CHAPTER 28		INDEXING PRINCIPLES FOR CATEGORY G 
	(BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES) 
 

28.1		Category G in 12 trees is devoted to the biological sciences. 
G1 contains headings relating to the basic biological sciences,  
those  usually in the undergraduate curriculum; 
G2 contains headings relating to the health occupations, specialties and  
disciplines; 
G3 contains headings relating to the environment and public health; 
G4-G12 contain headings relating to the physiological and other biological  
processes. 
 

28.2		Except for a few terms in these categories serving as qualifying NIM  
parameters, most terms in Category G are IM. Suggestions and restrictions on  
individual terms appear in the ANNOTATED MeSH. This section of the manual  will  
touch as usual on general principles. 
 
 

28.3		The subheadings available for use with trees in this category are 
 
G1 and G2:	 
class - CL   hist - HI        man - MA      stand - ST 
econ - EC    instrum - IS     methods - MT  statist-SN 
educ - ED    legis - LJ       organ - OG    trends - TD 
 
G3: 
adv eff - AE   econ - EC    methods - MT  statist - SN 
anal - AN      hist - HI    prev - PC      
class - LJ     legis - LJ   stand - ST 
 
G4-G11: 
drug eff - DE  immunol - IM  physiol - PH  rad eff - RE 
genet - GE 
 
G12: 
genet - GE    immunol - IM   physiol - PH   rad eff - RE 
 

28.4		The array above represents a general assignment of subheadings by  
category. Naturally, every subheading assigned does not fit with every term in  
the subcategory, and a given main heading/subheading combination should be given  
some thought. MeSH has made an effort to consider each possible subheading for  
every main heading, so most combinations of main heading plus allowed qualifier  
should make sense. However, be careful not to create any nonsensical  
combinations and present any questionable allowances to MeSH. Consult the AQ  
enhancement in AIMS to see a list of allowed qualifiers for each MeSH heading. 
 

28.5		In Category G1 the terms are disciplines or specialties in the  
biological sciences and serve for both the field and the practitioner. When thus  
used they are usually IM. 
 
Training in histology. 
HISTOLOGY / * educ    
 
The use of computers in microbiology. 
*MICROBIOLOGY 
*COMPUTERS 
 
The history of physiology. 
PHYSIOLOGY / * hist 
 
The personality of the zoologist. 
*ZOOLOGY 
*PERSONALITY 
 

28.6		Subheadings have been provided as duplicates for many of the main  
headings in Category G1, e.g., ANATOMY and HISTOLOGY and /anat, EMBRYOLOGY and  
/embryol, PARASITOLOGY and /parasitol, PHYSIOLOGY and /physiol, VIROLOGY and  
/virol. 
 
In cases where a MeSH heading and a subheading are the same (i.e. PHYSIOLOGY and  
/physiol) prefer the subheading. 
 
The physiology of the stomach. 
STOMACH / * physiol 
Not: 
STOMACH 
PHYSIOLOGY 
 

28.7		Category G2 contains the -OLOGY (GYNECOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY,  
HEMATOLOGY, etc.) and -IATR- headings (PSYCHIATRY, PEDIATRICS, GERIATRICS). In  
general, like the disciplines in G1, these headings refer to the field or  
specialty and to the practitioner. The various G2 specialties have organ,  
disease, anf procedure counterparts. For example: CARDIOLOGY (G2 - the  
specialty), CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (a7 - the organs), CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES   
(C14 - the diseases), CARDIOVASCULAR SURGICAL PROCEDURES (E4 - the procedures).   
The indexer must make  a careful distinction is made between the field (or  
practitioner), the organ,  the disease (or patient), and the procedure. 
 
Heart surgery deaths in the United States. 
	CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES / * mortal 
	UNITED STATES 
	HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Can mental disorders impair pediatricians? 
*PEDIATRICS 
*MENTAL DISORDERS 
*PHYSICIAN IMPAIRMENT 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The personality of the gynecologist. 
*GYNECOLOGY 
*PERSONALITY 
 
Although authors may use a specialty term, if they are referring to a group of  
patients with that type of disease, index under the appropriate organ-disease  
precoordinate. 
 
The status of diagnosis in endocrinology. 
ENDOCRINE DISEASES / * diag 
(not: *ENDOCRINOLOGY) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Cortisone therapy in dermatology. 
SKIN DISEASES / * drug ther 
CORTISONE / * ther use 
(not: *DERMATOLOGY) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The status of dermatology in England. 
*DERMATOLOGY 
ENGLAND 
 

28.8		MILITARY MEDICINE is a specialty and as such is IM. For the  
physiological, psychological, disease and other medical aspects of uniformed  
personnel, use MILITARY PERSONNEL as IM (see below and 34.15). 
 
AEROSPACE MEDICINE will be an IM concept in only two circumstances: 1. the  
specialty heading for the medical aspects of aviation and 2. when there is no  
other (IM) heading available to cover the subject. For the physiology and  
psychology or diseases of flight personnel index under the personnel (IM)  
(MILITARY PERSONNEL) and AEROSPACE MEDICINE (NIM). Articles on the physiological  
aspects of space flight are indexed under SPACE FLIGHT or WEIGHTLESSNESS, etc.  
as IM and not under AEROSPACE MEDICINE.  Diseases of sailors are coordinated  
with NAVAL MEDICINE or SUBMARINE MEDICINE. Generally, either the personnel or  
the disease should be (IM) and the specialty used as an (NIM) coordinate. In  
those cases where the article does not have personnel covered by MeSH or there  
is no appropriate disease heading, then AEROSPACE MEDICINE may be used (IM). But  
remember we also have OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH and OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE. 
 
Colds among army recruits.  
*COMMON COLD	 
*MILITARY PERSONNEL 
(not MILITARY MEDICINE) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The birth of American aviation medicine. 
AEROSPACE MEDICINE / * hist 
UNITED STATES 
(plus all required historical check tags) 
 
Incidence of asthma in air force personnel. 
ASTHMA / * epidemiol 
INCIDENCE 
*MILITARY PERSONNEL 
AEROSPACE MEDICINE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Heart rate in commercial pilots.	 
*HEART RATE 
*OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH 
AEROSPACE MEDICINE 
HUMAN (check tag)  
(see also 31.13 - 31.16) 
 
The incidence of passenger nausea on transatlantic flights. 
NAUSEA / * epidemiol 
INCIDENCE 
*TRAVEL 
AEROSPACE MEDICINE 
HUMAN (check tag)  
 
Kidney function in space. 
KIDNEY / * physiol 
*SPACE FLIGHT 
 
The physical endurance of civilian astronauts in space. 
*PHYSICAL ENDURANCE 
*ASTRONAUTS 
* SPACE FLIGHT 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Carbohydrate metabolism in submariners. 
CARBOHYDRATES / * metab 
*MILITARY PERSONNEL 
SUBMARINE MEDICINE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
For SPORTS MEDICINE as a specialty vs SPORTS, see 30.15. 
 

28.9		FAMILY PRACTICE (and its reference GENERAL PRACTICE) is considered a  
medical specialty and should be so used. Many titles, however, contain the  
expression "in general practice", as "Use of corticoids in general practice",  
"Radiography in general practice". Indexing automatically in such cases under  
FAMILY PRACTICE (IM) is wrong. The indexer should scan the article to see  
whether the disease or therapy is discussed from the standpoint of its ordinary  
appearance in general practice or whether it is usually managed in a  
specialist's practice, or if in the article in hand the viewpoint is that of a  
general practitioner or of general practice. If the point of the discussion is  
the relationship between the disease or therapy and general practice, index  
under GENERAL PRACTICE (IM). Most articles referring to "general practice" in  
the title can be indexed as GENERAL PRACTICE (NIM). 
 

28.9.1	PHYSICIANS, FAMILY. Do not confuse this with FAMILY PRACTICE.  
PHYSICIANS, FAMILY is for the physicians as people (their psychology, opinions,  
demographics, etc.) 
 
General practitioner's attitudes toward computers. 
PHYSICIANS, FAMILY / * psychol 
*ATTITUDE TO COMPUTERS 
 
Primary care physicians still in short supply. 
PHYSICIANS, FAMILY / * supply 
 
Screening for diabetic retinopathy by general practitioners. (the introduction  
indicates this should be required of family physicians) 
DIABETIC RETINOPATHY / * diag 
*GENERAL PRACTICE 
*MASS SCREENING 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Diagnosis of fever in general practice. (No special significance for general  
practice) 
FEVER / * diag 
GENERAL PRACTICE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

28.10		INTERNAL MEDICINE is used most frequently as a specialty or for  
articles on internists. In rare instances it may be used for "internal diseases"  
but the article must be very general indeed. Since MeSH contains hundreds of  
"internal diseases", INTERNAL MEDICINE in this light should be used very  
circumspectly. 
 

28.10.1	Likewise PEDIATRICS, GERIATRICS, and ADOLESCENT MEDICINE are  
specialty headings and only in rare cases may be used for very general articles  
on "pediatric diseases" and "geriatric diseases". Again, since MeSH contains the  
check tags INFANT, CHILD and related specifics and AGED, specific diseases in  
children or the aged should be indexed under the specific disease with the  
appropriate check tag and not under PEDIATRICS or GERIATRICS. Consider also  
other MeSH headings that correspond to these specialties: HEALTH SERVICES FOR  
THE AGED, CHILD HEALTH SERVICES and ADOLESCENT HEALTH SERVICES. 
 

28.11		RADIATION EFFECTS. Index the effect of radiation on an organ, an  
organism, a physiological process, a psychological process or a substance under  
the required specific heading with the subheading /rad eff (IM) but do not also  
index under RADIATION EFFECTS. Reserve RADIATION EFFECTS for very general  
articles on the effects of radiation.  
 
The effect of radiation on the brain. 
BRAIN / * rad eff 
 
The effect of radiation on cognition. 
COGNITION / * rad eff 
 
The effect of radiation on Streptococcus. 
STREPTOCOCCUS / * rad eff 
 
The effect of radiation on steroids. 
STEROIDS / * rad eff 
 

28.11.1	RADIATION EFFECTS or /rad eff will refer to the effect of any type  
of radiation (those types treed under RADIATION), ionizing or non-ionizing,  
whether experimental or not. 
 
Although MeSH has supplied RADIATION, IONIZING and RADIATION, NON-IONIZING, do  
not coordinate a term paired with /rad eff by indexing routinely under  
RADIATION, IONIZING or RADIATION, NON-IONIZING and do not routinely seek out the  
identity of a ray as ionizing or non-ionizing. Index under RADIATION, IONIZING  
or RADIATION, NON-IONIZING only when the article is very general or when the  
point is ionizing or non-ionizing radiation but the specific type of ray is not  
named. When indexed it will almost always be IM. 
 
The effects of ionizing Gamma rays on the liver. 
LIVER / * rad eff 
*GAMMA RAYS 
(not also RADIATION, IONIZING) 
 
Differences in ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. 
*RADIATION, IONIZING 
*RADIATION, NON-IONIZING 
 

28.11.2	If a specific type of ray is discussed in the article, index (IM)  
under the specific type found in Category H (e.g., COSMIC RADIATION, ULTRAVIOLET  
RAYS), and also under the target of the effect (organ, organism, process, etc.)  
with the subheading /rad eff (IM).  
 
Effect of microwaves on conjunctival cytology. 
*MICROWAVES 
CONJUNCTIVA / * rad eff 
CONJUNCTIVA / cytol 
 
The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on estrus in rats. 
*ULTRAVIOLET RAYS 
ESTRUS / * rad eff	 
RATS (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
ANIMAL (check tag) 
 
As to X-RAYS, since /rad eff is presumed to refer to x-rays unless otherwise  
specified (see 19.8.60), it will not be necessary to index under X-RAYS even as  
NIM unless the X-RAYS are particularly discussed (as for example in a comparison  
between the effects of x- and gamma rays). 
 
The effect of x-irradiation of the liver. 
LIVER / * rad eff 
(but not also under X-RAYS) 
 
The effect of gamma rays on the liver. 
LIVER / * rad eff 
*GAMMA RAYS 
 
A comparison of the effects of gamma rays and x-rays on the liver. 
LIVER / * rad eff 
*GAMMA RAYS 
*X-RAYS  
COMPARATIVE STUDY (check tag) 
 

28.11.3	Index the effect of radioisotopes under the specific radioisotope in  
Category D1 (IM) and the target of the effect with the subheading /rad eff (IM). 
 
The effect of radiostrontium on dentin. 
*STRONTIUM RADIOISOTOPES 
DENTIN / * rad eff 
 
Effect of radiophosphorus on thyroid metabolism in the rat. 
*PHOSPHORUS RADIOISOTOPES 
THYROID GLAND / * rad eff  
THYROID GLAND / * metab 
ANIMAL (check tag) 
RATS (check tag) 
(depending upon the article both subheadings may or may not be IM) 
 

28.11.4	In rare cases the indexer gets an article on the effect of radiation  
in general in which the point is not effects on a specific organ, organism or  
process, etc., but effects in general. In such cases index under RADIATION  
EFFECTS (IM). 
 
The effects of radiation on man, a review. 
*RADIATION EFFECTS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
REVIEW, TUTORIAL (PT) 
 

28.11.5	Do not index under RADIATION EFFECTS in order to account for "total- 
body irradiation" or "whole-body radiation."  WHOLE BODY IRRADIATION is  
available in category E. This may be indexed IM when the point of the article is  
irradiation of the entire animal, or for radiotherapy. 
 
See Section 19.8.60 for many examples on /rad eff illustrating the principles in  
28.11. 
 

28.12		RADIATION INJURIES (C21, G3) is used for any harmful effect of  
exposure to radiation in man or veterinary animals. This will be used for  
articles on the effects of the atomic explosion on Hiroshima survivors, on  
radiation injuries in x-ray technicians, on radiation accidents in atomic  
installations, on the adverse effects of radiography or radiotherapy, on the  
harmful effects of radio-isotopes, "radiation sickness", etc. RADIATION INJURIES  
is almost always IM. Specific radiation-induced diseases are indented under this  
term in C21. 
 
Radiation injury to the skin caused by radiotherapy. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
(not SKIN / inj) 
RADIATION INJURIES / * etiol 
RADIOTHERAPY / * adv eff 
 

28.12.1	RADIATION INJURIES, EXPERIMENTAL (C21, G3) exists as a heading for  
articles on the harmful effects of radiation administered to laboratory animals  
in doses known to cause injury. The intent is generally to apply the research to  
the problems of radiation injuries in man or domestic animals. In other words,  
the experimental injury is established in order to do further experiments,  
similarly to the use of drugs to induce a disease for further study. Do not use  
this heading for the effect of radiation on various organs of the animal body  
better indexed with the subheading /rad eff with the organ. Also, do not use  
this heading for articles involving laboratory animals when the purpose is to  
study the effect of radiation (even though it evolves in the text that the  
effects were harmful). Therefore, articles on the effect of radiation are not  
necessarily articles on RADIATION INJURIES, EXPERIMENTAL. This heading is almost  
always IM. 
 
If a specific ray or radioisotope is the point of the article, index also under  
the specific type of radiation following the rules in 28.11.3. 
 

