specialty of the journal.   
The rubric [clinical conference] will be added at the end of the title for the  
benefit of Index Medicus users.  See 14.5.1.7 for instructions on descriptive  
indexing and 18.11.8 through 18.11.15 for instructions on subject indexing of  
clinical conferences as a specific type of case report.		 
 

17.21.1	Clinical Conference (PT) also requires Journal Article (PT). 
 

17.21.2	Some journals use the rubric "clinical conference" for presentations  
which do not fit the case report format given in the scope note.  In such cases,  
Clinical Conference (PT) should still be used. 
 

17.22		Clinical Trial (PT) 
"Pre-planned clinical study of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule  
of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or  
techniques in humans selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility  
and observed for predefined evidence of favorable or unfavorable effects.  While  
most clinical trials concern humans, this publication type may be used for  
clinical veterinary articles meeting the requisites for humans.  Specific  
headings for specific types and phases of clinical trials are also available." 
 
This publication type will be used for all articles, letters, editorials or news  
items which report the re-sults of a clinical trial.  Clinical Trial (PT) should  
be accompanied by Journal Article (PT), Editorial (PT), Letter (PT), or News  
(PT).  See also 17.22.5 and 17.22.6. 
 
For articles about clinical trials as a subject, use the main heading CLINICAL  
TRIALS.   
 
If the specific phase of the clinical trial is identi- fied, use the  
corresponding publication type described below.  If the article does not specify  
the phase, indexers are not required to interpret the study conditions to decide  
which phase it is.  Use only Clinical Trial (PT).  Controlled Clinical Trial  
(PT), Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) or Multicenter Study (PT) may also be  
needed. 
 
In order to allow MEDLINE searchers to retrieve all articles on clinical trials  
easily, Clinical Trial (PT) is added for any citation which takes the  
publication types Controlled Clinical Trial (PT), Randomized Controlled Trial  
(PT), Clinical Trial, Phase I (PT), Clinical Trial, Phase II (PT), Clinical  
Trial, Phase III (PT) or Clinical Trial, Phase IV (PT).  Clinical Trial (PT) is  
added automatically for online indexers. 
 

17.22.1	Clinical Trial, Phase I (PT) 
"A pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of  
diagnostic, therapeutic, or pro- phylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based  
on a small number of healthy persons and conducted over the period of about a  
year in either the United States or a foreign country." 
 
Before 1993, Phase I trials were indexed with the main heading DRUG EVALUATION.   
This term does not need to be added when Clinical Trial, Phase I (PT) is used.   
See also 17.22.5 and 17.22.6. 
 
For articles about Phase I clinical trials as a subject, use the main heading  
CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I.  This PT will be accompanied by Journal Article (PT),  
Editorial (PT), Letter (PT) or News (PT).  Clinical Trial (PT) must also be  
added.  If the article does not specify the phase, use only Clinical Trial (PT).   
Controlled Clinical Trial (PT) or Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) and pos-  
sibly Multicenter Study (PT) may also be  needed.   
 

17.22.2	Clinical Trial, Phase II (PT) 
"A pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of  
diagnostic, therapeutic, or pro- phylactic drugs, devices, or techniques based  
on several hundred volunteers, including a limited number of patients, and  
conducted over a period of about two years in either the United States or a  
foreign country." 
 
Before 1993, Phase II trials were indexed with the main heading DRUG EVALUATION.   
This term does not need to be added when Clinical Trial, Phase II (PT) is used.   
See also 17.22.5 and 17.22.6. 
 
For articles about Phase II clinical trials as a subject, use the  
main heading CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE II.  This PT will be accompanied by Journal  
Article (PT), Editorial (PT), Letter (PT) or News (PT).  Clinical Trial (PT)  
must also be added. If the article does not specify the phase, use only Clinical  
Trial (PT).  Controlled Clinical Trial or Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) and  
possibly Multicenter Study (PT) may also be needed. 
 

17.22.3	Clinical Trial, Phase III (PT) 
"A pre-planned, usually controlled, clinical study of the safety and efficacy of  
diagnostic, therapeutic, or pro- phylactic drugs, devices, or techniques after  
phase II trials.  A large enough group of patients is studied and closely  
monitored by physicians for adverse response to long-term exposure, over a  
period of about three years in either the United States or a foreign country." 
 
For articles about Phase III clinical trials as a subject, use the main  
heading CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE III.  This PT will be accompanied by Journal  
Article (PT), Editorial (PT), Letter (PT) or News (PT).  Clinical Trial (PT)  
must also be added.  If the article does not specify the phase, use only  
Clinical Trial (PT).  Controlled Clinical Trial (PT) or Randomized Controlled  
Trial (PT) and possibly Multicenter Study (PT) may also be needed.  See also  
17.22.5 and 17.22.6. 
 

17.22.4	Clinical Trial, Phase IV (PT) 
"Planned post-marketing studies of diagnostic, therapeu- tic, or prophylactic  
drugs, devices, or techniques that have been approved for general sale after  
clinical trials, phases I, II, and III.  These studies, conducted in the United  
States or a foreign country, often garner additional data about the safety and  
efficacy of a product." 
 
For articles about Phase IV clinical trials as a subject, use the main heading  
CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE IV.  This PT will be accompanied by Journal Article (PT),  
Editorial (PT), Letter (PT) or News (PT).  Clinical Trial (PT) must also be  
added.  If the article does not specify the phase, use only Clinical Trial (PT).   
Controlled Clinical Trial (PT) or Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) and possi-  
bly Multicenter Study (PT) may also be needed.  See also 17.22.5 and 17.22.6. 
 

17.22.5	In general, do not apply one of the clinical trial pub- lication  
types to a review article in which a previously-reported clinical trial is  
merely mentioned as part of a larger subject review.  If an article reviews in  
detail a single or many previously-reported clinical trials, use the appropriate  
CLINICAL TRIALS main heading in addition to the appropriate review publication  
type.  Meta-analyses should not be given a clinical trial publication type; use  
Meta-Analysis (PT).  See 17.52+. 
 

17.22.6	If an article discusses a previously-reported clinical trial,  
providing additional analysis of the results or further data from the original  
study, it should be indexed as the appropriate Clinical Trial (PT) only if the  
further study fits the criteria for a clinical trial.  If it merely uses the  
patients from the original trial as a study group, without formulating the  
requisite clinical trial plan, or without any further intervention, then do not  
add any of the clinical trial publication types. 
 

17.22.7	Although the scope note of Clinical Trial (PT) refers to  
"diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques" any  
intervention study using healthy or diseased humans should be tagged as a  
Clinical Trial.  If there is an intervention (or application of a stimulus) in  
human beings, with defined results to be recorded, then the people who study  
clinical trials want to be able to retrieve the article.  A clinical trial may  
involve only a single subject in fields such as ophthalmology where one eye can  
serve as the control for the treated eye. 
 
On the other hand, a purely observational study, without any intervention, does  
not take Clinical Trial (PT). 
 

17.23		Comment (PT) 
"A critical or explanatory note written to discuss, support, or dispute an  
article or other presentation previously published. It may take the form of an  
article, letter, editorial, etc.  It appears in publications under a variety of  
names: comment, commentary, editorial com- ment, viewpoint, etc." 
 