28.12.2	Do not use RADIATION INJURIES, EXPERIMENTAL for articles on the  
sublethal or lethal effects of radiation on bacteria, viruses and other micro- 
organisms or on lower forms of life. The correct indexing here is with the name  
of the organism and the subheading /rad eff. 
 
Effect of radiation injury on liver metabolism in rats. 
RADIATION INJURIES, EXPERIMENTAL / * metab 
LIVER / * rad eff 
LIVER / * metab 
ANIMAL  (check tag) 
RATS (check tag) 
 

28.13		In addition to examples showing the use of the subheading /rad eff  
given above and in 19.8.60 in the discussion on subheadings, and in addition to  
examples on the use of the radiation headings starting with 28.11, here is a  
summary of indexing policy in this area through very simple illustrations. 
 
Effect of radiation on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
 
Effect of ionizing radiation on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
*RADIATION, IONIZING 
 
Effect of non-ionizing radiation on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
*RADIATION, NON-IONIZING  
 
Effect of cosmic rays on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
*COSMIC RAYS 
 
Effect of x-ray on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
(but not X-RAYS) 
 
Effect of light on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
*LIGHT 
 
Adverse effects of radiostrontium on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
STRONTIUM RADIOISOTOPES / * adv eff 
(not RADIATION INJURIES unless discussed as such) 
 
Effect of total-body irradiation on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
*WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION 
 
Effect of radiostrontium on the bacterial cell wall. 
BACTERIA / * rad eff 
*STRONTIUM RADIOISOTOPES 
BACTERIA / ultrastruct 
CELL WALL /  rad eff 
 
Effect of gamma rays on viral structure. 
VIRUSES / * rad eff 
*GAMMA RAYS 
VIRUSES / ultrastruct 
 
Adverse effect of radiotherapy on the skin. 
SKIN / * rad eff 
RADIOTHERAPY / * adv eff 
 
Bactericidal effect of gamma rays on streptococci. 
STREPTOCOCCUS / * rad eff 
*GAMMA RAYS 
(not GAMMA RAYS / adv eff) 
(not RADIATION INJURIES, EXPERIMENTAL) 
 

28.14		Subcategories G4 through G12 represent terms in the area of  
biological phenomena with special reference to physiological processes in man  
and animal. 
 
Most of the terms in G4 through G12 are usually IM. A few are qualifying  
coordinates and therefore NIM when used with specific organs and organisms made  
IM. That is, in a general article on cell movement CELL MOVEMENT is IM, but the  
movement of a specific cell is indexed under the name of the cell (IM) and CELL  
MOVEMENT (NIM).  
 
T-cells can traverse the blood brain barrier. 
T-CELLS / * physiol 
*BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER 
CELL MOVEMENT / physiol 
 
Cell movement is activated by light, experiments using fibroblasts. 
CELL MOVEMENT / * rad eff 
*LIGHT 
FIBROBLASTS / physiol  
FIBROBLASTS / rad eff 
 
Articles on body weight are usually indexed as BODY WEIGHT (IM) or its  
indentions but organ weight is almost never ORGAN WEIGHT (IM) 
 
Body weight and physical endurance. 
*BODY WEIGHT 
*PHYSICAL ENDURANCE 
 
Liver weight in obesity. 
OBESITY / * pathol 
LIVER / * pathol 
ORGAN WEIGHT 
 
MeSH has been fully annotated for Categories G4-G12 to guide the indexer in the  
matter of IM and NIM. 
 

28.15		Many category G terms can use the /genet, /immunol or /physiol  
subheading. The use of these subheadings should be carefully considered so as  
not to be redundant or nonsensical even though allowed by category. 
 
Altered blood coagulation in bone cancer. 
BONE NEOPLASMS / * blood 
*BLOOD COAGULATION 
(not /physiol since this is not 'normal' coagulation) 
 
Coagulation during normal embryo development. 
EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT / * physiol 
BLOOD COAGULATION / * physiol 
 
The function of IL-2 in B-cell activation. 
INTERLEUKIN-2 / * immunol 
B-LYMPHOCYTES / * immunol 
LYMPHOCYTE TRANSFORMATION / * immunol 
(or *LYMPHOCYTE TRANSFORMATION) 
 
MHC genes in autoimmunity. 
AUTOIMMUNITY / * genet 
*MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX 
(not /immunol with a gene) 
 
The induction of HLA antigens in the optic nerve. 
HLA ANTIGENS / * biosyn 
OPTIC NERVE / * immunol 
 

28.16		AGING is a physiological process which begins at birth, so to speak,  
and continues to death; it is not restricted to the elderly or the aged. While  
many articles on AGING are tagged with AGED, the aging process touches other age  
tags too. Indeed many articles on AGING involve experimental animals where the  
age tags cannot be used. 
 
When AGING is indexed as the physiological process it will be IM. Do not,  
however, confuse AGING with the term AGED, a personal heading (Category M), or  
with AGE FACTORS, related to cause and effect, or to AGE DISTRIBUTION, a  
statistical concept (Categories G7 and N5). 
 
MeSH also has CELL AGING and its indention ERYTHROCYTE AGING. 
 
AGED is discussed as a check tag in 18.5 and as a person in 34.10. See also 35.5  
for examples and further discussion on AGING, including the "aging" of microbes.  
 
 

28.17		Because of its importance in the chain of life PREGNANCY (G8) merits  
special attention. For the same reason it has been given significant weight as a  
check tag. 
 
See 18.4 for a discussion of PREGNANCY as a main heading and as a check tag. In  
this section over two pages of text and three figures are devoted to PREGNANCY.  
The observations to follow repeat and highlight the indexing of PREGNANCY as a  
physiological process in Category G8 (where PREGNANCY is the point of the  
article). 
 
 

28.17.1	Index articles on normal human pregnancy under PREGNANCY (IM). Also  
check the tags HUMAN and FEMALE when indexing PREGNANCY (IM). In these cases  
where PREGNANCY (IM) is the point of the article then a subheading is usually  
applied. The following subheadings are allowed with this term: /blood, /csf,  
/drug eff, /ethnol, /genet, /immunol,  /metab, /physiol, /psychol, /rad eff,   
/statist, and /urine. 
 
Index articles on normal pregnancy in animals under PREGNANCY, ANIMAL (IM). Also  
check the tags PREGNANCY, FEMALE and ANIMAL when indexing PREGNANCY, ANIMAL  
(IM). 
 
Index articles on normal pregnancy in both the human and animal under both  
PREGNANCY (IM) and PREGNANCY, ANIMAL (IM). Also check the tags HUMAN, ANIMAL and  
FEMALE. See 18.4.6 for pregnant animals when not IM. Do not use PREGNANCY,  
ANIMAL as an NIM coordinate even if subheadings might be attached to it. 
 
Index articles on normal pregnancy in adolescents under PREGNANCY IN ADOLESCENCE  
(IM). Also check the tags PREGNANCY, HUMAN, FEMALE and ADOLESCENCE for this term  
when IM. For pregnancy in an adolescent NIM, see 18.4.2.1. 
 
Sometimes an animal may be used as a model for human pregnancy. If there are  
only animals employed in the study index as PREGNANCY, ANIMAL (IM) and add  
MODELS, BIOLOGICAL (NIM). If there are both humans and animals in the study then  
use both PREGNANCY, ANIMAL (IM) and PREGNANCY (IM) and add the term MODELS,  
BIOLOGICAL. 
 
Heart rate in pregnant sheep: a comparative study of human and ovine physiology  
using an animal model. 
PREGNANCY / * physiol 
PREGNANCY, ANIMAL / * physiol 
HEART RATE / * physiol 
SHEEP / * physiol 
MODELS, BIOLOGICAL 
ANIMAL (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
COMPARATIVE STUDY (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
PREGNANCY (check tag) 
 

28.17.2	Pathological or non-normal pregnancy (sometimes referred to as  
"complicated pregnancy" is indexed with the main heading PREGNANCY COMPLICATIONS  
or its specific indentions. These terms are assigned as disease concepts to  
Category C13 and are indexed as diseases. See details of indexing this in  
18.4.7. 
 

28.17.3	Terms indented under PREGNANCY in Category G8 are usually IM. By  
rules governing check tags, all terms whether IM or NIM must be indexed with the  
check tags PREGNANCY, FEMALE and HUMAN or ANIMAL as appropriate (18.4.2).  
 
Uterine contraction during the first stage of labor. 
UTERINE CONTRACTION / * physiol 
LABOR STAGE, FIRST / * physiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
PREGNANCY (check tag) 
 
Effect of alcohol on homeostasis in the materno-fetal complex. 
ALCOHOL, ETHYL / * pharmacol 
HOMEOSTASIS / * drug eff 
MATERNAL-FETAL EXCHANGE / * drug eff 
FEMALE (check tag) 
HUMAN (or ANIMAL) (check tag) 
PREGNANCY (check tag) 
 

28.17.4	Not all pregnancy related articles require the check tag PREGNANCY. 
 
An article on maternal age without involving a woman actually pregnant need not  
be checked with the tag PREGNANCY. 
 
The incidence of Down syndrome in relation to the age of the mother. (there are  
no pregnant women in this statistical article) 
 
DOWN SYNDROME / * epidemiol 
*MATERNAL AGE 
INCIDENCE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
(not also PREGNANCY (check tag) 
 
The elderly primigravida. 
*MATERNAL AGE 35 AND OVER 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
PREGNANCY (check tag) 
 
PARITY can also be discussed without pregnant women actually figuring in the  
article. Like MATERNAL AGE articles, this type of PARITY article emphasizes  
statistical, social, economic and other correlates rather than physiological  
pregnancy. 
 
An article on TWINS, TRIPLETS, QUADRUPLETS, and QUINTUPLETS can also discuss  
these multiple offspring without reference to the pregnant mother. In fact all  
these terms are "people" headings assigned also to Category M. A twin pregnancy  
is indexed from the viewpoint of the mother as PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE (IM) with  
TWINS (NIM) as the qualifier. TWINS (IM) is presumed to refer to the twins  
themselves.  MeSH also has TWIN STUDIES and TWIN STUDY (PT) (see 17.79+) 
 
An article on LITTER SIZE may discuss only the litter without discussing the  
pregnant animal. Likewise embryologic studies where embryos are collected from  
experimental pregnant animals need not be indexed as PREGNANCY. 
 

28.18		BLOOD CIRCULATION. MeSH considers this as a physiologic concept. The   
subheading with an associated disease is therefore /physiopathol not /blood. 
 
Poor blood circulation in hypertension. 
HYPERTENSION / * physiopathol 
*BLOOD CIRCULATION 
 

28.18.1	BLOOD COAGULATION. This heading is considered to be a property of  
the blood. The corresponding subheading to be used with an associated disease is  
therefore /blood. 
 
Altered blood coagulation profiles in AIDS. 
AIDS / * blood 
*BLOOD COAGULATION 
 

28.18.2	HEMODYNAMICS. Treat as a physiologic concept comparable to BLOOD  
CIRCULATION. The corresponding disease subheading is /physiopathol. Use it IM  
for systemic hemodynamics and NIM for regional hemodynamics. 
 
Kidney hemodynamics in renal hypertension. 
HYPERTENSION, RENAL / * physiopathol 
KIDNEY / * blood supply 
HEMODYNAMICS 
 
Hemodynamics in renal hypertension. 
HYPERTENSION, RENAL / * physiopathol  
*HEMODYNAMICS 
 

28.19		DRUG TOLERANCE. Because of the various meanings of 'tolerance' this  
is often encountered in the literature meaning adverse effects of a drug. See  
the MeSH scope note and reserve this term for those instances where it means a  
decreased effectiveness over time. In those articles where someone can not  
tolerate a drug use the subheading /adv eff. It is IM only in general articles. 
 
Poor aspirin tolerance may lead to stomach ulcers. 
ASPIRIN / * adv eff 
STOMACH ULCER / * chem ind 
(not DRUG TOLERANCE) 
 
Prolonged use may decrease the effectiveness of morphine analgesia. 
MORPHINE / * pharmacol 
ANALGESICS, OPIOID / * pharmacol 
DRUG TOLERANCE 
 

28.19.1	DRUG RESISTANCE and its several indentions are also available. DRUG  
RESISTANCE refers to the ineffectiveness of a drug against an organism or  
disease. It is IM only in general articles and is NIM if the specific drug can  
be indexed. DRUG RESISTANCE, MICROBIAL applies only to bacteria, fungi, archaea,  
and viruses. 
 
Mechanisms of multi-drug resistance in ovarian neoplasms. 
OVARIAN NEOPLASMS / * drug ther 
*DRUG RESISTANCE, NEOPLASM 
 
Neomycin resistance genes in Streptomyces. 
NEOMYCIN / * pharmacol 
STREPTOMYCES / * drug eff  
STREPTOMYCES / * genet 
GENES, BACTERIAL 
DRUG RESISTANCE, MICROBIAL / genet 
 
Antimalarials effective against quinine resistant malaria. 
ANTIMALARIALS / * ther use 
ANTIMALARIALS . * pharmacol 
QUININE / * pharmacol 
MALARIA / * drug ther 
DRUG RESISTANCE 
(not DRUG RESISTANCE, MICROBIAL) 
 

28.20		BLOOD GROUPS. This heading is in G4, G9 and D24. When indexing a  
blood group be as specific as possible using either BLOOD GROUPS or one of the  
headings indented under it in the trees. When indexing a disease in association  
with BLOOD GROUPS the subheading on the disease is /blood. Do not flag blood  
group antigens for the chemist. 
 
RH antigens in a person with gout. 
GOUT / * blood 
*RH-Hr BLOOD-GROUP SYSTEM 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

28.21		IMMUNITY. Many headings are indented under IMMUNITY in G4. Generally  
these terms can be coordinated with /immunol on an associated disease, organism,  
or cell. 
 

28.21.1	IMMUNE TOLERANCE is the inability to respond to a given antigen. In  
the literature this may be referred to as 'immunosuppression'. Do not confuse  
this with the heading IMMUNOSUPPRESSION, which is an E category term and implies  
an active effort to suppress the immune system. MeSH also has IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE  
AGENTS and IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST. 
 
The role of CD4+ cells in the induction of immune tolerance. 
T4 LYMPHOCYTES / * immunol 
IMMUNE TOLERANCE / * physiol 
(or *IMMUNE TOLERANCE) 
 
Trypanosoma cruzi induced immune suppression. 
TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI / * immunol 
*IMMUNE TOLERANCE 
 
Immunosuppressive activity of bromocriptine. 
BROMOCRIPTINE / * pharmacol 
IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE AGENTS / * pharmacol 
 
Immune ablation of severe autoimmune disease. 
AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE / * ther 
*IMMUNOSUPPRESSION 
 
			TABLE OF CONTENTS 
 
28.36		Definition, scope 
28.36.1		Article selection 
28.36.2		Special list biotechnology 
28.36.3		Gene symbol 
28.36.4		MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA		 
28.36.4.1		BASE SEQUENCE 
28.36.4.2		AMINO ACID SEQUENCE 
28.36.4.3		CARBOHYDRATE SEQUENCE 
28.36.4.4		PUBLISHED ERRATUM 
28.36.5		Databank accession numbers 
28.36.6		Allowable subheadings 
28.36.7		Coordination 
28.36.8		Main heading GENETICS 	 
		Specialty headings 
28.37		GENE headings 
28.37.3		GENES, STRUCTURAL 
28.37.4		GENES, REGULATOR 
28.37.6		ONCOGENES and PROTO-ONCOGENES 
28.38		Confusing headings 
28.38.1		Biochemical genetics 
28.38.1.1		GENE EXPRESSION 
28.38.1.2		TRANSCRIPT 
28.38.1.3		DNA REPLICATION 
28.38.2		Transformation 
28.38.3		TRANSFECTION 
28.38.4		CELL TRANSFORMATION 
28.38.5		POPULATION GENETICS 
28.38.5.1		GENE FREQUENCY 
28.38.5.2		HYBRIDIZATION vs IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION 
28.38.5.3		CROSSES, GENETIC vs CROSSING OVER 
28.38.5.4		VARIATION vs POLYMORPHISM 
28.38.6		ALLELES 
28.38.6.1		Allelic losses 
28.38.7		IMMUNOGENETICS 
28.38.7.1		GENES, IMMUNOGLOBULIN 
28.39			MEDICAL GENETICS 
28.39.1		CHROMOSOMES 
28.39.1.1		KARYOTYPING 
28.39.1.2		CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN 
28.39.1.3		CHROMOSOME BANDING 
28.39.2		ABNORMALITIES 
28.39.2.1		ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE 
28.39.2.2		SYNDROMES 
28.39.2.5		ABNORMALITIES, DRUG-INDUCED 
28.39.2.6 		CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES 
28.39.2.6.1			SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES 
28.39.2.6.1.1			KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME 
28.39.2.6.1.2			TURNER'S SYNDROME 
28.39.3		CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
28.39.3.1		Nomenclature 
28.39.3.2		Numerical aberrations 
28.39.3.2.1		MONOSOMY vs CHROMOSOME DELETION 
28.39.3.2.1.1		Loss of Y chromosome 
28.39.3.2.1.2		Loss of heterozygosity  and Hyperdiploidy 
28.39.3.3		Structural aberrations 
28.39.4			GENE DELETION 
28.39.5			MUTATION 
28.39.6			MUTAGENESIS 
28.39.7			DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
28.39.8			MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
28.40		Biotechnology techniques 
28.40.1		MOLECULAR CLONING 
28.40.1.1		GENETIC VECTORS 
28.40.1.2		TRANSFECTION 
28.40.1.3		RECOMBINANT PROTEINS 
28.40.1.4		Restriction enzymes 
28.40.2		RESTRICTION MAPPING 
28.40.3		RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS 
28.40.4		DNA FINGERPRINTING 
28.40.5		Biochemical analysis 
			AUTORADIOGRAPHY 
			CENTRIFUGATION 
			ELECTROPHORESIS 
28.40.6		Gene sequencing 
28.40.6.1		SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY vs SEQUENCE  ALIGNMENT 
28.40.7		DNA, RNA analysis  
28.40.7.1		ELECTRON MICROSCOPY 
28.40.7.2		IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION 
28.40.7.3		MOLECULAR PROBE TECHNIQUES 
28.40.8		POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION 
28.40.9		PROTEIN ENGINEERING 
 

28.36			Category G5 is a collection of terms in the fields of genetics  
and molecular biology.  They represent the functional units of the genetic  
material, its characteristics, its activities in information transfer, the  
mechanisms by which it is controlled and the mechanisms by which it controls the  
development and maintenance of the cell, the individual, and the species.   
Category G5 includes specialties in the field of genetics such as MEDICAL  
GENETICS, POPULATION GENETICS and MICROBIAL GENETICS.  It also includes methods  
in biotechnology such as genetic recombination and molecular cloning.  Many  
additional genetic terms are available in MeSH as "see references" as well as  
many non-print entry terms from GenBank which are mapped to MeSH terms.  The  
MeSH coverage of genetic terms has attempted to keep pace with the developments  
in the field. 
 

28.36.1	Many of the journals indexed in Index Medicus in the fields of  
genetics and biotechnology are selectively indexed.  The specific criteria for  
selection of these articles are outlined in Technical Note D for genetics and  
Technical Note M for biotechnology.  Generally, articles in these fields which  
have application to human or vertebrate genetics and reflect the primary  
interest of Index Medicus, which is the improvement of health and the prevention  
of disease, are in scope.  Biotechnology articles which relate to the alteration  
of biologic function by changing genetic information, i.e. genetic engineering,  
are also in scope.  Generally articles on the improvement of agriculture,  
commercial production, waste and sewage treatment, or energy sources are not in  
scope and should not be selected.  Articles which are out of scope but contain  
molecular sequence data or Data Bank Accession numbers (See 28.36.4) or those  
written or supported by a PHS or NIH employee must be indexed.  If in doubt as  
to whether or not to include an article - include it. 
 

28.36.2	As part of the Index Section's cooperation with the National Center  
for Biotechnology Information a small list of journals which were not chosen for  
MEDLINE indexing will be indexed selectively for a complementary database called  
BIOTECHSEEK.  Since this database is not be part of MEDLINE, be more restrictive  
in choosing articles to go into it. 
 
1) Take all articles that are in scope according to Technical Note M  
(Biotechnology).  Do not take articles which would be in scope for MEDLINE, but  
are not within the limitations of Technical Note M.  For example, a metabolic  
study in rats did not meet TN M criteria and was therefore not selected. 
 
2) Take all articles containing molecular sequence data. 
 
3) Instrumentation articles may be taken if they are substantive, and meet  
Technical Note M criteria.  Do not take brief summaries of new instruments. 
 
4) Take editorials if substantive. 
 
5) Take substantive articles about biotechnology as a specialty (training,  
regulations, trends, etc.) 
 
6) Take articles with NIH support even if they do not meet Sequence Data or  
Technical Note M criteria. 
 
7) Do not take (news) from these journals. 
 
These journals are identified on the last line of the throughput sheet as  
Special List Biotechnology, and each one has an II note which says: 
 
"Special List Biotechnology.  Route to (Biotechnology Specialist) for selection  
prior to indexing or keyboarding." 
 
If you question the items selected, please flag them for the attention of your  
reviser, but do not add or delete any articles.   
 

28.36.3	Many articles, primarily in genetics, molecular biology,  
biochemistry and microbiology contain a "symbol" or abbreviation referring to a  
specific gene.  GENE SYMBOL became a new data element in 1991.  Indexers are  
responsible for entering gene symbols appearing in articles as part of the  
indexing process according to instructions in Section 40 of the Indexing Manual.   
Gene symbols are entered on a new panel programmed for AIMS.  The Gene Symbol  
panel will not routinely appear as part of the online indexing process; it may  
be accessed only from Panel 6, by typing GENE or GS (for Gene Symbol) in the  
command slot.  On the Gene symbol panel, one occurrence may be entered per line.   
There is no online validation, except for SGML code, which is described below.   
Function key F5 is used to return to Panel 6. 
 
If you enter an ampersand into the Gene Symbol field and follow it with data  
that is not one of the 49 standard SGML codes for Greek letters (a table listing  
these is provided in Chapter 40 of the Indexing Manual), an ERROR message will  
appear. 
 
+++ERROR+++ incorrect SGML code for Greek letter 
 
The SGML code to begin a superscripted or subscripted region must always be  
followed (after intervening data) by the SGML code to end the superscript.  If  
not, the appropriate ERROR message will appear: 
 
+++ERROR+++ SGML code to end superscript is incorrect 
+++ERROR+++ SGML code to begin superscript is incorrect 
+++ERROR+++ SGML code to end subscript is incorrect 
+++ERROR+++ SGML code to begin subscript is incorrect 
 
Gene Symbols encountered during manual indexing will be entered on the  
descriptor field of the data form (see Indexing Manual, Chapter 40).  This data  
will be entered into the online record during the editing/keyboarding process,  
and will later appear as an ERROR (DESCRIPTOR NOT FOUND) on Panel 6.   
(Keyboarding contractor staff should not make any entries on the Gene Symbol  
panel.)  Revisers will be responsible for deleting this data from Panel 6 and  
re-entering it on the Gene Symbol panel. 
 

28.36.4	Beginning with 1988 indexing, MEDLARS identifies articles containing  
graphic representation of amino acid sequence, base sequence or carbohydrate  
sequence. A special flag, the red sequence data flag, must be inserted in the  
article for the  GenBank specialists. Special indexing is accorded the indexing  
of molecular sequence data because of its importance for GenBank (a data bank of  
nucleic acid sequences and the GenInfo Backbone Database, to which the National  
Library of Medicine is contributing tapes containing citations indexed in Index  
Medicus.)  
 
The sequence need not be discussed; the mere presence of an illustration is  
reason enough for indexing.  These may appear in the body of the text, in the  
abstract, in the materials and   methods section or in a figure.  Three- 
dimensional drawings which show how a chromosome is folded will also be indexed  
if the individual units are labeled.  
 

28.36.4.1	There are four circumstances in which indexers must index MOLECULAR  
SEQUENCE DATA and insert the sequence data flag: 
 
1) When an article contains any base sequence of nine or more bases, the term  
BASE SEQUENCE must be indexed, MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA must be added, and the  
sequence data flag must be inserted.  The base sequence need not be  
substantively discussed; its mere presence requires the addition of the sequence  
terms and the sequence flag.  It may well be that the nucleic acid for which the  
sequence is given is not discussed sufficiently to index, but the sequence  
information must still be indexed. 
 
Base sequences are expressed as strings of 1-letter abbreviations in which each  
letter represents one of the bases. 
 
RNA is composed of A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), and U (uracil) 
 
DNA is composed of A (adenine), C (cytosine), G (guanine), and T (thymine) 
 
		ACCTTGTGTGACAGGTGC	a base sequence for DNA 
		UUAGACGUCGUACCAGGU	a base sequence for RNA 
 
Occasionally, authors will use other letters to indicate that the base in a  
given position has not been characterized completely (for instance, W signifies  
that either adenine or thymine could occupy the position); however, the 5  
letters given above are seen most frequently in base sequence. 
 
In addition to the words "base," "DNA," or "RNA," other words which may appear  
and indicate that a given sequence is a base sequence include "nucleotide,"  
"ribonucleotide," "deoxyribonucleotide," "purine," or "pyrimidine". 
 

28.36.4.2	2) When an article contains any amino acid sequence of three or more  
amino acids, the term AMINO ACID SEQUENCE must be indexed, MOLECULAR SEQUENCE  
DATA must be added and the SEQUENCE DATA flag must be inserted.  Again, the  
sequence need not be substantively discussed, and the peptide or protein  
containing the sequence may not be indexed, but the sequence information must be  
indexed. 
 
Amino acid sequences may be expressed in 2 ways, by strings of 3-letter or 1- 
letter abbreviations for the amino acid.  In most cases, if letters other  than  
A, C, G, T, or U appear in a sequence of 1-letter abbreviations, the string of  
letters referred to is an amino acid sequence but the indexer should check for  
words like "protein" or "peptide" to be certain. 
 
Amino Acid		Single-Letter		Three-Letter 
			Code				Code 
 
Alanine				A			Ala 
Arginine			R			Arg 
Asparagine			N			Asn 
Aspartic Acid			D			Asp 
Aspartic Acid or		B			Asx 
	Asparagine (not 
	distinguished) 
Cysteine			C			Cys 
Glutamic Acid			E			Glu 
Glutamine			Q			Gln 
Glutamic Acid or		Z			Glx 
Glutamine or 
	pyrrolidone-carboxylic 
	acid (not distinguished) 
Glycine				G			Gly 
Histidine			H			His 
Isoleucine			I			Ile 
Leucine				L			Leu 
Lysine				K			Lys 
Methionine			M			Met 
Phenylalanine			F			Phe 
Proline				P			Pro 
Serine				S			Ser 
Threonine			T			Thr 
Tryptophan			W			Trp 
Tyrosine			Y			Tyr 
Valine				V			Val 
 

28.36.4.3	3) When an article contains a carbohydrate sequence of two or more  
carbohydrates, the term CARBOHYDRATE SEQUENCE must be indexed, MOLECULAR  
SEQUENCE DATA must be added, and the SEQUENCE DATA flag must be inserted.   
Again, the sequence need not be discussed, and the specific carbohydrate may not  
be indexed, but the sequence information must be indexed. 
 
Carbohydrate sequence can appear in several formats: as strings of three-letter  
abbreviations for the carbohydrates, written out as the full chemical name, or  
appearing as the molecular structure representation. 
 
				Gal-Glc-Fuc 
 
		O-B-galactopyranosyl-(1-4)-0-B-glucopyranose 
 
 
leave space for small illustration 
 
Carbohydrate nomenclature can be confusing, and it may be difficult to determine  
if a chemical name refers to a sequence or not.  If the prefix ends in -osyl-,  
it refers to a carbohydrate and the resultant name is a sequence; if the prefix  
merely ends in -o-, it means that the sugar has a ring structure rather than  
being open-chain, and the resultant name is a single carbohydrate. 
 
	4-0- D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose 
a disaccharide (sequence) 
 
	-D-glucopyranose  
this merely refers to the 6-membered ring form of -D-glucose and is therefore  
not a sequence 
	 

28.36.4.4	4) All errata notices which contain molecular sequence information  
should be indexed and a sequence data flag, an erratum flag, and a QA flag  
inserted in order to link the correction to the original article.  These notices  
are indexed as regular articles, supplying the title, author (if given), author  
affiliation (if given), checktags and pagination. 
 
	The indexing includes: 
	PUBLISHED ERRATUM (PT)  (Delete JOURNAL ARTICLE (PT)) 
		MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA 
		BASE SEQUENCE, AMINO ACID SEQUENCE or 					 
					CARBOHYDRATE SEQUENCE 
		The specific gene or substance for which the sequence is given (IM) 
		The organism, if given 
 
In summary, index an article containing molecular sequence data as described  
above thus: 
 
-under all terms required in standard indexing (IM or NIM) 
-under MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA (NIM) 
-under the specific protein or nucleic acid or carbohydrate (IM or NIM) if  
discussed. 
-under AMINO ACID SEQUENCE for a display of three or more amino acids (NIM)  
				or 
-under BASE SEQUENCE for display of nine or more bases (nucleotides) (NIM) 
				or 
-under CARBOHYDRATE SEQUENCE for a display of 	two or more carbohydrate  
units (saccharides) (NIM) 
-Flag for specialist. 
 

28.36.5	Many articles containing molecular sequence data supply Databank  
Accession Numbers indicating databanks where the information is deposited. The  
indexing process includes the identification of molecular sequence databank  
abbreviations and numbers, and input of this data in MEDLINE.  There are eleven  
databanks registering molecular sequence data. 
 
 
	CSD			Carbohydrate Structure Database 
	DDBJ			DNA Data Bank of Japa 
 
 
	EMBL			EMBL Data Library 
	GDB			Genome Data Bank 
	GENBANK			GenBank Nucleic Acid Sequence Database 
	HGML			Human Gene Mapping Library 
	OMIM			Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man 
	PDB			Protein Data Bank  
	PIR			Protein Identification Resource 
	PRFSEQDB		Protein Research Foundation 
	SWISSPROT		Protein Sequence Database 
 
 
In the "DATABANK #" field on panel 5 of the online indexing system one of the  
eleven standard abbreviations, followed by an accession number must appear. It  
is the responsibility of the editing/keyboarding contractor to identify and  
enter all databank abbreviations and accession numbers. Nothing need be written  
on the data form by offline indexers except in Field 21 the heading MOLECULAR  
SEQUENCE DATA. (No field for Databank information is provided on the data form.)  
The editors will lightly mark all Databank abbreviations and accession numbers  
in pencil.  
 