See Section 39 for a discussion of the indexing policy on comments.  Comment  
(PT) will be added by the Index Section Quality Assurance Unit to any item which  
has been identified as a comment and flagged for the addition of the comment  
field.  The rubric [comment] will also be added at the end of the title.   
 

17.23.1	A comment will also require one of the publication types Letter  
(PT), Editorial (PT), Journal Article (PT), or News (PT).  Editorial comments  
frequently refer to an article within the same issue of the journal.  These  
should be flagged giving both the pagination of the comment and the article  
commented upon.  Index Section Quality Assurance staff will provide the  
bibliographic linkage and add Comment (PT). 
 

17.24		Consensus Development Conference (PT) 
"Designation for summary statements representing the majority and current  
agreement of physicians, scientists, and other professionals meeting to reach a  
consensus on a selected subject." 
 
This publication type will be used for articles reporting on the conclusions of  
a consensus conference.  If it is not included in the title, the name of the  
conference should be added to the title if it appears in the author position, in  
the text, in a footnote or at the end of the article. 
 

17.24.1	A Consensus Development Conference (PT) is considered to be a type  
of review and therefore requires that the number of references be given.  If no  
references are present, the indexer must type 0 in the references field.  Do not  
add Review (PT).  Journal Article (PT) is usually needed, but occasionally the  
consensus results are presented in a letter or editorial.  Do not use Consensus  
Development Conference (PT) on the individual papers presented at the  
conference; use it only for the summary statement or for an overall for the  
conference. 
 

17.24.2	Articles about consensus conferences as a means of dis- seminating  
medical information should be indexed with the main heading, CONSENSUS  
DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCES. 
 

17.25 		Consensus Development Conference, NIH (PT) 
"Designation for a conference sponsored by NIH, giving summary statements  
representing the majority of current opinion of physicians, scientists, and  
other profession- als on a selected subject." 
 

17.25.1 	This is also handled as a review, with the number of references or 0  
in the references field.  Do not add Review (PT), but do add Journal Article  
(PT), Letter (PT), or Editorial (PT) as appropriate.  In order to allow the user  
to retrieve any Consensus Development Conference easily, the online indexing  
system adds Consensus Development Conference (PT) to any article with Consensus  
Development Conference, NIH (PT). 
 

17.25.2	Official reports of NIH Consensus Conferences are published by the  
NIH Office of Medical Applications of Research (OMAR).  Titles of publications  
from this office have varied in the past.  Since 1992  it has been NIH Consensus  
Statement.  These reports should receive Consensus Development Conference, NIH  
(PT). 
 

17.25.3	If an NIH Consensus Development Conference consensus statement is  
reprinted in whole or in part in another source, it should be indexed with  
Consensus Development Conference, NIH (PT). 
 

17.25.4	Articles about NIH Consensus Development Conferences are indexed  
with the main heading CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCES, NIH. 
 

17.26		Controlled Clinical Trial (PT) 
"A clinical trial involving one or more test treatments, at least one control  
treatment, specified outcome mea- sures for evaluating the studied intervention,  
and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment.  The  
treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic,  
therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness.  Control measures include placebos,  
active medicine, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical  
comparisons, etc.  When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the  
use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control  
treatments, the trial is characterized as a RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.   
However, trials employing treatment allocation methods such as coin flips, odd- 
even numbers, patient social security numbers, days of the week, medical record  
numbers, or other such pseudo- or quasi-random processes are simply designated  
as controlled clinical trials." 
 

17.26.1	Identification of clinical trials as controlled, or randomized  
controlled, is important for analysis of the efficacy of various medical  
interventions. The predictive value of an experiment to demonstrate efficacy is  
depen- dent on true randomization.  Studies which use only a quasi-random method  
of allocation may be of less assistance, particularly if a meta-analysis is to  
be performed on the results of a large number of studies. 
 

17.26.2	Indexers will recognize controlled clinical trials by two major  
criteria: the study is prospective in nature, that is, the interventions were  
planned prior to the study and the results to be observed were planned.  In  
addition, there must be two or more treatments or interventions which are being  
compared.  Exposure to each intervention is under the control of the study  
investigators.  If the assignment of subjects was done by a rigorous  
mathematical technique, such as a random numbers table, the study should be  
indexed under Randomized Controlled Trial (PT).  One hint that Randomized  
Controlled Trial (PT) is required is if sealed envelopes were used in assigning  
subjects to the different interventions. 
 
Other forms of "randomization" which are less mathemati- cally rigorous, such as  
alternation of assignment, might introduce selection bias since the order of  
introduction of subjects could be controlled unconsciously in order to influence  
whether the subjects become part of the experi- mental or control groups.  The  
potential for selection bias is greater if the person responsible for making the  
treatment assignment is aware of what the next treatment assignment will be and  
can decide whether or not to enroll a participant on the basis of that  
knowledge.  Hence, if a study is described as double-blinded it may be more  
likely to be truly randomized. 
 

17.26.3	Indexers will follow the terminology of the author - if the article  
says "randomized controlled trial", then use Randomized Controlled Trial (PT).   
If the article says "a controlled clinical trial", and in the description of the  
methods they indicate that patients were randomly assigned to the experimental  
treatment, use Randomized Controlled Trial (PT).  Even if the introduction or  
materials and methods section clearly indicate that one of the quasi-random  
methods of allocation which are listed in the scope note for this term was used,  
if the authors claim "randomized" then use Randomized Controlled Trial (PT).  
Since indexing policy does not require reading the entire article word for word,  
indexers are only expected to examine closely the introduction and materials and  
methods.  Review of the abstract is recommended to ensure that all points deemed  
important by the author were considered, so information from the abstract can  
also be used to determine whether the study is a Controlled Clinical Trial (PT)  
or Randomized Controlled Trial (PT). 
 

17.26.4	This PT will be accompanied by Journal Article (PT), Editorial (PT),  
Letter (PT) or News (PT).  Clinical Trial (PT) must also be added and the  
specific numbered phase may also be given. 
 

17.26.5	For articles about controlled clinical trials as a subject, use the  
main heading CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIALS. 
   

17.27		Corrected and Republished Article (PT) 
"The republication of an article to correct, amplify or restore text and data of  
the originally published article." 
 

17.27.1	If the entire text of an article, letter, editorial or other item is  
republished, usually due to an editorial or printing error in the first  
publication, NLM will modify the citation to the first appearance to indicate  
the location of the republished article. See 38.6.4.  It is appropriate for the  
indexer to review the indexing of the original citation when indexing the  
republished article, although the extent of the corrections may require changes  
in indexing terms.  Add Corrected and Republished Article (PT) and flag for the  
Quality Assurance Unit to provide the required file maintenance for the original  
citation.  Do not add Published Erratum (PT). 
 

17.27.2	If the corrected and republished item is in a format other than that  
of a journal article, add the appropriate PT.  The majority of republished items  
will take Journal Article (PT).   
 

17.28		Diaries (PT) 
"Daily records, usually private, of writers' experiences, observations,  
feelings, attitudes, etc. On a less person- al level, they are books containing  
pages marked in calendar order in which to note appointments and the like." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
 
 

17.29		Dictionary (PT) 
"A reference book containing a list of words - usually in alphabetical order -  
giving information about form, pro- nunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.   
A foreign-language dictionary is an alphabetical list of words of one language  
with their meaning and equivalents in another language.  In medicine and  
science, a dictionary is often a comprehensive list of accepted terminology and  
names important in a special field." 
 