28.36.5.1	If the article notes only that the sequence has been deposited  
within a Databank, without providing an accession number then enter only the  
Databank abbreviation. 
 
Databank information will be input to appear on Panel 5 of the online indexing  
system.  The field appears as: 
 
				DATABANK ACCESS #: 
				1) 
				2) 
				3) 
				4) 
 

28.36.5.2	Up to thirty occurrences may be entered; if more than thirty  
accession numbers are present in a single article, a plus sign (+) will be  
entered to indicate the presence of additional accession numbers.  To enter more  
than four occurrences of Databank Accession Numbers, use the 'F7/up' and  
'F8/down' function keys.  A maximum of 25 characters may be entered for each  
accession number, but most occurrences are about fifteen characters long. 
 
The Databank abbreviation must be followed by a slash ( / ) to separate it from  
the accession number. 
 

28.36.5.3	Sequence data for a single molecule may be deposited with more than  
one databank.  For example, if this data appears in the journal: 
 
				GENBANK/EMBL J03482 
then two occurrences will be entered on Panel 5: 
 
				1)GENBANK/J03482 
				2)EMBL/J03482 
 
The databank accession information may be published in the journal as a range of  
numbers: 
 
				GENBANK X56281 - X56296 
then each accession number must be entered as a separate occurrence: 
 
				1)GENBANK/X56281 
				2)GENBANK/X56282 
				3)GENBANK/X56283 
				4)GENBANK/X56284 
				etc. 
 

28.36.5.4	If the same accession numbers have been deposited with multiple  
databanks so that the total number of occurrences will exceed thirty, enter all  
unique accession numbers for GENBANK first, and then as many accession numbers  
as possible for the other databank(s).  (If GENBANK is not one of the "multiple"  
databanks, begin by entering all unique numbers for the first databank, then the  
second, etc.)  For example, if the article indicates that sequence data was  
deposited as: 
 
EMBL/GENBANK/DDBJ X17252 - X17263 
 
then first enter the twelve unique occurrences of GENBANK accession numbers,  
then the twelve unique occurrences of EMBL accession numbers, the first six  
unique occurrences of DDBJ accession numbers, and a "+" as the thirty-first  
occurrence. 
 

28.36.5.5	All articles containing Databank accession numbers must be selected  
for indexing even when appearing in a selectively indexed journal and judged out  
of scope according to selection criteria.  Most of the articles will contain a  
base or amino acid or carbohydrate sequence, but occasionally an accession  
number is given even though the article does not give a sequence. With one  
exception, all of these articles must be indexed with the heading MOLECULAR  
SEQUENCE DATA and flagged. The exception is for PDB (Protein Data Bank); the  
"sequence data" deposited for PDB is actually the x-ray crystallography  
coordinates for the protein.  If this is the case, and no other sequence data is  
published in the article, then do not add MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA. Instead, add  
X-RAY DIFFRACTION (NIM). 
 

28.36.6	The following subheadings are assigned to Category G5: 
 
	drug eff -	DE 
	genet -	GE 
	immunol -	IM 
	physiol -	PH 
	rad eff -	RE 
 

28.36.6.1	Although these subheadings are allowed with G5 headings, the indexer  
should check the allowed qualifier list for each heading and use judgement in  
applying subheadings to be certain that they make sense or are not redundant  
combinations such as GENES /genet or MUTATION /genet.  Other than /drug eff and  
/rad eff, subheadings should be used sparingly with G5 headings. 
 

28.36.6.2	Do not use /drug eff or /rad eff with the heading MUTATION to index  
drug or radiation induced mutations. Use  MUTATION without a subheading.  If a  
known mutagen is used to induce a mutation index the specific mutagen without a  
subheading.  If a drug is tested for mutagenicity use the subheading /tox with  
the drug and the heading MUTAGENS /tox. 
 

28.36.7	Indexing articles in genetic subject areas will probably require  
multiple main headings and subheadings to cover the various aspects discussed.    
Many of the headings in Category G5 should be coordinated with other Category G5  
headings;  Category G6 headings, BIOCHEMICAL PHENOMENA; Category A11 headings,  
CHROMOSOMES and indented terms, Category E5 headings, GENETIC TECHNIQUES;  
Category C16 headings, HEREDITARY DISEASES; and  Category D13 headings,  
NUCLEOSIDES and NUCLEOTIDES. Category G5 terms will also be coordinated with  
terms assigned the subheading /genet. 
 

28.36.7.1	The indexer must decide whether these coordinated headings are IM or  
NIM based on the general principle of indexing which states that headings which  
reflect the major content and purpose of the article are IM and those which  
qualify or limit a given concept or pinpoint the slant of the article are NIM.  
Further discussion of IM vs NIM headings follows in the discussion of individual  
headings. 
 

28.36.7.2	If coordinate headings are overlapping or a routine part of a  
procedure, the indexer must decide if these headings are significant to the  
article, add anything to searching, or are third tier and not necessarily  
indexed at all. 
 

28.36.8	The main heading GENETICS and precoordinated concepts, CYTOGENETICS;  
GENETICS, BIOCHEMICAL; GENETICS, BEHAVIORAL; GENETICS, MEDICAL; GENETICS,  
MICROBIOL; GENETICS, POPULATION; IMMUNOGENETICS; PHARMACOGENETICS and RADIATION  
GENETICS exist in MeSH, but their use is restricted to very general articles or  
articles on the specialty.  They are not to be used as coordinates when specific  
concepts are discussed. 
 
Recent advances in human molecular genetics. 
	GENETICS, BIOCHEMICAL / * trends 
 
Teaching genetics to medical students. 
	GENETICS / * educ 
	*EDUCATION, MEDICAL 
 
Sewall Wright's contribution to genetics. 
	GENETICS  / * hist 
 
The role of inheritance in behavior. 
	*HEREDITY 
	*BEHAVIOR 
not GENETICS, BEHAVIORAL which is a specialty heading only. 
 
Advances in medical genetics in the past 30 years. 
	GENETICS, MEDICAL / * hist 
 
M.R. Irwin, Pioneer in immunogenetics. 
	IMMUNOGENETICS / * hist 
 
Immunogenetics as a new promising direction in medical research. 
	IMMUNOGENETICS / * trends 
 
Genetic influences on nicotine responses. 
	*PHARMACOGENETICS 
	NICOTINE / * pharmacol 
 
The comparative radiation genetics of humans and mice. 
	*RADIATION GENETICS 
 
Induction of chromosome aberrations in Drosophila exposed to UV radiation. 
*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
DROSOPHILA / * rad eff / genet 
*ULTRAVIOLET RAYS 
and not RADIATION GENETICS 
 

28.36.8.1	GENETICS, MICROBIAL is for general articles or for articles not  
specifying the "microbes" or for articles on the specialty.  Use the subheading  
/genet with a specific microbial group:  VIRUSES /genet, BACTERIA /genet or a  
specific genus, SALMONELLA /genet or a specific species SALMONELLA TYPHI /genet  
for their genetic aspects. 
 
Quantifying the risks of invasion by genetically engineered organisms. 
	*GENETICS, MICROBIAL 
	*GENETIC ENGINEERING 
 
Analysis of the tsx gene in the outer membrane of Escherchia coli. 
		E COLI / * genet 
		*GENES, BACTERIAL 
Do not coordinate with the heading GENETICS, MICROBIAL. 
 

28.36.8.2	Authors frequently describe cytogenetic studies of chromosomes for  
the detection of chromosome aberrations:  The MeSH term CYTOGENETICS is a  
specialty heading and is not used for indexing these articles.  Index this  
concept under the specific technic used, if given, such as KARYOTYPING or  
CHROMOSOME BANDING or CHROMOSOME aberrations, or both. 
 
Cytogenetic studies of patients with bone tumors. 
	BONE NEOPLASMS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS  
 

28.37		The term GENES is in Category G5.  Its use is limited since it is  
subdivided into many specific gene headings.  Animal and plant source genes are  
available: GENES, BACTERIAL; GENES, VIRAL; GENES, FUNGAL; GENES, INSECT; GENES,  
HELMINTH; GENES, PROTOZOAN; GENES, PLANT. Functional genes are available: GENES,  
STRUCTURAL; GENES, REGULATOR; GENES, SUPPRESSOR; GENES, DOMINANT; GENES,  
RECESSIVE; and GENES, LETHAL.  Also available are GENES, IMMUNE RESPONSE;  
ONCOGENES; GENES, SYNTHETIC and PSEUDOGENES.  Many of these gene groups are  
further subdivided into genes which code for specific proteins such as GENES,  
ENV, a viral gene, and GENES, ABL, a proto-oncogene. 
 

28.37.1	If the specific gene heading is available, index under the heading  
and do not coordinate with a general term. 
 
Amino acids encoded downstream of gag are not required by Rous Sarcoma virus  
proteins during gag-mediated assembly. 
	*GENES, GAG 
	ROUS SARCOMA VIRUS / * genet 
	VIRAL PROTEINS / * biosyn 
do not add GENES, VIRAL or GENES, STRUCTURAL, VIRAL or DNA, VIRAL 
 

28.37.2	Despite this large array of gene headings the indexer must index  
genes not in MeSH.  Index these genes under the organism or plant source with  
the subheading /*genet, under the specific gene products with the subheading  
/*genet, the organism  or plant gene, IM, (if available) and the function group  
gene, if specified.  Do not add the general heading GENES or the specific DNA. 
 
Molecular cloning, sequencing and identification of a metalloprotease gene from  
Listeria monocytogenes. 
LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES / * genet / enzymol 
	METALLOPROTEINASES / * genet 
	*GENES, BACTERIAL 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
	do not add DNA, BACTERIAL 
 
The gene coding for glutamate dehydrogenase in Drosophila melanogaster. 
DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER / * genet / enzymol 
	GLUTAMATE DEHYDROGENASE / * genet 
	*GENES, INSECT 
 

28.37.3	MeSH provides the heading GENES, STRUCTURAL, which are genes that  
code for the proteins required by the cell for enzymatic or structural  
functions.  Most genes fall into this category.  Structural genes also include  
the genes coding for rRNA and tRNA. 
 
MeSH gives us specific structural genes: 
 
	GENES, STRUCTURAL, BACTERIAL 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, FUNGAL 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, INSECT 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, HELMINTH 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, NEOPLASM 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, PLANT 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, PROTOZOAN 
GENES, STRUCTURAL, VIRAL 
 

28.37.4	Also available is GENES, REGULATOR which are genes that code for  
regulator proteins that control transcription by binding to particular site(s)  
on DNA.  MeSH breaks this down further into specific regulator genes and  
REGULATORY SEQUENCES, NUCLEIC ACID.  
 

28.37.5	Index each concept as specifically as possible.  If an article  
discusses a specific gene indented in the trees under either GENES, STRUCTURAL  
or GENES, REGULATOR index it under the specific and do not add GENES, STRUCTURAL  
or GENES, REGULATOR.  Do not attempt to qualify every gene discussed as  
structural or regulatory. 
 
The structural gene for cytochrome C551 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. 
	CYTOCHROME C551 / * genet 
	*GENES, STRUCTURAL, BACTERIAL 
	PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA / * genet 
 
Nucleotide sequence of the structural genes for the mitochondrial cys, lys, glu  
and leu-tRNAS from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis K8. 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
	MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA 
	*GENES, STRUCTURAL, FUNGAL 
	KLUYVEROMYCES / * genet 
	RNA, TRANSFER, CYS / genet 
	RNA, TRANSFER, GLU / genet 
	RNA, TRANSFER, LEU / genet 
	RNA, TRANSFER, LYS / genet 
	RNA, TRANSFER / * genet 
	RNA, FUNGAL / * genet 
	*RNA, MITOCHONDRIAL 
 
A gene that encodes for a leukemia-associated phosphoprotein (p 18) maps to  
chromosome band 1p35-36.1. 
	CHROMOSOME MAPPING 
	PHOSPHOPROTEINS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 1 
	NEOPLASM PROTEINS / * genet 
	LEUKEMIA / * genet 
 
Retinoblastoma gene in human esophageal cancer. 
	*GENES, RETINOBLASTOMA 
	ESOPHAGEAL NEOPLASMS / * genet 
 
H-ras proto-oncogene mutations in human thyroid neoplasm. 
	*MUTATION  
	*GENES, RAS 
	THYROID NEOPLASMS / * genet 
Do not add GENES, STRUCTURAL, NEOPLASM unless the article specifically states  
that the gene is  structural gene.  The function of most proto-oncogenes is  
unknown. 
 

28.37.6	Strictly speaking, proto-oncogenes are cellular and oncogenes are  
viral. However, all authors do not adhere to this terminology and often use just  
the term oncogenes when referring to either (as well as both). MeSH defines  
ONCOGENES to encompass both concepts and indents PROTO-ONCOGENES under it and  
the specific gene headings under PROTO-ONCOGENES.  These genes encompass both  
cellular and viral forms of the genes. 
 
				GENES 
					ONCOGENES 
						PROTO-ONCOGENES 
							GENES, ABL 
							GENES, FOS 
							GENES, RAS   etc. 
 
The headings for the protein products of these genes have been split into their  
cellular (c-onc) and viral (v-onc) counterparts.  The cellular products are  
treed under PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and the viral products under ONCOGENE  
PRODUCTS. 
 
				PROTEINS 
					ONCOGENE PROTEINS 
					PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS 
 

28.38		Because of the rapid progress in molecular biology and genetics over  
the past ten years an explosion of vocabulary has occurred. Different terms have  
been introduced to describe similar concepts, and authors use the terms  
interchangeably.  This can create problems for the indexer who must select the  
appropriate MeSH heading for the concept discussed. 
 

28.38.1	Nucleic acid biochemistry (BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS) is one of the most  
actively studied areas in all biology.  It encompasses a series of events in  
which many mechanisms and factors are involved.  MeSH provides many headings to  
cover this subject. Problems in selecting IM headings can be avoided if the Mesh  
trees are kept in mind. 
 

28.38.1.1	Under the broadest term, GENETICS, BIOCHEMICAL (which is reserved  
for articles on the specialty) are indented the terms DNA REPLICATION and GENE  
EXPRESSION, which is the transfer of genetic information from sequences of  
nucleic acid (genes) to expression in the form of proteins, a process which  
includes TRANSCRIPTION and TRANSLATION.  (See discussion of GENE EXPRESSION in  
relation to MOLECULAR CLONING 28.40.1.3)   
 

28.38.1.1.1	GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, GENE AMPLIFICATION, TRANSCRIPTION,  
GENETIC and TRANSLATION, GENETIC are all indented under GENE EXPRESSION.  These  
headings, and the more specific terms indented under them in the trees are  
usually IM, if the point of the article.  
 
Characterization of the origin of DNA replication of the Coxiella burnetii  
chromosome. 
	*DNA REPLICATION 
	COXIELLA BURNETII / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOMES, BACTERIAL 
	*DNA, BACTERIAL 
 
Cell growth related gene expression in type 2 alveolar epithelial cells. 
	EPITHELIUM / cytol  / metab 
	CELL DIVISION / * genet 
	*GENE EXPRESSION 
	PULMONARY ALVEOLI / cytol / * metab 
 
The novel mechanism of picornavirus RNA translation. 
PICORNAVIRIDAE / * genet 
*TRANSLATION, GENETIC 
RNA, MESSENGER / * genet 
RNA, VIRAL / * genet 
 
The effects of extracellular matrix on hepatocyte gene expression. 
	EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX / * physiol 
	*GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION 
	LIVER / * metab 
 
Gene amplification and drug resistance. 
	*GENE AMPLIFICATION 
	DRUG RESISTANCE / * genet 
 
Sex hormones act as tumor promotors by modulating oncogene expression. 
*GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, NEOPLASTIC 
	SEX HORMONES / * physiol 
	*ONCOGENES 
	TUMOR PROMOTORS 
 
Signal transduction in bacteria: kinases that control gene expression. 
*GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, BACTERIAL 
	*SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION 
	BACTERIAL PROTEINS / * biosyn 
	PROTEIN KINASES  / * physiol  
 
28.38.1.1.2 Add the heading TRANSCRIPTION or TRANSLATION NIM when indexing GENE  
EXPRESSION REGULATION if specified in the article. 
 
Sequencing, mutational analysis, and transcriptional regulation of the  
Escherichia coli heat shock protein gene. 
	E COLI / * genet 
	BACTERIAL PROTEINS / * genet 
	*GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, BACTERIAL 
	HEAT SHOCK PROTEINS / * genet 
	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
	TRANSCRIPTION 
 
Control of ompB transcription in Escherichia coli by cyclic AMP. 
	E COLI / * genet 
BACTERIAL OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEINS / * genet 
*GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, BACTERIAL 
	CYCLIC AMP / * physiol 
	TRANSCRIPTION 
 

28.38.1.1.3	Gene expression regulation occurs both at the level of transcription  
and after.  The heading PROTEIN PROCESSING, POST-TRANSLATIONAL is indented under  
GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION. 
 
Post-translational processing of glycoprotein G of human respiratory syncytial  
virus: altered O-glycosylation. 
	RSV G PROTEINS / genet / * metab 
RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES / genet / * metab 
	*PROTEIN PROC POST 
	GLYCOSYLATION 
	do not add GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION 
 

28.38.1.1.4	If the article discusses the expression of a specific gene, GENE  
EXPRESSION, which is the broadest concept, is indexed NIM, and the more specific  
concepts are indexed IM. 
 
Expression of prolactin gene in incubating hens. 
	PROLACTIN / * genet / biosyn 
	CHICKENS / * genet 
	GENE EXPRESSION 
 
Restricted expression of cardiac myosin light chain gene in muscular dystrophy. 
	MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY / * genet / metab 
	MYOSIN / * genet / biosyn 
	GENE EXPRESSION 
 
Actin gene expression in murine erythroleukemia cells treated with cytochalasin  
D. 
	ACTIN / * genet / biosyn 
	ERYTHROLEUKEMIA / * genet 
	CYTOCHALASIN D / * pharmacol 
	GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, NEOPLASTIC / * drug eff 
	TUMOR CELLS, CULTURED 
  

28.38.1.2	The term "transcript" refers to messenger RNA.  It is measured for  
different reasons in these studies. It is measured in cells directly, or  
extracted from cells and translated in the presence of labeled nucleic acids by  
cell-free protein synthesis systems 1) as a marker for the production of  
proteins by a cell or 2) to study the expression, organization, or regulation of  
genes. 
 

28.38.1.2.1	If in the studies the slant of the article is metabolic, and the  
specific protein synthesized is the point of the article, the protein is indexed  
IM and RNA, MESSENGER, NIM.  The subheading with the protein is / *biosyn; with  
MRNA, /genet; and /metab with the disease, organism, or cell. The author may use  
the term "transcript" or messenger RNA in the title. Do not add TRANSCRIPTION,  
GENETIC when indexing these articles. 
 
TGF beta transcripts in normal and neoplastic liver cells. 
	RNA, MESSENGER / genet 
	RNA, NEOPLASMS / genet 
	TGF-BETA / * biosyn / genet 
	LIVER / * metab 
	LIVER NEOPLASMS / * metab 
	TUMOR CELLS, CULTURED 
 
Oestrogen receptor mRNA and a related transcript in mouse ovaries. 
	OVARY / * metab 
	RECEPTORS, ESTROGEN / * biosyn / genet 
	RNA, MESSENGER / genet 
 

28.38.1.2.2	If the slant of the article is genetic, the IM subheading with the  
protein, MRNA, disease, and organism is /*genet.  The subheading with the  
specific cell if discussed is /metab. Add the heading TRANSCRIPTION, GENETIC,  
NIM, if discussed. Consider the journal title, author affiliation, etc. in  
deciding the slant of the article and the choice between the subheading / biosyn  
or / genet when indexing these articles. 
	 
Viral transcripts in cells infected with interfering particles of equine  
herpesvirus type 1. 
	DEFECTIVE VIRUSES / * genet 
	EQUINE HERPESVIRUS / * genet 
	RNA, VIRAL / * genet 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * genet 
 
The murine complement receptor gene family.  Alternative splicing of Cr2 gene  
transcripts predicts two distinct gene products that share homologous domains  
with both CR2 and CR1. 
	RECEPTORS, COMPLEMENT / *genet / biosyn 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * genet 
	SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY, NUCLEIC ACID 
	ALTERNATIVE SPLICING 
	GENES, REITERATED 
	TRANSCRIPTION, GENETIC 
 
Complete genomic sequence of the murine low affinity Fc receptor for IGE.   
Demonstration of alternative transcripts and conserved sequence elements. 
	IGE FC RECEPTOR / * genet 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * genet 
	CONSERVED SEQUENCE 
	TRANSCRIPTION, GENETIC 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
 
Genetic cause of a juvenile form of Sandhoff disease. Abnormal splicing of beta- 
hexosaminidase beta chain gene transcripts due to a point mutation within intron  
12. 
	BETA-N-ACETYLHEXOSAMINIDASE / * genet 
	*POINT MUTATION 
	*RNA SPLICING 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * genet 
	INTRONS 
	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
	SANDHOFF DISEASE / * genet 
 

28.38.1.3	The indexer must frequently choose between indexing an article under  
DNA / biosyn and DNA REPLICATION, concepts which authors use interchangeably.   
Functions that assemble new DNA chains are collectively referred to as DNA  
synthesis.  Studies of synthesis focus on enzymes and accessory factors at the  
point of chain growth. 
 
Effects of cadmium on DNA synthesis and lymphokine production by human  
peripheral blood lymphocytes. 
	CADMIUM / * pharmacol 
	DNA/ * biosyn 
	LYMPHOCYTES / drug eff  / * metab 
	LYMPHOKINES / * biosyn 
 
The effects of human milk on DNA synthesis of neonatal rat hepatocytes in  
primary culture. 
	DNA / * biosyn 
	*MILK, HUMAN 
	LIVER / * metab  
	ANIMALS, NEWBORN 
 

28.38.1.3.1	DNA REPLICATION is a more comprehensive term that encompasses not  
only DNA chain synthesis but also its initiation and termination.  Studies of  
replication, therefore, tend to be concerned with how DNA synthesis starts and  
stops in such a way that exactly identical copies of the cellular DNA are  
distributed to every daughter cell. 
 
Nuclear gadgets in mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription. 
	*DNA REPLICATION 
	*TRANSCRIPTION, GENETIC 
	DNA, MITOCHONDRIAL / * biosyn 
	 
Identification of a plasmid coded protein required for initiation of ColE2 DNA  
replication. 
	*DNA REPLICATION 
	DNA, BACTERIAL / * biosyn 
	E COLI / * genet 
	BACTERIAL PROTEINS / * genet 
	COL FACTORS 
 
Hypothesis on the significance of RNA-directed DNA synthesis for evolution. 
	*DNA REPLICATION 
	*EVOLUTION 
	RNA / * genet 
 
On the mechanism of induction of DNA synthesis in cultured arterial smooth  
muscle cells by leukotrienes. 
	DNA REPLICATION / * drug eff 
	MUSCLE, SMOOTH, VASCULAR / * metab 
	LEUKOTRIENES / * pharmacol 
	CELLS, CULTURED 
 

28.38.1.3.2	Authors frequently write their articles and titles in terms of the  
methods used to study a physiological phenomenon.  Radioisotope labeled  
precursors of macromolecules are used to study biochemical events in cells.   
Incorporated radioactive atoms can be detected by autoradiography.  Amino acids  
and nucleotides are labeled with tritium (3H) or carbon 14 (14C). Thymidine  
incorporation in the nucleus of cells is a measurement of DNA synthesis and cell  
proliferation, as is labeled uridine incorporation into RNA.  Indexers should  
recognize this technique and index the technique NIM, if at all, and the  
physiologic process, cell division, also NIM. 
 
Autoradiographic studies of cell proliferation in the brain of rodents using  
tritiated thymidine. 
	BRAIN / * cytol 
	CELL DIVISION 
	AUTORADIOGRAPHY 
	TRITIUM / diag use 
	DNA / biosyn 
	THYMIDINE / metab 
 
Uptake of tritiated thymidine and incorporation into DNA by cells of the rat  
gastric mucosa after exposure to cimetidine. 
	DNA / biosyn 
	TRITIUM / diag use 
	GASTRIC MUCOSA / metab / * drug eff / * cytol 
	CIMETIDINE / * pharmacol 
	CELL DIVISION / drug eff 
	THYMIDINE / metab 
 

28.38.1.3.3	The article, however, may be on the specific technique, in which  
case elements of the technique may be indexed IM. 
 
Questions about the use of 3H thymidine incorporation as a reliable method to  
estimate proliferation rate. 
		*CELL DIVISI0N 
		DNA / * biosyn 
		THYMIDINE / * metab 
		TRITIUM / diag use 
 
Effect of mitotane on the in vitro incorporation of 3H thymidine into DNA:   
evidence for induced cell proliferation in the mouse lung. 
	CELL DIVISION / * drug eff 
	DNA / * biosyn 
	LUNG / * cytol / metab 
	MITOTANE / * pharmacol 
	THYMIDINE / * metab 
	TRITIUM / diag use 
 
Other terms used to describe cell proliferation are "cell kinetics" and  
"mitogenic activity." 
 
Cell kinetic investigations in invasive breast carcinoma. 
	BREAST NEOPLASMS / * pathol 
	CELL DIVISION 
 
Mitogenic activity of selenoorganic compounds in human peripheral blood  
leukocytes. 
	LEUKOCYTES / * drug eff / * cytol 
	CELL DIVISION /  drug eff  
	ORGANOSELENIUM COMPOUNDS / * pharmacol 
	MITOGENS / *pharmacol 
 

28.38.2	The term "transformation" has two different meanings in cell  
biology.  Originally it described the process by which foreign DNA is  
incorporated and foreign genes are then expressed in bacteria. (See 28.38.4 for  
current use of the term.) The MeSH term TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC, a Category G  
term, is a group term under which are indented TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL and  
TRANSFECTION. TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL is the genetic modification of the  
properties of a bacterium by DNA from another bacterium.  It is indexed IM if  
the point of the article.  The organism which becomes transformed is indexed IM  
with the subheading /genetics. 
 
Transformation of Mycobacterium smegmatis with Escherichia coli plasmids  
carrying a selectable resistance marker. 
	E COLI / * genet 
	MYCOBACTERIUM / * genet 
	R FACTORS / * genet 
	*TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL 
	DRUG RESISTANCE, MICROBIAL / genet 
 
Molecular characterizarion of the integration of the lactose plasmid from  
Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 into the chromosome of Lactococcus  
lactis subsp. lactis. 
	CHROMOSOMES, BACTERIAL 
	*TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL 
	LACTOCOCCUS LACTIS / * genet 
	LACTOSE FACTORS/ * genet 
 

28.38.3	The term TRANSFECTION now refers to the introduction of foreign DNA  
into eukaryotic cells. However, most authors use the term "transformation," for  
the integration and expression of new DNA by protozoa, fungi, lower animals and  
plants. Index these articles under TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC. TRANSFECTION is used  
for the mechanism of gene transfer, whether naturally occurring or  
experimentally performed.  Confusion arises for the indexer in deciding whether  
the mechanism (TRANSFECTION) or the resulting change (TRANSFORMATION) is the  
correct term in these articles. If in doubt index these articles using the  
terminology of the author. 
 
Transformation of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis with broad  
host-range gram negative vectors. 
	MYCOBACTERIUM / * genet 
	*TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL 
	*GENETIC VECTORS 
 
Efficient transformation of cam2, a behavioral mutant of Paramecium tetraurella,  
with the calmodulin gene. 
	CALMODULIN / * genet 
	PARAMECIUM TETRAURELLA / * genet 
	*TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC 
	MUTATION 
 
Competent Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can be frozen and used for  
transformation with high frequency. 
	SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE / * genet 
	*TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC 
	*CRYOPRESERVATION 
 
Potentials of woody plant transformation. 
	PLANTS / * genet 
	*TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC 
 

28.38.3.1	The Category E5 term for the procedure of introducing genes into  
cells and organisms by a variety of techniques is GENE TRANSFER.  TRANSFECTION,  
which is the procedure of introducing exogenous DNA into eukaryotic cells, is  
indented under GENE TRANSFER. Yeast cells almost always incorporate DNA at the  
chromosomal site homologous to the introduced segment. Specific genes can be  
replaced by mutants to test function. Mammalian cells integrate newly introduced  
DNA more often in non-specific sites. 
 
Human dystrophin gene transfer:  production and expression of a functional  
recombinant DNA-based gene. 
	DYSTROPHIN / * genet / biosyn 
	*TRANSFECTION 
	RECOMBINANT PROTEINS / biosyn 
 

28.38.3.2	Electroporation is a method of introducing DNA into cells. The cells  
are exposed to a brief electric shock of several thousand volts which opens  
holes in the plasma membrane for the DNA to enter. Some authors use the term  
TRANSFECTION, some, TRANSFORMATION for the resulting change in cells. 
 
RNA transfection of E coli by electroporation. 
	E COLI / * genet 
	TRANSFECTION 
	*ELECTROPORATION 
	*RNA 
 
High efficiency transformation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe by electroporation. 
	SCHIZOSACCHAROMYCES / * genet 
	*TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC 
	*ELECTROPORATION 
 
DNA can be injected directly into the nuclei of vertebrate cells.  Frog oocytes  
are popular because they have large nuclei.  Use the term of the author. 
 

28.38.3.3	Foreign DNA can be introduced into the germ line of animals to  
produce transgenic strains.  The injected eggs are transferred to foster mothers  
and some of the progeny will contain the foreign DNA.  Immediate breeding can  
produce pure transgenic strains homozygous for the newly introduced gene. MeSH  
headings include ANIMALS, TRANSGENIC; MICE, TRANSGENIC; and PLANTS, TRANSGENIC. 
 

28.38.3.4	When indexing TRANSFECTION, the gene transferred, its source, and  
the term TRANSFECTION are indexed IM, if the point of the article. The recipient  
cell is NIM if just used for expressing genes. 
 