17.29.1	For MEDLINE, this publication type will be applied to articles as  
well as to books.  See 33.14 for indexing policy on articles which contain  
dictionaries.  Journal Article (PT) should not be added if the item has been  
identified as a Dictionary (PT). 
 

17.29.2	If the item contains one of the specific types of dic- tionaries  
which are available as MeSH headings, DICTIONARIES, CHEMICAL; DICTIONARIES,  
CLASSICAL; DIC- TIONARIES, DENTAL; DICTIONARIES, MEDICAL; DICTIONARIES,  
PHARMACEUTIC or DICTIONARIES, POLYGLOT, the indexer must also add Dictionary  
(PT). 
 

17.29.3	Articles about dictionaries as a type of reference book are indexed  
with DICTIONARIES or one of its indentions, but not with Dictionary (PT).  For  
example, "Automated access to a large medical dictionary" is indexed as  
DICTIONARIES, MEDICAL (IM) and Journal Article (PT). 
 

17.30		Directory (PT) 
"An alphabetical or classified list of names, organ- izations, subjects, etc.,  
giving usually titles, addresses, affiliations, and other professional data." 
 

17.30.1	See 33.13 for indexing policy on directories.  Journal Article (PT)  
should not be added if the item has been identified as a Directory (PT).  
 

17.30.2	Articles about directories, such as the cost or ethics of being  
listed in a directory of medical specialists, are indexed with the main heading  
DIRECTORIES. 
 

17.31		Documentaries and Factual Films (PT) 
Films, videos, and programs which depict actual persons or actual events. They  
do not include frank historical re-creations and do not attempt to judge the  
truth of the depiction in a film purporting to be factual or documen- tary in  
character." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about documentaries or factual films, consider the main headings  
MOTION PICTURES or TELEVISION. 
 

17.32		Duplicate Publication (PT) 
"The designation given an article or book of identical or nearly identical  
material published simultaneously or successively with the material previously  
published else- where, without acknowledgment." 
 

17.32.1	Duplicate publications are usually identified after the citations  
have already been added to MEDLINE and Index Medicus.  Thus Duplicate  
Publication (PT) is more likely to be added by the Quality Assurance Unit in  
file maintenance than by indexers.  An announcement that a previously published  
article was a duplicate publication will be indexed with the main heading  
DUPLICATE PUBLICATION (IM), and will be flagged for Quality Assurance action as  
a Comment (PT).  Quality Assurance staff will link the bibliographic record of  
the announcement with the original article, and will add Duplicate Publication  
(PT) to the appropriate citation.   
 

17.32.2	Announcements of duplicate publication may indicate that the  
duplicates are reporting essentially the same work, although authorship and  
title may have been changed.  These situations will be indexed with DUPLICATE  
PUBLICATION (IM) and handled as described above. 
 

17.32.3	The main heading DUPLICATE PUBLICATION will be used for articles  
discussing the concept of duplicate publication in general, as well as for those  
which identify specific instances of duplication.   
 

17.32.4	Duplicate publication should not be confused with re- printed  
material, in which the original source is acknowledged in a footnote at the  
beginning or end of the article.  Reprints will be selected for indexing only if  
the original source is not in the List of Serials Indexed for Online Users or if  
the reprint is considered a Classical Article (PT)(see 17.20) or a Corrected and  
Republished Article (PT)(see 17.27).  An exception is made for the reprints of  
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) which appear in JAMA. These are  
indexed identically in both MMWR and JAMA. Reprints from MMWR in other journals  
are not indexed. Similarly, NIH Consensus Development Conference consensus  
statements are indexed in any source that reprints them.  Duplicate Publication  
(PT) is not added for these two circumstances. 
 

17.32.5	Duplicate Publication (PT) is also used for policy state- ments  
published in two or more journals.  Sometimes acknowledgement is made that the  
statement is appearing in more than one publication, but that is not always the  
case.  Since the indexer does not know whether the state- ment has already been  
indexed, the article should be indexed and flagged for Quality Assurance.  QA  
staff will locate other occurrences of the same article and will arrange to have  
them all indexed identically. 
 

17.32.6	Although Index Medicus is not responsible for policing the  
literature for duplication, indexers may recognize an article that is very  
similar to an article that they indexed earlier.  If the indexer has any  
suspicion that the article in hand is a duplicate, complete the indexing without  
using Duplicate Publication (PT).  Flag the article for further searching and  
verification by the Quality Assurance Unit. 
 

17.33		Editorial (PT) 
"A statement of the opinions, beliefs and policy of the editor or publisher of a  
journal, usually on current matters of medical or scientific significance to the  
medical community or society at large.  The editorials published by editors of  
journals representing the official organ of a society or organization are  
generally substantive." 
 

17.33.1	The rubric [editorial] will be added at the end of the title in  
order to inform the users of Index Medicus of the nature of the item.  See also  
14.5.1.4 and 14.5.1.11 for discussion of this rubric.  Journal Article (PT)  
should not be added if Editorial (PT) is used. 
 
As stated in 4.6.5, editorials which address topics of only local interest in a  
non-substantive manner should not be selected for indexing at all. 
 

17.33.2	Through 1990, indexers distinguished between editorials which merely  
stated opinions and those which were in fact "lead articles".  The latter were  
substantive, usually three pages or longer, and were documented with numerous  
references. Editorials expressing an opinion were indexed non-depth, with the  
rubric [editorial].  "Lead articles" were indexed in depth, and the rubric was  
omitted. Beginning in 1991, if it is called an editorial by the journal, it must  
be given the rubric [editorial] and Editorial (PT).  Indexers will still,  
however, adjust the amount of depth to reflect whether it is merely a statement  
of opinion or whether it covers enough substantive information to be indexed in  
depth.   
 

17.33.3	Some editorials are sufficiently substantive to be con- sidered the  
equal of a review article, in fact, in some journals the rubric "editorial  
review" is used.  Such items will be indexed with both Editorial (PT) and the  
appropriate review publication type.  As a review, the item should be indexed  
non-depth. 
 

17.33.4	Editorials are frequently used to draw attention to a scientific  
article appearing elsewhere in the journal.  These will be indexed with  
Editorial (PT) and will be flagged for Quality Assurance as a "comment within  
this issue".  The indexer will provide on the flag both the pagination of the  
comment and of the article commented upon. Quality Assurance staff will provide  
the appro- priate linkage and add Comment (PT). 
 

17.33.5	Indexers may use the abbreviation ED for online indexing.  Dataform  
indexers may type this abbreviation at the bottom of the dataform.  The online  
indexing system will add Editorial (PT) if the rubric [editorial] appears in the  
title. 
 

17.34		Encyclopedias (PT) 
"Works containing informational articles on subjects in every field of  
knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to  
a special field or subject." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about encyclopedias, use the main heading ENCYCLOPEDIAS. 
 