Selective expression of mRNA encoding platelet-derived growth factor B chain  
following transfection of foreign genes into cell lines derived from baby  
hamster cells. 
	PLATELET DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR / * genet / biosyn 
	CELL LINE 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * genet 
	*TRANSFECTION 
	HAMSTERS 
	TRANSCRIPTION, GENETIC 
 
Transfection of a human alpha-(1,3) fucosyltransferase gene into Chinese hamster  
ovary cells. 
	ALPHA(1-3)-FUCOSYLTRANSFERASE / * genet 
	CHO CELLS 
	HUMAN 
	*TRANSFECTION 
 
Transfection of a rat cytochrome P450 cDNA into C3H mouse embryo fibroblasts. 
	CYTOCHROME P-450 / * genet 
	MICE, INBRED C3H  
	*TRANSFECTION 
	RATS / * genet 
	FIBROBLASTS 
	CDNA 
 
Targeted delivery and expression of foreign genes in hepatocytes. 
	LIVER / * metab 
	*TRANSFECTION 
	*GENE EXPRESSION 
 

28.38.4	The more current use of the term "transformation" is for describing  
the process by which normal restraints on growth in vivo of animal cells are  
abolished, so that the cells no longer die after a limited number of divisions.   
The majority of transformed cells do not carry out completely normally  
differentiated cell functions. 
 
	MeSH headings to cover this concept are: 
	CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC 
	CELL TRANSFORMATI0N, VIRAL 
	CELL LINE, TRANSFORMED 
 
Comprehensive lectin histochemistry of normal and neoplastic choroid plexus  
cells: alteration of lectin-binding patterns through neoplastic transformation. 
	*CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC 
	CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS / * metab 
	CHOROID PLEXUS / * metab 
	LECTINS / * metab 
 
Harvey murine sarcoma virus:  influences of coding and non-coding sequences on  
cell transformation. 
	*CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL 
	HARVEY SARCOMA VIRUS / * genet 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
	*RNA, VIRAL 
 
Since cells can become transformed through transfection, as well as other means  
(mutagenesis), coordinate with TRANSFECTION if the technique is discussed. 
 
Detection of transforming genes by transfection of DNA from primary soft-tissue  
tumors. 
	CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC / *genet 
	SOFT TISSUE NEOPLASMS / * genet 
	*DNA, NEOPLASM 
	*ONCOGENES 
	TRANSFECTION 
 
Suppression of the transformed phenotype of BHK cells by a human cDNA. 
	CELL LINE, TRANSFORMED 
	*SUPPRESSION, GENETIC 
	MESOCRICETUS 
	CDNA 
 
Characterization of human thyroid epithelial cells immortalized in vitro by  
Simian virus 40 DNA transfection. 
	*CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL 
	THYROID GLAND / * cytol 
	*DNA, VIRAL 
	HUMAN 
	SV40 VIRUS / * genet 
	CELL LINE, TRANSFORMED 
	TRANSFECTION 
 
Induction of urokinase activity and malignant phenotype in bladder cells after  
transfection of the activated Ha-ras oncogene. 
	BLADDER / * enzymol / pathol 
	*GENES, RAS 
	UROKINASE / * biosyn 
	*CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC 
	ENZYME INDUCTION 
	TRANSFECTION 
 

28.38.5	The indexer may find it difficult to select IM versus NIM headings  
in the field of population genetics.  The MeSH heading GENETICS, POPULATION is  
the general term under which are indented several terms discussed below. 
 

28.38.5.1	GENE FREQUENCY is indexed IM if the point of the article,  
coordinated with a specific gene IM, the disease, and a geographic heading, or a  
racial stock heading.  
 
High frequency of Gaucher disease mutation at nucleotide 1226 among Ashkenazi  
Jews. 
	JEWS / * genet 
	GAUCHER'S DISEASE / * genet / ethnol 
	*GENE FREQUENCY 
	MUTATION 
 
Frequency of the alpha thalassemia gene in the Cuban population. 
	CUBA 
	*GENE FREQUENCY 
	ALPHA-THALASSEMIA / * genet / ethnol 
 

28.38.5.2	HYBRIDIZATION, also indented under GENETICS, POPULATION, is not to  
be confused with the technique IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION, or DNA hybridization which  
is indexed  NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION, or the term HYBRID CELLS.  Hybrid  
proteins are indexed RECOMBINANT PROTEINS or CHIMERIC PROTEINS, depending on how  
they are produced. 
 
The gradual progression to fertility in hybrids of the horse and donkey. 
	HORSES / * genet / physiol 
	PERISSODACTYLA / * genet / physiol 
	HYBRIDIZATION / * physiol 
	FERTILITY / * genet 
 
Gene expression and parental dominance in hybrid plants. 
	*HYBRIDIZATION 
	*GENE EXPRESSION 
	PLANTS / * genet 
	*GENES, DOMINANT 
 
Purification of hybrid plasminogen activator proteins. 
	ALTEPLASE / * genet / isol 
	RECOMBINANT PROTEINS / isol 
 
Reverse DNA hybridization method for the rapid identification of sublingual  
microorganisms. 
	BACTERIA / genet / * isol 
	MOUTH / * microbiol 
	NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION 
	*DNA, BACTERIAL 
	BACTERIAL TYPING TECHNIQUES 
 
In situ hybridization studies of stromelysin and collagenase messenger RNA  
expression in rheumatoid synovium. 
	RNA, MESSENGER / biosyn 
	STROMELYSIN / * biosyn 
	ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID / * enzymol 
	SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE / * enzymol 
	IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION   
	COLLAGENASES / * biosyn 
 
Intracellular calcium pools in neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid NG108-15 cells. 
	CALCIUM / * metab 
	HYBRID CELLS 
	NEUROBLASTOMA 
	GLIOMA 
	TUMOR CELLS, CULTURED 
	NEURONS / * metab 
 
Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation by sheep x goat hybrid trophoblasts. 
	*HYBRIDIZATION 
	*LYMPHOCYTE TRANSFORMATION 
	TROPHOBLAST / * immunol 
	SHEEP / * immunol 
	GOATS / * immunol 
 

28.38.5.3	MeSH also provides the Category E term CROSSES, GENETIC, which is  
the breeding of two varieties of the same species, and is more specific than  
HYBRIDIZATION.  Distinguish between CROSSES, GENETIC and CROSSING OVER, which is  
the interchange of genes between homologous chromosomes. 
 
Analysis of genetic cross between Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T.b.  
brucei. 
	*CROSSES, GENETIC 
	TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI BRUCEI / * genet 
	TRYPANOSOMA BRUCEI RHODESIENSE / * genet 
 
Heterosis and recombination effects in Hampshire and Landrace swine. Performance  
and carcass traits. 
	*CROSSES, GENETIC 
	SWINE / * genet / anat / physiol 
	HYBRID VIGOR 
	BODY COMPOSITION 
 
Further studies on the interchromosomal effect of crossing over in Drosophila  
melanogaster affecting the preconditions of exchange. 
	*CROSSING OVER 
	DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER / * genet 
 
Crossing over and chromosomal 21 nondisjunction. 
	*CROSSING OVER 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 21 / * genet 
	*NONDISJUNCTION, GENETIC 
 

28.38.5.4	MeSH distinguishes between VARIATION (phenotypic differences usually  
caused by mutations) and POLYMORPHISM (genotypic differences which occur  
regularly in the same population in frequencies which cannot be accounted for by  
recurrent mutations).  These terms are used loosely by authors.  If in doubt,  
index the concept in the language of the author.  These headings are usually IM  
if the point of the article. 
 
Genetic variation and nutrition. 
	*VARIATION 
	*NUTRITION 
 
Molecular and phenotypic variation in the achaete scute region of Drosophila  
melanogaster. 
	DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER / * genet 
	*VARIATION 
	GENOTYPE 
 
The analysis of population survey data on DNA sequence   variation. 
	*BASE SEQUENCE 
	DNA / * chem 
	*VARIATION 
 
Two tests of Y chromosomal variation in male fertility of Drosophila  
melanogaster. 
	*Y CHROMOSOME 
	*VARIATION 
	FERTILITY / genet 
	DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER / * genet 
 
Genetic polymorphism of drug metabolism in humans. 
	*POLYMORPHISM 
	DRUGS / * metab 
 
Polymorphism of the class II gene of the rat histocompatibility complex. 
	RATS / * genet 
	*GENES, MHC CLASS II 
	*POLYMORPHISM 
 
Insulin receptor gene polymorphisms in type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes  
mellitus. 
	RECEPTORS, INSULIN / * genet 
	*POLYMORPHISM 
	NIDDM / *genet 
 
Levels of naturally occurring DNA polymorphism correlate with recombination  
rates in D. melanogaster. 
	DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER / * genet 
	*POLYMORPHISM 
	*RECOMBINATION, GENETIC 
 

28.38.6	ALLELES are mutually exclusive forms (variants) of the same gene.   
Any site on a chromosome at which multiple alleles exist is by definition  
polymorphic. 
 
Allelic variants of acidic proline-rich proteins observed in Japanese. 
	*ALLELES 
	PROLINE-RICH PROTEINS / * genet 
	JAPAN 
	do not add VARIATION 
 
Alpha 1-antitrypsin W bethesda.  Molecular basis for an unusual alpha 1- 
antitrypsin variant. 
	ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN / *genet 
	*ALLELES 
 
Polymorphism of alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein: four new alleles and allelic  
frequencies in Japanese. 
	ALPHA2HS GLYCOPROTEIN / *genet 
	*ALLELES 
	*GENE FREQUENCY 
	JAPAN 
	do not add POLYMORPHISM 
 
Structural and evolutionary comparisons of four alleles of the mouse  
immunoglobulin kappa chain gene, Igk-VSer. 
	*ALLELES 
	*EVOLUTION 
	*GENES, IMMUNOGLOBULIN 
	IMMUNOGLOBULINS, KAPPA-CHAIN / * genet 
 

28.38.6.1	Allelic losses, or allele deletion, is indexed CHROMOSOME DELETION. 
 
Allelic losses in malignant melanoma. 
	MELANOMA / * genet 
	SKIN NEOPLASMS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
 
Loss of Ha-ras alleles in DNA from gastric carcinoma tissue in Chinese  
individuals. 
	*GENES, RAS 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	STOMACH NEOPLASMS / * genet 
 

28.38.6.2	Allele frequency is indexed under ALLELES and GENE FREQUENCY IM if  
the point of the article. 
 
Complement C2, C3, C4 and factor B allele distribution in the Gypsy population  
in Hungary. 
	*GENE FREQUENCY 
	HUNGARY 
	COMPLEMENT / * genet 
	PROPERDIN FACTOR B / * genet 
	*ALLELES 
	GYPSIES / * genet 
 
Inclusion of data on relatives for estimation of allele frequencies. 
	*GENE FREQUENCY 
	*ALLELES 
	*FAMILY 
 

28.38.7	The term IMMUNOGENETICS is in MeSH and is reserved for articles on  
the specialty or for very general articles.  Most of the indented headings are  
indexed IM if the point of the article. 
 

28.38.7.1	The term GENES, IMMUNOGLOBULIN is used for general articles and as a  
coordinate for specific immunoglobulins with the subheading / genet. 
 
Identification of a matrix associated region of an immunoglobulin heavy chain  
variable region gene. 
	*GENES, IMMUNOGLOBULIN 
	IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION / * genet 
	IMMUNOGLOBULINS, HEAVY CHAIN / * genet 
 
Characterization of the human Ig V lambda II gene family and analysis of V  
lambda II and C lambda polymorphism in systemic lupus erythematosis. 
	IMMUNOGLOBULINS, LAMBDA CHAIN / * genet 
	IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGION / * genet 
	IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION / * genet 
	*GENES, IMMUNOGLOBULIN 
	LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSIS, SYSTEMIC / * genet 
	RFLP 
	GENES, REITERATED 
 

28.39		The field of Medical Genetics is growing rapidly because of the  
advances in genetic technology. Indexing articles correctly in this field  
requires some basic information about MeSH headings and karyotype nomenclature. 
 

28.39.1	The CHROMOSOME, a rod shaped organelle visible in the nuclei of  
dividing cells, is formed by condensed CHROMATIN, composed of nucleoprotein  
fibers (DNA and HISTONES) coiled into two spiral filaments, sister (CHROMATIDS)  
separated along their lengths except at one point of attachment, the CENTROMERE,  
which divides the chromosome into two segments or arms. The ends of the  
chromosome are called TELOMERES. In humans the short arm of a chromosome is  
designated by the letter "p" (for petite) in lower case and the long arm by "q."   
Each chromosome has a characteristic length, shape and position of the  
centromere.  Each chromatid is thought to be one molecule of double-stranded  
DNA. 
 
In Category A11 under the general heading CHROMOSOMES, MeSH provides the heading  
CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, which is for general articles only, and not to be used as a  
coordinate with pre-coordinated chromosome terms such as CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS  
or CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES. 
 
Compositional properties of  telomeric regions from human chromosomes. 
	CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN / * chem 
	TELOMERE / *chem 
 
Increased frequency of chromosomal aberrations in railroad car painters. 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	*OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE 
	PAINT / * adv eff 
	Do not add CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN 
 

28.39.1.2	CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN is further subdivided into each numerically  
paired number, i.e., CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 1, CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 2 to  
CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 22, and SEX CHROMOSOMES, subdivided into X CHROMOSOME  
and Y CHROMOSOME. Do coordinate these specific terms with pre-coordinated  
chromosome terms. 
 
Isolation and mapping of 68 RFLP markers on human CHROMOSOME 6. 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 6 
	CHROMOSOME MAPPING 
	GENETIC MARKERS 
	*RFLP 
 

28.39.1.3	A karyotype is an arrangement of all the chromosomes of a single  
cell.  They are arranged by pairs of homologues from the largest to the smallest  
and numbered from 1 to 22 (in humans). 
 
Each animal species has a specific chromosomal constitution (karyotype) having  
the same number of chromosomes of the same length, shape, location of centromere  
and sequence of genes.  Use the heading KARYOTYPING when a representation of a  
karyotype is provided in the article. See illustration p__. 
 
The human karyotype consists of 46 chromosomes including 22 pairs similar in  
both males and females, designated as AUTOSOMES, and a pair of SEX CHROMOSOMES.   
In the female the two sex chromosomes are similar and are referred to as X  
CHROMOSOMES.  In the male there is one X CHROMOSOME and a distinctly different Y  
CHROMOSOME.  Each member of a pair of chromosomes has a different  
ultrastructure.  In most organisms, all cells have the same karyotype.  The cell  
used to study the chromosomes is indexed NIM with the subheading  /ultrastruct. 
 
extra page for illustraton 
 
Ring chromosome 4 in lymphocytes and tumor cells of a family with Wilms' tumor. 
	WILMS' TUMOR  /*genet 
	KIDNEY NEOPLASMS /*genet 
	*RING CHROMOSOMES 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 4 
	LYMPHOCYTES /ultrastruct 
	TUMOR CELLS, CULTURED  
 

28.39.1.4	Certain dyes selectively stain different regions of chromosomes more  
intensely than others, producing banding patterns that are specific for  
individual chromosomes. Quinacrine produces Q bands.  More easily employed is  
Giemsa reagent to produce G-bands. which with a few exceptions are similar to  
those obtained with quinacrine fluoresence.  Other methods include R-banding and  
less often, C-banding and T-banding.  The reverse-staining method (R-staining)  
gives patterns (R band) opposite in staining intensity to Q-bands and G-bands.   
C-staining methods are designed to stain the centromeres and constituitive  
HETEROCHROMATIN.  T-banding refers to staining of the ends of the chromosomes,  
the TELOMERES. 
 
The Chicago nomenclature, modified by the Paris nomenclature, is used for the  
identification of human chromosomal bands and regions and for the location of  
structural deviations from normal. (See 28.39.3.1 for discussion of nomenclature  
for chromosome aberrations.) 
 
When identifying a particular area of a chromosome, four criteria are involved: 
1)  the chromosome number 
2)  the arm symbol 
3)  the region number* and 
4)  the band number within that region 
 
*Each chromosome arm is divided into regions numbered from the centromere  
outward as are bands within each region. 
 
Technical advances have led to high resolution banding which increases band  
resolution.  The nomenclature is an extension of the existing nomenclature but  
adds a new digit for subdivided bands following a decimal point. 
 
MeSH provides the heading CHROMOSOME BANDING.  This term is indexed IM if the  
point of the article.  If it is discussed in the article as a technique used to  
identify chromosomes or chromosome aberrations it is indexed NIM.  NIM  
coordinates are GIEMSA STAIN for G-banding and QUINACRINE for Q-banding.  If the  
location of a particular gene on a band region is indicated in the article do  
not add CHROMOSOME BANDING. 
 
Regional localization of the hepatocyte growth factor gene to human chromosome 7  
band q21.1. 
	HEPATOCYTE GROWTH FACTOR / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 7 
	CHROMOSOME MAPPING 
	do not add CHROMOSOME BANDING 
 
extra page for inserting illustration 
 
Routine use of methods for improved G-band resolution in a population of  
patients with malformations and developmental delays. 
	ABNORMALITIES / * genet 
	CHROMOSOME BANDING / * methods 
	GIEMSA STAIN 
	CHILD DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS / * genet 
 
The high resolution G banding pattern in chromosomes of river buffalo. 
	BUFFALOES / * genet 
	CHROMOSOME BANDING / * vet 
	GIEMSA STAIN 
 
In situ hybridization localizes the human putative oncogene GL1 on chromosome  
subband 12q13.3 - 14.1. 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 12 
	*IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION 
	*PROTO-ONCOGENES 
	CHROMOSOME MAPPING / *methods 
	Do not add CHROMOSOME BANDING 
 
	Quinacrine banding (Q bands) 
	*CHROMOSOME BANDING 
	*QUINACRINE 
 

28.39.2	ABNORMALITIES are morphological deviations from normal anatomic  
structure, referred to in the literature as "abnormalities," "anomalies",  
"malformations", "deficits,"and "agenesis," classified in Category C16 as  
diseases. 
 
MeSH groups Category C16 ABNORMALITIES under specific organ abnormalities, such  
as EYE ABNORMALITIES, which is subdivided into specific EYE ABNORMALITIES, such  
as ANOPHTHALMOS and COLOBOMA.  Several system abnormality terms are non-MeSH  
headings, such as NERVOUS SYSTEM ABNORMALITIES under which are grouped specifics  
such as NEURAL TUBE DEFECTS, and UROGENITAL ABNORMALITIES under which are  
BLADDER EXSTROPHY and CRYPTORCHISM. 
 
Index under the most specific abnormality heading available. Do not add the  
heading ABNORMALITIES.  If a specific term is not available index under the  
organ heading with the subheading / abnormalities.  Add the main heading  
ABNORMALITIES, NIM, only if the concept is needed for specific subheadings such  
as / ther, / epidemiol, etc. which cannot be used with the organ. 
 
Epidemiology of cerebral dysgenesis. 
	BRAIN / * abnorm 
	ABNORMALITIES / epidemiol 
 
Diagnosis of congenital malformations of the brain. 
	BRAIN / * abnorm 
	ABNORMALITIES / diag 
 

28.39.2.1	MeSH subdivides the heading ABNORMALITIES into ABNORMALITIES,  
MULTIPLE for abnormalities appearing in clusters. 
 
Renal tubule dysgenesis in a family with acrocephalosyndactyly. 
	KIDNEY TUBULES / * abnorm 
	ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA / * genet 
	ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE / * genet  
 
Associated occurrence of persistent truncus arteriosus and asplenia. 
	SPLEEN / * abnorm 
	*TRUNCUS ARTERIOSIS, PERSISTENT 
	*ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE 
 

28.39.2.2	Recurring clusters of abnormalities, or diseases, or symptoms, or  
combinations of the above, may be identified as syndromes by the author.  See  
23.20 - 23.20.6 for discussion of ABNORMALITIES, 23.26 - 23.26.4 for discussion  
of SYNDROME, and 23.22 - 23.22.2 for discussion of HEREDITARY DISEASES. 
 
If the specific syndrome is available in MeSH, index the concept under that  
heading and do not add ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE. 
 
Development of renal failure in children with the prune belly syndrome. 
	PRUNE BELLY SYNDROME/ * compl 
	KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC / * compl 
	not ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE 
 
Zellweger syndrome: a histochemical diagnosis of the case. 
	ZELLWEGER SYNDROME / * diag 
	HISTOCYTOCHEMISTRY 
 
Clinical management of the cardiovascular complications of the Marfan syndrome. 
	AORTIC ANEURYSM / * surg / compl 
	MARFAN SYNDROME / * compl 
	MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE / * surg / compl 
 

28.39.2.3	If the specific syndrome heading is not available, index under  
SYNDROME (if the author uses the term), plus the specific organ abnormality  
headings or the organ with the subheading /abnorm, or the other dominant  
features of the syndrome (limit to about three).  If more than one abnormality  
comprises the syndrome, add the heading ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE. 
 
Diagnosis of oto-palato-digital syndrome type I in a newborn. 
	CLEFT PALATE / * diag 
	HEARING LOSS, CONDUCTIVE / * diag 
	FINGERS / * abnorm 
	SYNDROME 
	ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE / * diag 
 

28.39.2.4	If the author does not identify the cluster of abnormalities or  
diseases as a syndrome, index under ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE (IM).  Specific  
abnormalities are added IM or NIM depending on which are discussed. 
 
CHARGE association:  clinical manifestation and development outcome. 
	ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE / * diag 
	BRAIN / * abnorm 
	COLOBOMA / * diag 
	MENTAL RETARDATION / * diag 
	GROWTH DISORDERS / * diag 
 
Macrostomia, ectropion, atrophic skin, hypertrichosis:  another observation. 
	* ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE 
	* ECTROPION 
	* HYPERTRICHOSIS 
	* MACROSTOMIA 
	SKIN / * abnorm 
	ATROPHY 
 
The mermaid malformation:  cloacal exstrophy and occult spinal dysraphism. 
	* ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE 
	CLOACA / * abnorm 
	* SPINA BIFIDA OCCULTA 
 

28.39.2.5	The heading ABNORMALITIES, DRUG-INDUCED is available in MeSH. If a  
drug given therapeutically causes an abnormality, index the drug with the  
subheading / adv eff, the abnormality with the subheading / chem ind and the  
heading ABNORMALITIES, DRUG-INDUCED. Do not add the heading TERATOGENS. 
 
Association between holoprosencephaly and exposure to topical retinoids. 
	TRETINOIN / * adv eff 
	HOLOPROSENCEPHALY / * chem ind 
	*ABNORMALITIES, DRUG-INDUCED 
 
Teratogenicity of anticonvulsants in 66 patients with epilepsy. 
	ANTICONVULSANTS / * adv eff 
	*ABNORMALITIES, DRUG-INDUCED 
	EPILEPSY / * drug ther 
	PREGN COMPL / * drug ther 
 

28.39.2.5.1	If a known teratogen is used in experimental studies to induce  
abnormalities in order to study some aspect of the resulting abnormality, index  
the drug without a subheading coordinated with the heading ABNORMALITIES, DRUG- 
INDUCED and the specific abnormalities. Do not add the heading TERATOGENS. 
 
Diagnosis of induced cleft palate in fetal rats from defective patterns of  
differentiation of isoenzymes. 
	CLEFT PALATE / * diag 
	ABNORMALITIES, DRUG-INDUCED / * diag 
	AMINOPROPIONITRILE 
	ISOENZYMES / * chem 
	*ENZYME TESTS 
	PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS / * methods 
	AMNIOTIC FLUID / enzymol 
 

28.39.2.5.2	If a drug is tested for teratogenicity in toxicology studies index  
the drug with the subheading / tox, the heading TERATOGENS, with the subheading  
/ tox, and the specific abnormality.  Do not coordinate with FETUS / drug eff or  
EMBRYO / drug eff or MATERNAL-FETAL EXCHANGE unless specifically discussed. 
 
Teratogenic effects of nitrazepam in rats. 
	NITRAZEPAM / * tox 
	TERATOGENS / * tox 
 
Relationship of cell death to cyclophosphamide-induced ocular malformations in  
mice. 
	EYE ABNORMALITIES / * chem ind 
	*CELL DEATH 
	CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE / * tox 
	TERATOGENS / * tox 
 

28.39.2.6	CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES is treed in MeSH under ABNORMALITIES and  
applies to anatomical deviations or disease known to originate from changes in  
chromosomes. 
 
Chromosome abnormalities found among 34,910 newborn children in Denmark. 
	CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES / * epidemiol 
	DENMARK / epidemiol 
 
Value of ultrasonic diagnosis of fetal malformation in the detection  
ofchromosome abnormalities. 
	CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES / * ultrasonogr 
	*ULTRASONOGRAPHY, PRENATAL 
	EVALUATION STUDIES 
 
Prenatal screening for fetal malformation using maternal serum chorionic  
gonadotrophin, alpha-fetoprotein and age. 
	ALPHA FETO-PROTEINS / * anal 
	CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES  / * diag 
	GONADOTROPIN, CHORIONIC  / * blood 
	*MATERNAL AGE 35 AND OVER 
	*PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS 
	GENETIC SCREENING 
 

28.39.2.6.1	The heading CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES is divided into SEX CHROMOSOME  
ABNORMALITIES, which is further subdivided into specific sex chromosome  
abnormalities. 
 
45,X/47,XYY Mosaicism:  Clinical discrepancy between prenatally and postnatally  
diagnosed cases. 
	*MOSAICISM 
	XYY KARYOTYPE / * diag 
	*PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS 
 
A case of Klinefelter's syndrome associated with lung cancer. 
	KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME / * compl 
	LUNG NEOPLASMS / * compl 
 
Caries occurence in Klinefelter's syndrome men (47,XXY males) 
	DENTAL CARIES / * compl / epidemiol 
KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME / * compl / epidemiol 
Do not add SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES or Y CHROMOSOME with KLINEFELTER'S  
SYNDROME. 
 

28.39.2.6.1.1	KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME is treed under SEX CHROMOSOME  
ABNORMALITIES.  The classic karyotype is XXY.  Other karyotypes such as XXXY,  
XXXXY, XXYY, XXXYY, XX/XXY, XX/YY, XY/XXY, XXY/XXXY, if so named by the author,  
are indexed under KLINEFELTER'S SYNDROME; if not, under SEX CHROMOSOME  
ABNORMALITIES if phenotypically manifested as an abnormality. 
 

28.39.2.6.1.2	Turner's Syndrome is a sex chromosome abnormality, known also  
as gonadal dysgenesis 45,X or gonadal dygenesis 45,XO or monosomy X. Index under  
TURNER SYNDROME if the author uses any of these designations. 
 
A cytogenetic and molecular study of a series of 45,X fetuses and their parents. 
	TURNER'S SYNDROME / * genet 
	KARYOTYPING 
not SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES or X Chromosome 
 
Monosomy X found at first trimester CVS. 
	*CHORIONIC VILLI SAMPLING 
	*PREGNANCY TRIMESTER, FIRST 
	TURNER'S SYNDROME / * diag 
 
47,XXX has a distinctive phenotype (superfemales) for which no MeSH heading  
exists.  Index, therefore, under SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES, plus X  
CHROMOSOME, plus TRISOMY. 
 
The parental origin of the missing or additional chromosome in 45,X  and 47,XXX  
females. 
	TURNER'S SYNDROME / * genet 
	*TRISOMY 
	*X CHROMOSOME 
	SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES / * genet 
 
Interstitial deletion of chromosome 2q associated with ovarian dysgenesis. 
	OVARIAN DYSGENESIS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 2 
 
Although this is gonadal dysgenesis it is not TURNER'S SYNDROME since it is a  
partial deletion of chromosome 2, not the deletion of an X chromosome. 
 
Several chromosome abnormalities can co-exist: 
 
Prenatal diagnosis of 48,XYY,+21 ascertained through ultrasound abnormalities. 
	ULTRASONOGRAPHY, PRENATAL 
	DOWN SYNDROME  / * ultrasonogr 
	XYY KARYOTYPE / * ultrasonogr 
not CHROMOSOME 21 and TRISOMY because trisomy of chromosome 21 is DOWN SYNDROME,  
and not SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES, and not Y CHROMOSOME since XYY KARYOTYPE  
is more specific. 
 

28.39.3	Morphological deviations from normal, either in number or structure,  
of the chromosome are indexed under CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS or the specific term  
treed under it in Category  G5. (The term chromosome rearrangement is frequently  
used in the literature. Do not confuse this with the MeSH heading GENE  
REARRANGEMENT.) 
 
	see Table of chromosome aberrations, p__. 
 

28.39.3.1	Designations for chromosome aberrations using the Chicago, Paris  
nomenclature consist of: 
1) the number of chromosomes 
2) the sex chromosome constitution 
3) the symbol representing the aberration  
4) the numbers of involved chromosomes in  the first parenthesis  
5) the band composition in the second parenthesis 
 (see Table) 
 
extra page for inserting illustration 
 
The designation 46,XY,t(2:6)(q34;p12) would indicate 46 chromosomes in a male  
with a translocation involving the long arm, band 3, region 4, of chromosome two  
and the short arm of chromosome six, band 1, region 2.  MeSH does not have  
headings for chromosome regions and bands.  This would be indexed 
*TRANSLOCATION (GENETICS)  
MALE 
*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 2 
*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 6 
- not CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS nor CHROMOSOME BANDING (unless discussed) 
 
Pseudomosaicism for 4p- in amniotic fluid cell cultures proven to be true  
mosaicism, after birth. 
	*MOSAICISM 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 4 
	AMNIOTIC FLUID / cytol 
	*AMNIOCENTESIS 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
 
The absence or addition of a whole chromosome, in a diploid individual, is  
indicated by a minus sign or a plus sign, respectively, before the symbol for  
that chromosome. A male having an additional chromosome 21 would be 47,XY,+21.   
A plus or minus sign placed after a symbol means an increase or decrease in  
length. 
 
A short arm deletion of chromosome number 5 is termed 5p-, and the nomenclature  
for a female patient having the resulting cri-du-chat syndrome is 46,XX,5p-. 
 
There are two conventions for describing the same karotype, a short system and a  
detailed system. The short form identifies the chromosomes involved and the  
breakpoints, whereas the detailed system identifies the chromosomal segments  
from telomere to telomere.  Confusion arises from descriptions in the detailed  
system, especially those in which the abbreviations pter and qter appear with  
arrows. 
 