17.35		Ephemera (PT) 
"Transient everyday items, usually printed on paper, that are produced for a  
specific limited use and then often thrown away. Similar material of the past  
has acquired literary or historical significance. The word comes from the Greek  
ephemeros, lasting only a day." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
 

17.36		Eulogies (PT) 
Speeches or writings in praise of a person or thing, especially a set oration in  
honor of a deceased person. They differ from FUNERAL SERMONS in that the latter  
are delivered at ceremonies for the deceased prior to their burial or  
cremation." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
Do not confuse it with Biography (PT) which is used for substantive obituaries. 
 

17.37		Festschrift (PT) 
"A collection of essays or other writings contributed by students, teachers,  
colleagues, and admirers to honor a scholar, physician, or other scientist on a  
special occasion noting an event of importance in his or her life." 
 

17.37.1	A festschrift is considered to be a type of an overall, and is  
routed to one member of the Index Section staff who is responsible for overalls.   
Index the name of the honoree on Panel 5 (field 15), checking Biography (PT).   
The appropriate chronological check tags must also be chosen.  In most cases,  
only 20th century will apply.  See 32.16 and 32.18.8. 
 

17.37.2	Do not add Journal Article (PT), since each of the items within the  
festschrift will be indexed individually as a journal article.  Do not add  
Festschrift (PT) to the individual articles which comprise the festschrift.  Do  
not add Overall (PT) to the festschrift unless all of the articles are on a  
single topic which would be covered as an overall. 
 

17.37.3	Occasionally an isolated article within a journal will have a  
footnote that it is being published in honor of the birthday or retirement of a  
scholar, physician or scientist.  Do not add Festschrift (PT) if the article  
does not appear as part of a collection of articles dedicated to the honoree  
within the same issue. 
 

17.38		Funeral Sermons (PT) 
"Sermons delivered at ceremonies for a dead person prior to burial or  
cremation." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
Do not confuse it with Biography (PT) which is used for substantive obituaries. 
 

17.39		Guidebooks (PT) 
"Handbooks for travelers that give information about a city, region, or country,  
or similar handbooks about buildings, museums, etc." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
 

17.40		Guideline (PT) 
"A set of statements, directions, or principles, pre- senting current or future  
rules or policy.  Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any  
level, institutions, organizations such as professional societies or governing  
boards, or by the convening of expert panels.  The text may be cursive or in  
outline form, but it is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and  
approaches in any discipline or activity.  This concept relates to the general  
conduct and administration of health care activities rather than to specific  
decisions for a particular clinical condition.  For that aspect, the publication  
type PRACTICE GUIDELINE is available." 
 

17.40.1	Guidelines are usually issued by a committee representing a  
scientific society, government agency or other organ- ization.  Since a  
corporate name is never used as an author in Index Medicus, show the identity of  
the committee or other body by making it part of the title (see 14.5.6+).  If  
the guidelines appear to be solely the effort of the author(s), and no reference  
is made to any institutional role in their development, do not use Guideline  
(PT). 
 

17.40.2		The corporate body issuing the guidelines must be in- cluded  
whether it appears as part of the title, as a part of the subtitle, or in the  
author position. 
 
When only the issuing body is shown in the title or au- thor position, check as  
Anonymous on Panel 3.  When the members of the committee are printed in the  
author position, include the corporate name in the title as directed above and  
input up to 25 personal authors (see 13.1.1-2).  If the personal names are in a  
footnote or at the end of the article, they are ignored; check Anonymous on  
Panel 3. 
 

17.40.3	Guideline (PT) will also require the addition of Journal Article  
(PT). If the guidelines were developed as a result of a consensus development  
conference, Consensus Development Conference (PT) or Consensus Development  
Conference, NIH (PT) must also be added.  However, such conferences will  
probably result in the publication of Practice Guideline (PT) rather than  
Guideline (PT). 
 

17.40.4	Articles about the development of guidelines, the legal  
ramifications of imposing guidelines, etc., are indexed with the main heading  
GUIDELINES. 
 

17.41		Herbals (PT) 
"Books on herbs or plants usually describing their medicinal value." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about herbals, con- sider the main heading MEDICINE, HERBAL. 
 

17.42		Historical Article (PT) 
"An article or portion of an article giving an account of past events or  
circumstances significant in a field of study, a profession, a discovery, an  
invention, etc.  The concept of history is very wide, ranging from the dawn of  
time to the present.  This publication type is often checked in conjunction with  
the publication type BIOGRAPHY." 
 
Prior to 1991 Historical Article was a citation type.  See 32.15 and 32.17 for  
an explanation of indexing policy for historical articles and historical notes  
within articles. 
 

17.42.1	Historical Article (PT) will also take Journal Article (PT) or  
Letter (PT) or Festschrift (PT) or Editorial (PT) or News (PT). 
 

17.43		Instruction (PT) 
"Nonfiction films and video designed to teach, instruct, or train." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
 

17.44		Interview (PT) 
"A conversation with an individual regarding his or her background and other  
personal and professional details, opinions on specific subjects posed by the  
interviewer, etc." 
 

17.44.1	The rubric [interview] or one of the variations outlined in 14.5.1.8  
will be added to the title of the interview.  Do not add Journal Article (PT).   
The person interviewed becomes the author.  See 14.5.1.8 for complete instruc-  
tions on handling interviews. 
 

17.44.2	For articles about interviews or interviewing, use the main heading  
INTERVIEWS. 
 

17.45		Journal article (PT) 
"The predominant publication type for articles and other items indexed for NLM  
databases." 
	 
This publication type will be added by the online index- ing software to any  
article to which the indexer has not assigned any other PT.  Frequently one or  
more additional PTs will also be required. 
 

17.45.1	Journal Article (PT) cannot be used if any of the fol- lowing  
publication types are present: 
 
		Abstract (PT)          Meeting Report (PT) 
		Addresses (PT)         Monograph (PT) 
		Dictionary (PT)        News (PT) 
		Directory (PT)         Newspaper Article (PT)  
		Editorial (PT)         Overall (PT) 
		Interview (PT)         Periodical Index (PT) 
		Lectures (PT)          Published Erratum (PT)	 
		Legal Brief (PT)       Scientific Integrity Review (PT) 
		Letter (PT)            Technical Report (PT) 
 

17.46		Lecture Notes (PT) 
"Notes taken at the delivery or reading of a speech be- fore an audience or a  
class, usually given to instruct." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials. 
		 

17.47		Lectures (PT) 
Speeches read or delivered before an audience or a class, especially for  
instruction or to set forth some subject. They are differentiated from ADDRESSES  
[Publication Type] in that addresses are less didactic and more informa- tional,  
entertaining, inspirational, or polemic." 
 

17.47.1	The choice between Addresses (PT) and Lectures (PT) will be  
determined by the terminology of the journal.  If an item is labeled a  
presidential address, use Addresses (PT).  If it is designated a Nobel Prize  
Lecture, use Lectures (PT).  It is not necessary to determine the nature of the  
audience or the type of occasion of the presentation. 
 

17.47.2	Do not add Journal Article (PT) if Lectures (PT) is used. 
 

17.48		Legal Brief (PT) 
"A detailed statement of the points of a client's case in a trial at law, giving  
the legal arguments, main content of a case, supporting statements, evidence,  
prior decisions, etc." 
 
This PT is most likely to occur in journals on legal medicine or in some state  
medical journals.  The item will be specifically labeled as a legal brief.   
 

17.48.1	Journal Article (PT) should not be added if Legal Brief (PT) is  
used. 
 

17.49		Letter (PT) 
"Written or printed communication between individuals or between persons and  
representatives of corporate bodies.  The correspondence may be personal or  
professional.  In medical and other scientific publications the letter is  
usually from one or more authors to the editor of the journal or book publishing  
the item being commented upon or discussed.  LETTER as a publication type is  
often ac- companied by the publication type COMMENT." 
 

17.49.1	The rubric [letter] will be added at the end of the title in order  
to inform the users of Index Medicus of the nature of the item.  See also  
14.5.1.5 and 14.5.1.11 for a discussion of selection and titles of letters. 
 

17.49.2	A large proportion of letters are written in order to comment upon,  
or provide additional information about an article which appeared in a previous  
issue of the journal.  Such letters should be flagged as comments for the  
Quality Assurance Unit to provide the bibliographic linkage to the original  
piece and to add Comment (PT). 
 

17.49.3	Through 1990, indexers used the rubric [letter] only for the usual  
"letter to editor" and handled more substan- tive, multi-page items which  
appeared under the journal rubric "letters" or "correspondence" as little  
articles.  Letters to the editor were indexed non-depth, and author affiliations  
were ignored.  The more substantive items were not given the rubric [letter],  
and were indexed with depth appropriate for the journal; author affiliations  
were taken.   
 
Beginning in 1991, if the item appears under a journal rubric which corresponds  
to "letter", indexers must use Letter (PT).  Indexers will adjust the depth of  
indexing to reflect the amount of substance in the letter.  Multi-page letters  
with a significant number of references will be indexed in greater depth than  
letters taking up only a portion of the page.  Author affiliations will not be  
added for the rubric [letter]. Do not add Journal Article (PT) as a means of  
identifying the more substantive letters.  If the author of the letter indicates  
that it is being written as a review, add an appropriate review publication  
type.  These are frequently Review of Reported Cases (PT). 
 

17.49.4	For letters and correspondence as a subject, index with the main  
heading CORRESPONDENCE. 
 

17.49.5	The online indexing system will add Letter (PT) if the rubric  
[letter] appears in the title. 
 

17.49.6	Ordinary letters should be indexed with no more than three or four  
terms.  Do not use the same main heading with two or more subheadings.  Index  
all check tags.  As noted in 17.49.3, an exception is made for greater depth for  
multi-page items which must still take the rubric [letter] because they are so  
labelled in the journal.  
 

17.50		Maps (PT) 
"Representations, normally to scale and on a flat medium, of a selection of  
material or abstract features on the surface of the earth. They may be used also  
in delin- eating the heavens and celestial bodies." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about maps, use the main heading MAPS. 
 

17.51		Meeting Report (PT) 
"A published record of the presentations at a meeting of a society, association,  
or similar body or of transac- tions at a symposium, colloquium, seminar,  
workshop, round table, conference or congress. Mere notification of the date and  
place of the meeting is not within the scope of this publication type.  It is to  
be used, rather, for the proceedings or transaction of the sessions, often with  
presentation of papers." 
 

17.51.1	Many items for which Meeting Report (PT) will be used will also take  
Overall (PT).  Do not use Journal Article (PT) for items which take this PT. 
 

17.51.2	Meeting Report (PT) will also be used for substantive narrative  
reports on a meeting which are not accompanied by the papers or transactions of  
the sessions.  In such cases, several sentences or a full paragraph are devoted  
to each speaker, or each session, detailing the specific information which was  
presented.  Do not index such reports if they do no more than provide the name  
of each speaker and the title of his or her presentation.  Do not add Journal  
Article (PT) to such narrative reports. 
 

17.51.3	If a journal presents the complete text of all of the papers  
presented at a meeting, do not add Meeting Report (PT) to the papers which are  
indexed individually as Journal Article (PT).  Meeting Report (PT) will be added  
with the overall for the meeting. 
 

17.51.4	For articles about scientific meetings as a means of communication  
use the main heading CONGRESSES. 
 

17.51.5	Congress (PT) was also available from 1991 through 1994.  It was  
sometimes difficult to distinguish between the definitions for Congress (PT) and  
Meeting Report (PT) when considering a specific piece in hand which was not  
clearly either.  Therefore the two publication types were consolidated into  
Meeting Report.  All citations indexed with Congress (PT) have been file  
maintained to Meeting Report (PT). 
 

17.52		Meta-Analysis (PT) 
"A quantitative method of combining the results of inde- pendent studies  
(usually drawn from the published liter- ature) and synthesizing summaries and  
conclusions which may be used to evaluate therapeutic effectiveness, plan new  
studies, etc.  It is often an overview of clinical trials.  It is usually called  
a meta-analysis by the author or sponsoring body and should be differentiated  
from reviews of literature." 
 
Although meta-analyses may resemble review articles by presenting and discussing  
a large number of references, they should not be indexed with any of the review  
publi- cation types. 
 

17.52.1	Articles discussing meta-analysis as a subject, for in- stance, how  
to carry them out, or their value, should be indexed with the main heading META- 
ANALYSIS.  In order to distinguish between the main heading and the publication  
type, the indexer must qualify the publication type with PT or (PT). 
 

17.53		Monograph (PT) 
"In cataloging, any publication that is not a serial.  It is usually on a single  
subject or related subjects and is complete in itself, whether constructed of  
chapters, sec- tions, or parts.  While any article encountered in index- ing  
journals can be, strictly speaking, a monograph, as a publication type, a  
monograph will refer to a catalog- ing item." 
 

17.53.1	Selected monographs were chosen for indexing in Index Medicus by the  
Editor from 1976 through 1981.  Section 37 of this manual was devoted to the  
handling of monographs by indexers. 
 
Individual papers appearing in monographs were indexed in Index Medicus by all  
rules pertaining to articles indexed from journals cited in the List of Journals  
Indexed in Index Medicus from the subject approach.  The format of monograph  
citations showed a slight difference from the journal article citation. 
 
Any individual paper indexed in a monograph was checked with the citation type  
MONOGRAPH.  With the implementa- tion of publication types, this citation type  
has been replaced with Monograph (PT) for all such citations. 
 

17.53.2	Monograph (PT) will not be used for indexing items from serial  
publications for MEDLINE.  It is to be used only for cataloging. 
 

17.54		Multicenter Study (PT) 
"A controlled study executed by several cooperating institutions." 
 

17.54.1	This publication type is used for clinical trials and for  
cooperative efforts among several institutions to study some other type of  
question.  Clinical Trial (PT) and Multicenter Study (PT) must both be added if  
the study is a multicenter clinical trial.  Controlled Clinical Trial or  
Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) and possibly one of the specific phases may  
also be needed.  Journal Article (PT), Editorial (PT), Letter (PT), or News (PT)  
should be added.   
 

17.54.2	Multicenter studies which are not clinical trials are usually  
observational, such as a multicenter study to determine the frequency of a  
particular birth defect.  They will be indexed with Multicenter Study (PT), and  
Journal Article (PT), Editorial (PT), News (PT) or Letter (PT) and with the  
appropriate epidemiologic main head- ings, for instance, COHORT STUDIES.   
Articles about the concept of multicenter studies should be indexed with the  
main heading MULTICENTER STUDIES. 
 

17.55		News (PT) 
"An announcement or statement of recent or current events of new data and  
matters of interest in the field of medicine or science.  In some  publications,  
such as "Nature" or "Science", the news reports are substantively written and  
herald medical and scientific data of vital or controversial importance to the  
populace." 
 

17.55.1	The rubric [news] will be added at the end of the title in order to  
tell the users of Index Medicus of the nature of the item.  Only substantive  
news items are selected for indexing.  These may appear within a section of the  
journal specifically designated as "News", or may appear scattered throughout  
the journal, almost like fillers between the scientific articles.  Any  
substantive item appearing under a journal rubric equivalent to news must be  
indexed with News (PT). 
 

17.55.2	Some news items, such as those appearing under "News and Comment" in  
Science, are particularly substantive.  These should still be indexed as News  
(PT) but the amount of depth used can be increased to reflect the amount of in-  
formation provided if the news item covers several pages.  In some journals news  
items have enough references given that indexers have been tempted to call them  
reviews.  Do not use any review publication types with items which take News  
(PT).  Greater depth of indexing may be used to indicate the substantive nature  
of the information given.  Author affiliations are not added for any news items. 
 

17.55.3	The online indexing system will add News (PT) if the rubric [news]  
appears in the title.  The online indexing system generates an error message if  
Journal Article (PT) is added when News (PT) is present. 
 

17.56		Newspaper Article (PT) 
"A news item printed in a general-interest newspaper or other news periodical,  
containing information of current and timely interest in the field of medicine  
or science.  This publication type should not be confused with the publication  
type NEWS which is reserved for news reports published in various medical or  
other scientific journals, such as "Nature"." 
 
Newspaper articles are not indexed for Index Medicus.  They are taken for  
AIDSLINE and some other MEDLARS data- bases. This PT will only be used for those  
other data-bases.  For articles about newspaper articles, consider the main  
heading NEWSPAPERS. 
 

17.57		Overall (PT) 
"A single citation covering several articles of various degrees of specificity  
or a single citation covering papers presented at a meeting.  A subject overall  
refers to a series of articles on a single subject; a congress overall refers to  
papers presented at a formal local, regional, national, or international  
gathering; a society overall refers to papers presented at an annual, semi- 
annual, monthly, weekly, or other meeting of a society, academy, institute,  
hospital, etc.  The publication type may be used for a single citation with or  
without the additional indexing or cataloging of individual papers.  The  
individual papers, however, are not labeled OVERALL." 
 

17.57.1	Journals containing any material which should be indexed as an  
overall are routed to the overall specialist within the Index Section.  This  
person adds the required overall citation, using Overall (PT) and adding Meeting  
Report (PT) if pertinent.  In the latter cases, abstracts are not indexed  
separately, but full-length papers are.  For meeting, society and subject  
overalls, the indexer should select and index each of the articles within the  
series according to the usual selection criteria, indexing each as a Journal  
Article (PT), before sending the issue to the overall specialist. 
 

17.58		Periodical Index (PT) 
"Useful as a subject approach to the contents of a periodical issuing an annual,  
biennial, quinquennial, decennial, etc., index.  The heading is used for the  
overall body of articles published by a periodical in the same sense that the  
publication type BIBLIOGRAPHY is useful when published as a single article." 
 

17.58.1	These usually appear as cumulative indexes for a five- or ten-year  
period. Some journals publish an index at the end of each year or the end of  
each volume.  Do not index such small "back-of-the-issue" indexes. Do, however,  
take a periodical index if it comprises all, or most of the issue in hand or  
covers a multi-year period. Index peri- odical indexes with the subject (IM) +  
Periodical Index (PT).  An index to Acta Ophthalmologica for the period 1983 -  
1988 is indexed OPHTHALMOLOGY (IM) + Periodical Index (PT). 
 

17.58.2	Do not use Journal Article (PT) when Periodical Index (PT) is  
present.  Do not add Bibliography (PT). 
 

17.59		Pharmacopoeias (PT) 
"Authoritative works containing lists of drugs and preparations, their  
description, formulation, analytic composition, main chemical properties,  
standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining  
identity, etc. They have the status of a standard." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
For articles about pharmaco- poeias, use the main heading PHARMACOPOEIAS or  
PHARMACOPOEIAS, HOMEOPATHIC. 
 

17.60		Portraits (PT) 
"Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually  
posed, living or dead. They are pictures whose purpose is the portrayal of an  
individual or group of individuals, not pictures which merely include people as  
part of an event or scene." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials. 
 

17.60.1	MEDLINE indexers will use the main heading PORTRAITS (IM) for  
articles about this graphic art form as a subject and NIM for portraits which  
accompany historical and bio- graphical articles.  See 32.14+.  Portraits which  
appear on the cover or at the beginning of a journal issue, un- accompanied by  
text, or with minimal text beyond the identification of the subject, are not  
indexed. 
 

17.61		Posters (PT) 
"Single or multi-sheet notices made to attract attention to events, activities,  
cause, goods, or services. They are for posting, usually in a public place and  
are  chiefly pictorial. They are intended to make an immediate impression from a  
distance. Posters do not include poster presentations at conferences and  
meetings." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials. 
 

17.62		Practice Guideline (PT) 
"A set of directions or principles to assist the health care practitioner with  
patient care decisions about appropriate diagnostic, therapeutic, or other  
clinical procedures for specific clinical circumstances.  Practice guidelines  
may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions,  
organizations such as professional societies or governing boards, or by the  
convening of expert panels.  They can provide a foundation for assessing and  
evaluating the quality and effectiveness of health care in terms of measuring  
improved health, reduction of variation in services or procedures per- formed,  
and reduction of variation in outcomes of health care delivered." 
 

17.62.1	Like Guideline (PT), a Practice Guideline (PT) must be issued by a  
corporate body.  If the practice guidelines appear to be solely the  
recommendations of the author(s), and no reference is made to any institutional  
role in their development, do not use Practice Guideline (PT). 
 

17.62.2	If the corporate body issuing the guidelines does not appear in the  
title, it must be added to the title (see 14.5.6+).  It may be identified in the  
subtitle, in the author position, in a footnote, or in the first para- graphs of  
the guidelines. 
 
When only the issuing body is shown in the title or author position, check as  
Anonymous on Panel 3.  When the members of the committee are printed in the  
author position, include the corporate name in the title as directed above and  
input up to 25 personal authors.  If the personal names are in a footnote or at  
the end of the article, they are ignored; check Anonymous on Panel 3. 
 

17.62.3	Practice Guideline (PT) will also require Journal Article (PT).  If  
the practice guidelines were developed at a result of a consensus development  
conference, Consensus Development Conference (PT) or Consensus Development  
Conference, NIH (PT) must also be added. 
 

17.62.4	In order to allow MEDLINE searchers to retrieve all arti- cles on  
guidelines easily, Guideline (PT) is added for any citation which takes Practice  
Guideline (PT). Guide- line (PT) is added automatically for online indexers. 
 

17.62.5	For articles about the concept of practice guidelines, their  
development, the cost of implementation, etc., use the main heading PRACTICE  
GUIDELINES. 
 

17.63		Price Lists (PT) 
"Lists giving the prices of items for sale, including drugs, equipment, books,  
etc. Price lists are less de- tailed than catalogs and not as long." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials. 
 

17.64		Programs (PT) 
"Lists of the events, pieces, performers, speaker, etc., of an entertainment,  
ceremony, or the like." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
Program listings sometimes appear within the pagination of a meeting report and  
abstracts.  They are merely included in the pagination of the Overall (PT)  
prepared by the Index Section overall specialist. 
 

17.65		Prospectuses (PT) 
"Advertisements separately printed and distributed by a publisher to describe  
and solicit orders for a recent or forthcoming publication. In the case of  
books, they may include sample pages." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials.   
 

17.66		Published Erratum (PT) 
An acknowledgement of an error, issued by a publisher, editor, or author. It  
customarily cites the source where the error occurred, giving complete  
bibliographic data for retrieval.  In the case of books and monographs, author,  
title, imprint, paging and other helpful references will be given; in the case  
of journal articles, the author, title, paging and journal reference will be  
shown.  An erratum notice is variously cited as Errata or Corrigenda." 
 

17.66.1	Usually notifications of errata appear as announcements by the  
journal editor, or in a letter to the editor.  See Section 38 for the policy on  
indexing errata and linking the erratum notice to the original publication.   
Pub- lishers', editors' or authors' announcements of errors will not be indexed  
unless they contain MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA.  They should be flagged by the  
indexer in order to have appropriate file maintenance performed by the Quality  
Assurance Unit. 
 

17.66.2	If a letter to the editor provides notification of an error, and is  
from the original author, it should be in- dexed, using Letter (PT) + Published  
Erratum (PT), and should be flagged as an indexed erratum for Quality Assurance.   
If a substantive letter is from someone other than the original authors, even if  
the original authors reply acknowledging the error, index as a Letter (PT) and  
flag as a comment for Quality Assurance.  Do not add Published Erratum (PT) and  
do not flag as an error notice. 
 

17.66.3	All error notices which contain molecular sequence data must be  
indexed. The indexer must supply AMINO ACID SEQUENCE, BASE SEQUENCE, or  
CARBOHYDRATE SEQUENCE plus MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA.  Use Published Erratum (PT).   
Do not add Journal Article (PT).  Flag for Quality Assurance and for the  
Sequence Analysts.  Error notices which only contain a correction for the  
database accession number do not have to be indexed.  They must, however, be  
flagged as errata. 
 

17.67		Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) 
"A clinical trial that involves at least one test treat- ment and one control  
treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated  
groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random  
process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.  Treatment allocations using  
coin flips, odd-even numbers, patient social security numbers, days of the week,  
medical record numbers, or other such pseudo- or quasi-random processes, are not  
truly randomized and a trial employing any of these techniques for patient  
assignment is designated simply a CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL." 
 

17.67.1	See the discussion of Controlled Clinical Trial (PT) and Randomized  
Controlled Trial (PT) at 17.26.1 - 17.26.4.  Index as Randomized Controlled  
Trial (PT) if the author uses such terminology.  Note the exceptions given for  
coin flips, odd-even numbers, patient social security numbers, days of the week  
and medical record numbers given in the scope note above.  Even if the  
introduction, materials and methods section or abstract indicates that one of  
these methods was used to assign participants, index as Randomized Controlled  
Trial (PT) if the authors say "randomized" or "random selection" or "random  
allocation". 
 

17.67.2	Randomization is usually done at the individual patient level.   
However, it is also possible to assign entire communities to treatment and  
control groups.  Random order of treatments to a single population is also  
acceptable, as is random treatment of pairs of organs (usually seen in the case  
of eyes).   
 

17.67.3	This publication type is a specific type of clinical trial.  As  
such, if the phase is given, Clinical Trial, Phase I (PT), Clinical Trial, Phase  
II (PT), Clinical Trial, Phase III (PT) or Clinical Trial, Phase IV (PT) must be  
added whenever the results of a Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) are reported.   
In addition, Clinical Trial (PT) will be added automatically by the online  
indexing system.  Journal Article (PT), Editorial (PT), Letter (PT) or News (PT)  
should also be added.  Multicenter Study (PT) may also be needed.   
 

17.67.4	Articles about the concept of randomized controlled trials should be  
indexed with the main heading RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS.  Do not add the main  
heading RANDOM ALLOCATION when Randomized Controlled Trial (PT) is used. 
 

17.68		Retracted Publication (PT) 
"Designation of an article or book retracted in whole or in part by an author or  
authors or an authorized representative.  It identifies a citation previously  
published and now retracted through a formal issuance from the author,  
publisher, or other authorized agent, and is distinguished from the publication  
type RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION, which identifies the citation retracting the  
original published item." 
 
This PT will be added by the Quality Assurance Unit to a citation which has been  
retracted in a published notice (see 17.69).  The original citation will  
probably have been a Journal Article (PT) or Letter (PT).  Articles discussing  
the concept of publications which have been retracted should be indexed with the  
main heading RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION. 
 

17.69		Retraction of Publication (PT) 
"A statement issued by one or more authors of an article or a book, withdrawing  
or disavowing acknowledgement of their participation in performing research or  
writing the results of their study.  In indexing, the retraction is sent to the  
editor of the publication in which the arti- cle appeared and is published under  
the rubric "retrac- tion" or in the form of a letter. This publication type  
designates the author's statement of retraction: it should be differentiated  
from the publication type RETRACTED PUBLICATION which labels the retracted  
publication." 
 

17.69.1	This publication type may only be applied to an explicit statement  
of retraction.  Index a retraction notice with Retraction of Publication (PT)  
and no other main head- ings.  Flag it for Quality Assurance to provide the  
appropriate file maintenance to the original citation as described in 33.16.  If  
there is any question whether the item is actually a retraction, flag it as  
such, indica- ting your question on the flag.  Since the scope note for  
Retracted Publication (PT) indicates that the document may be retracted in whole  
or in part, Retraction of Publication (PT) should also be used for a notice that  
only part of the item is being retracted. 
 

17.69.2	Articles discussing the concept of retraction of fraud- ulent or  
erroneous data are indexed with the main heading RETRACTION OF PUBLICATION.  
 

17.70		Review (PT) 
"An article or book published after examination of pub- lished material on a  
subject.  It may be comprehensive to various degrees and the time range of  
material scrutin- ized may be broad or narrow, but the reviews most often  
desired are reviews of the current literature.  The textual material examined  
may be equally broad and can encompass, in medicine specifically, clinical  
material as well as experimental research or case reports.  State-of-the-art  
reviews tend to address more current matters.  Reviews of the literature must be  
differentiated from historical articles (HISTORICAL ARTICLE) on the same  
subject, but a review of historical literature is also within the scope of this  
publication type.  Specific headings for specific types of review are also  
available." 
 

17.70.1	This publication type will be automatically added by the indexing  
software after the article has been completely indexed and revised.  It is  
generated in response to the presence of a number in the references field on  
Panel 6 (Field 17 on the dataform).  Indexers should never type this term in the  
main heading field (Field 21 or Panel 6); they will always choose one of the  
seven specific publication types Consensus Development Conference (PT);  
Consensus Development Conference, NIH (PT); Review, Academic (PT); Review  
Literature (PT); Review, Multicase (PT); Review of Reported Cases (PT) or  
Review, Tutorial (PT). 
 
See Section 12 for a complete discussion on selection and indexing of review  
articles. 
 

17.70.2	Do not use any of the review publication types if the article is  
identified as a Meta-Analysis (PT).   
 

17.70.3	Although most reviews will take Journal Article (PT), a Letter (PT)  
or an Editorial (PT) may also be a review.  Do not use any of the review  
publication types if the journal publishes the article in a section which will  
take News (PT). 
 

17.71		Review Literature (PT) 
"Published material which provides an examination of recent or current  
literature.  Reviews can cover a wide range of subject matter of various levels  
of completeness or comprehensiveness based on analyses of publications on the  
subject.  The presence of research findings or case reports does not preclude  
designation as a review." 
 

17.71.1	This publication type corresponds to the general review main heading  
REVIEW LITERATURE.  It will be used only for those review articles which do not  
fit the qualifications of the specific review headings listed in 17.72 - 17.75  
or for those articles identified by the author as "state of the art review".   
See 12.2.7, 12.3.1 and 12.3.7. 
 

17.71.2	This publication type requires the number of references or 0 in the  
REFS field.  It should be coordinated with Journal Article (PT) or Letter (PT)  
or Editorial (PT).  Do not add Review (PT). 
 

17.71.3	For articles discussing reviews as a type of scientific  
communication, use the corresponding main heading, REVIEW LITERATURE. 
 

17.72		Review of Reported Cases (PT)	 
"Literature reporting - to the best of the author's ability - all known cases of  
a disease.  The study is usually generated by the investigator's encounter with  
patients with a given disease and includes the investi- gator's own cases. The  
range of time will encompass historical cases and recent cases.  The review  
usually cites the literature in which the known cases were published and may or  
may not include clinical and laboratory data." 
 

17.72.1	For selection of this type of review, see 12.2.4, 12.2.5 and 12.3.5.  
Review of Reported Cases (PT) requires the number of references or 0 in the REFS  
field.  Coordinate with Journal Article (PT) or Editorial (PT) or Letter (PT).   
Do not add Review (PT). 
 

17.72.2	REVIEW OF REPORTED CASES was a main heading from 1988 to 1990.  For  
articles discussing case reviews as a type of scientific communication, index  
with the main heading REVIEW LITERATURE. 
 

17.73		Review, Academic (PT) 
"A more or less comprehensive review of the literature on a specific subject,  
with usually an extensive critical analysis and synthesis of the literature." 
 

17.73.1	For selection of this type of review, see 12.2.1 and 12.3.3.  This  
publication type requires the number of references or 0 in the REFS field.   
Coordinate with Journal Article (PT) or Editorial (PT).  It is unlikely that a  
letter would contain a Review, Academic.  Do not add Review (PT). 
 

17.73.2	REVIEW, ACADEMIC was a main heading from 1988 to 1990.  For articles  
discussing academic reviews as a type of scientific communication, index with  
the main heading REVIEW LITERATURE. 
 

17.74		Review, Multicase (PT) 
"A type of review literature giving demographic, laboratory, and clinical data  
on a group of persons or animals ranging from most of the known cases of a rare  
condition in large populations on whom the results of research will lead to the  
establishing of epidemiological analyses or predictions of the occurrence and  
natural history of diseases.  It is differentiated from REVIEW OF REPORTED CASES  
in that the latter generally reports a single case as a supplement to a  
presentation, however brief and limited, of other cases known to have been  
reported." 
 

17.74.1	For selection of this type of review, see 12.2.8 and 12.3.4.  This  
publication type requires the number of references or 0 in the REFS field.   
Coordinate with Journal Article (PT) or Editorial (PT) or Letter (PT).  Do not  
add Review (PT). 
 

17.74.2	REVIEW, MULTICASE was a main heading from 1988 to 1990.  For  
articles discussing epidemiologic reviews as a type of scientific communication,  
index with the main heading REVIEW LITERATURE. 
 

17.75		Review, Tutorial (PT) 
"A type of review citing literature that will give the user a general and  
reasonably thorough coverage of the subject with which he may or may not be  
familiar.  It often substitutes as a refresher course for a physician to update  
his or her awareness or as a crash course for a student unfamiliar with the  
subject." 
 

17.75.1	For selection of this type of review, see 12.2.9, 12.2.10 and  
12.3.6.  This publication type requires the number of references or 0 in the  
REFS field.  Coordinate with Journal Article (PT) or Editorial (PT) or Letter  
(PT).  Do not add Review (PT). 
 

17.75.2	REVIEW, TUTORIAL was a main heading from 1988 to 1990.  For articles  
discussing subject reviews as a type of scientific communication, index with the  
main heading REVIEW LITERATURE. 
 

17.76		Scientific Integrity Review (PT) 
"Designation for reports by the United States Office of Research   Integrity  
identifying questionable research published in articles or books.  Notification  
of the questionable data is carried in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts." 
 

17.76.1	This publication type is to be used only for reports issued in the  
NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts.  For articles in any other publication,  
consider the main headings UNITED STATES OFFICE OF RESEARCH INTEGRITY or  
SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT.  Do not add Journal Article (PT). 
 

17.76.2	Index SCIENTIFIC MISCONDUCT (IM), UNITED STATES OFFICE OF RESEARCH  
INTEGRITY (NIM) and flag for Quality Assurance linkage as a comment to the  
articles for which scientific misconduct has been identified. 
 

17.76.3	This is not a review article, do not add a number in the REFS field. 
 

17.77		Sermons (PT) 
"Discourses for the purpose of religious instruction or exhortation, especially  
one based on a text of Scripture and delivered by a member of the clergy, as  
part of a religious service." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials. 
 

17.78		Technical Report (PT) 
"A formal report giving details of the investigation and results of a medical or  
other scientific problem.  When issued by a government agency or comparable  
official body, its contents may be classified, unclassified, or declassified  
with regard to security clearance.  This publication type may also cover a  
scientific paper or article that records the current state or current position  
of scientific research and development.  If so labeled by the editor or  
publisher, this publication type may be properly used for journal articles." 
 

17.78.1	This publication type should not be used for Index Medicus indexing  
unless the article is explicitly called a technical report by the journal.   
Since Journal Article (PT) can not be used when Technical Report (PT) is  
present, indexers should prefer Journal Article (PT) if it seems appropriate. 
 
 

17.79		Twin Study (PT) 
"A method of detecting genetic causes in human traits and genetic factors in  
behavior using sets of twins." 
 

17.79.1	Since this term is intended mainly for epidemiologic studies,  
articles with this PT will probably be coordi- nated with the subheading  
/epidemiology and/or with one or more of the main headings indented under  
EPIDEMIOLOGIC METHODS.  Articles about the design or value of twin studies  
should be indexed with the corresponding main heading, TWIN STUDIES. 
 

17.80		Unedited Footage (PT) 
"Untitled raw motion picture and video footage which has not been edited or  
assembled into a finished work." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging historical materials. 
 

17.81		Database (PT) 
"A structured file of information or a set of logically related data stored and  
retrieved using computer-based means." 
 
This publication type is to be used only for cataloging. For articles about  
databases, or listing new data which have been added to a database, use  
DATABASES  or DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC or DATABASES, FACTUAL.