Consider, as an example, a terminal deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1,  
beginning at a prominent landmark, the proximal dark band q31. In a male the  
short form designation would be: 46,XY,del(1)(q31). The indexing would be: 
	MALE 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 1 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
 
The detailed system for the same anomaly is: 46,XY,del(1)(pter--q31:)  The  
(pter--q31:) is translated as follows:  the segment of chromosome that is  
present begins 	at the end of the short arm (pter) and continues (--) to band  
31 where a break has taken place (:) (The main difficulty with this terminology  
is wrongly translating the  "pter" as meaning that the deletion is in the short  
arm, rather than appreciating that "pter" defines the segment of chromosome that  
is present.) This designation does not affect the indexing since no terms are  
available for chromosome segments, but the indexer should be aware that the same  
karyotype can be represented in two ways. 
 
A child with del(7q36--pter) would be indexed: 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 7 
 

28.39.3.2	Numerical aberrations are the result of a mistake in the process of  
chromosome replication and separation of daughter cells. The usual term for  
these mistakes is NONDISJUNCTION, GENETIC. The number of chromosomes in the  
human gamete is 23 and this is the haploid number (HAPLOIDY). Forty-six is  
called the diploid number (DIPLOIDY).  A chromosome number that is not an exact  
multiple of 23 is called aneuploid (ANEUPLOIDY). An aneuploid state in which a  
third chromosome is present in addition to the normal autosomal pair is called  
TRISOMY.  Absence of one chromosome of a pair is called MONOSOMY for that  
chromosome. Articles discussing chromosome aberrations are indexed under the  
aberration and the chromosome involved IM. 
 

28.39.3.2.1	The indexer must make the distinction between MONOSOMY and MONOSOMY,  
PARTIAL which is a see reference to CHROMOSOME DELETION.  MONOSOMY results when  
one whole chromosome is missing from an otherwise diploid chromosome complement,  
and in the MeSH trees is the more specific term.  The term CHROMOSOME DELETION  
is a loss of a segment of a chromosome. 
 
Erythroleukemia in a child with monosomy 7. 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 7 
	*MONOSOMY 
	ERYTHROLEUKEMIA / * genet 
 
Monosomy 20: a nonrandom finding in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. 
	*MONOSOMY 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 20 
	LEUKEMIA, LYMPHOCYTIC, ACUTE / * genet 
 
Monosomy of 1p13.33-22.3 in twins. 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	TWINS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 1 
				 
Distal monosomy of the long arm of chromosome 6(6q25--6qter) inherited by  
maternal translocation t(6q;17q). 
	*TRANSLOCATION (GENETICS) 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 6 
 
A rare case of long Y-chromosome arm deletion in a patient with leukemia. 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	* Y CHROMOSOME 
	LEUKEMIA / * genet 
Do not coordinate aberrations in Y or X chromosomes with SEX CHROMOSOME  
ABNORMALITIES unless manifested as morphological abnormalities. 
 
The (18)(q22--qter) deletion in patients with complete clinical features of the  
DeGrouchy syndrome. 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	*CHROMOSOME, HUMAN, PAIR 18 
	SYNDROME 
	FACE /*abnorm 
	MENTAL RETARDATION / genet 
	MUSCLE HYPOTONIA / genet 
	HEART DEFECTS, CONGENITAL / genet 
	ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE / * genet 
 

28.39.3.2.1.1	Loss of the Y chromosome, which is common in older men,  
occurring as a normal phenomenon of aging, and frequently found in cancer  
patients, especially leukemias, is indexed under Y CHROMOSOME and CHROMOSOME  
ABERRATIONS, since only one Y chromosome is normal, and therefore would not fit  
the definition of MONOSOMY. 
 
Loss of Y chromosome in meningioma. 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	MENINGEAL NEOPLASMS / * genet 
	MENINGIOMA / * genet 
	*Y CHROMOSOME 
 

28.39.3.2.1.2	Terms which appear in the cancer literature which may be  
confusing are loss of heterozygosity and hyperdiploidy. The genetic pathogenesis  
of cancer is thought to involve allele losses on chromosomes on which tumor  
suppressor genes are located causing the gene to become inactivated. This is  
usually determined through the analysis of restriction fragment length  
polymorphism.  The loss of genetic material is indexed under the chromosome  
involved, the gene, CHROMOSOME DELETION and HETEROZYGOTE. 
 
Loss of heterozygosity on chromosome 17p and mutant p53 in cervical carcinoma. 
 	CERVIX NEOPLASMS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	*CHROMOSOME, HUMAN, PAIR 17 
	*GENES, P53 
	HETEROZYGOTE 
 
Hyperdiploidy refers to cells or individuals having one or more chromosomes, or  
segments of chromosomes, in addition to a basic set. These extra chromosomes can  
result in GENE AMPLIFICATION. Hyperdiploidy is indexed under ANEUPLOIDY. 
 
Hyperdiploidy arising from near-haploidy in childhood acute lymphoblastic  
leukemia. 
	*ANEUPLOIDY 
	ALL, CHILDHOOD / * genet 
 

28.39.3.3	Structural aberrations or rearrangements can occur between  
chromosomes. TRANSLOCATION refers to a rearrangement in which a piece of one  
chromosome is transferred to another chromosome. 
 
A t(Y:15) translocation with a deletion of the proximal Yq in a boy with mixed  
gonadal dysgenesis. 
	GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED / * genet 
	*TRANSLOCATION 
	*CHROMOSOME DELETION 
	*Y CHROMOSOME 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 15 
 
Rearrangements can occur within chromosomes. Examples in MeSH are CHROMOSOME  
DELETION; RING CHROMOSOMES, which results if breaks occur at the ends of both  
arms of a chromosome and unite with each other forming a ring; and INVERSION  
(GENETIC), which results from two breaks, with the intervening segment being  
reversed before healing. 
 

28.39.3.4	Chromosome aberrations occur both in genetic and other diseases.   
This is indexed under the disease with subheading / genet. 
 
Philadelphia chromosome and monosomy 7 in childhood lymphoblastic leukemia. 
	ALL, CHILDHOOD / * genet 
	*MONOSOMY 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 7 
	*PHILADELPHIA CHROMOSOME 
 

28.39.3.5	If a chromosome aberration is discussed in a patient with CHROMOSOME  
ABNORMALITIES (Category C16) index under both: 
 
Holoprosencephaly and other abnormalities in a newborn girl with 46,XX,i(18q). 
	HOLOPROSENCEPHALY / * genet 
	ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME, HUMAN, PAIR 18 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
Do not add KARYOTYPING unless it is discussed or a copy of the karyotype is  
included in the article. 
 

28.39.3.6	Authors use the term "chromosome abnormalities" in reference to  
either the anatomical deviation of an organ or body part, or changes in  
chromosomes. Indexers should make the distinction, and reserve the term  
CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES for anatomical deviations from normal. 
 
Clonal Y chromosome abnormalities in primary cell cultures for atherosclerotic  
plaques. 
	ARTERIOSCLEROSIS / * genet 
	Y CHROMOSOME / * ultrastruct 
	* CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	not SEX CHROMOSOME ABNORMALITIES 
 
Chromosomal abnormalities in T-cell malignant lymphoma. 
	LYMPHOMA, T CELL / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
 
Chromosomal abnormalities, cellular DNA content, oncogene amplification and  
growth pattern in agar culture of human neuroblastoma. 
	NEUROBLASTOMA / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	CELL DIVISION 
	TUMOR CELLS, CULTURED 
	GENE AMPLIFICATION 
	*ONCOGENES 
	DNA, NEOPLASM / anal 
 
Karyotyping of chromosome abnormalities in human cancer and leukemia. 
	LEUKEMIA / * genet 
	NEOPLASMS / * genet 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	*KARYOTYPING 
 
Chromosome abnormalities in lymphocytes and fibroblasts of subjects with  
multiple endocrine neoplasia Type I. 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	FIBROBLASTS / ultrastruct 
	LYMPHOCYTES / ultrastruct 
	NEOPLASMS, MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE / * genet 
 

28.39.4	Also available is the term GENE DELETION. 
 
The clinical phenotype of two patients with a complete deletion of the  
iduronate-Z-sulphatase gene (Mucopolysaccaridosis II--Hunter Syndrome). 
	IDURONATE-2-SULPHATASE / * genet 
	HUNTER'S SYNDROME / * diag / genet 
	*GENE DELETION 
 

28.39.5	Structural deviations below the gene level are mutations, not  
chromosome aberrations. If the article discusses base sequence deletions, index  
under MUTATION, not CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS. 
 
A congenitally abnormal fibrinogen with a G-base deletion in the gamma chain. 
	FIBRINOGEN / * genet 
	*MUTATION 
	not CHROMOSOME DELETION 
 
The indexer must distinguish between the terms MUTATION and the techniques  
MUTAGENESIS, DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS and MUTAGENICITY TESTS. 
 
A MUTATION is a change in the sequence of a gene.  It is indexed IM when a  
specific mutation is the point of the article, or when the general concept is  
discussed. 
 
A common Lithuanian mutation causing hypercholesterolemia in Ashkenazi Jews. 
	HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIA, HEREDITARY / * genet / ethnol 
	*MUTATION 
	JEWS / * genet 
	LITHUANIA 
 
In vivo somatic mutations in humans: measurement and analysis. 
	*MUTATION 
	HUMAN 
 
Determination of retroviral mutation rates. 
	RETROVIRIDAE / * genet 
	*MUTATION 
 
Mutation in the cerebroside sulfatase allele causing metachromatic  
leukodystrophy. 
	*ALLELES 
	CEREBROSIDE SULFATASE / defic / * genet 
	LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC / * genet / enzymol 
	*MUTATION 
 

28.39.5.1	Mutations arise spontaneously as the result of normal cellular  
operations or random interactions with the environment, or are induced by drugs  
or radiation. 
 
The nature of naturally occurring mutations in the hemagglutinin gene of  
vaccinia virus. 
	HEMAGGLUTININS, VIRAL / * genet 
	GENES, VIRAL 
	*MUTATION 
	VACCINIA VIRUS / * genet 
 
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency due to a mutation of the E1 alpha subunit. 
	*MUTATION 
	PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX / * defic / genet 
 

28.39.5.2	The effect of chemicals on DNA is referred to in the literature as  
mutagenicity, clastogenicity, genotoxicity and mitoclasticity. 
 
Use the subheading /adv eff with drugs or radiation given in accepted dosage  
which cause mutations.  Do not add the subheadings /drug eff or /rad eff to the  
heading MUTATION for induced mutations. 
 
Genotoxic effects of the diagnostic use of thallium-201 in nuclear medicine. 
	*MUTATION 
	THALLIUM RADIOISOTOPES / * adv eff 
 

28.39.5.3	If a drug is tested for mutagenicity use the subheading /tox with  
the drug, coordinated with MUTAGENS / tox. Do not routinely add MUTATION, or DNA  
/ drug eff, or DNA DAMAGE.  
 
Assessment of in vivo mutagenic potency of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in  
albino mice. 
	EDETIC ACID / * tox 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
Mutagenic activities of tryptophan metabolites before and after nitrite  
treatment. 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
	TRYPTOPHAN / * tox / metab 
	NITRITES / * pharmacol 
 
In vivo cytogenetic activity of diphenylhydantoin in mice. 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
	PHENYTOIN / * tox 
 

28.39.5.4	If a known mutagen is used to induce a mutation, index the mutagen  
without a subheading. 
 

28.39.6	Articles which describe the mechanisms resulting in mutations, or  
the techniques used to induce mutations are indexed under MUTAGENESIS or the  
specifics MUTAGENESIS, INSERTIONAL or MUTAGENESIS, SITE DIRECTED.  Among the  
most commonly used mutagenic agents are ultraviolet light and drugs. 
 
Fundamental and molecular mechanisms of mutagenesis. 
	*MUTAGENESIS 
 
Preferential mutagenesis at GC base pairs by methylbenzanthracenes. 
	*MUTAGENESIS 
	BENZANTHRACINES / * tox 
	BASE PAIRS 
	not DNA / drug eff 
	not MUTATION / drug eff 
 
Insertional mutagenesis and illegitimate recombinations in Mycobacteria. 
	*MUTAGENESIS, INSERTIONAL 
	MYCOBACTERIUM / * genet 
	*RECOMBINATION, GENETIC 
 
A similar defect in UV-induced mutagenesis conferred by the rad 6 and rad 18  
mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. 
SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE / * genet / rad eff 
	*MUTAGENESIS 
	*ULTRAVIOLET RAYS 
 
The two step model of UV mutagenesis reassessed: deviation of cytosine in  
cyclobutane dimers as the likely source of mutations associated with  
photoactivation. 
	*MUTAGENESIS 
	CYTOSINE / rad eff 
	*MODELS, GENETIC 
	*ULTRAVIOLET RAYS 
	cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer / * chem 
 
Gene deletions causing human genetic diseases:  mechanisms of mutagenesis and  
the role of the local DNA environment. 
	*MUTAGENESIS      
	*GENE DELETION 
	HEREDITARY DISEASES / * genet 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
 

28.39.7	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS is a Category E term which is indexed for  
articles studying the genotypic and phenotypic consequences of mutations either  
naturally occurring or introduced either at random or targeted to a specific  
site in the genome. 
 
Aspartic acid residues at positions 190 and 192 of rat DNA polymerase beta are  
involved in primer binding.  Amino acid changes by site-directed mutagenesis. 
	DNA POLYMERASE I / * metab /chem 
	ASPARTIC ACID / * metab 
	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
	MUTAGENESIS, SITE-DIRECTED 
 
Do not routinely add MUTAGENESIS, SITE DIRECTED unless it is discussed or in the  
title. 
 
Correlation of mutations of oncogene C-Ha-ras at codon 12 with metastasis and  
survival of gastric cancer patients. 
	*GENES, RAS 
	*MUTATION 
	STOMACH NEOPLASMS / * genet / mortal 
	NEOPLASM METASTASIS / genet 
	CODON 
 
Mutational analysis of two conserved sequence motifs in HIV-1 reverse  
transcriptase. 
	HIV-1 REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE / * genet 
	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
	CONSERVED SEQUENCE 
 
The Georgia type of nondeletional hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin has  
a C--T mutation at nucleotide 114 of the gamma globin gene. 
	GAMMA GLOBIN / * genet 
	FETAL HEMOGLOBIN / * genet 
	THALASSEMIA / * genet 
	*MUTATION 
 
Molecular analysis of barley mutants deficient in chloroplast glutamine  
synthetase. 
	BARLEY / * genet / enzymol 
	CHLOROPLASTS / *enzymol 
	GLUTAMINE SYNTHETASE / * genet / defic 
	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
 
Deletion analysis of a zein gene promoter in transgenic tobacco plants. 
	ZEIN / * genet 
	PLANTS, TRANSGENIC 
	*PROMOTER REGIONS 
	TOBACCO / * genet 
	GENE DELETION 
	DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
 

28.39.8	MUTAGENICITY TESTS is also a Category E technique heading which  
requires coordination with Category G5 headings.  The problem for the indexer is  
to decide which of the many possible headings to index as coordinates.  The  
general guideline is to index MUTAGENICITY TESTS IM if the point of the article,  
add the organism heading with subheading /genet, the cell used (if mammalian  
cell) and the mutation measured i.e., SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE; DNA REPAIR; SOS  
RESPONSE; CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC or ANEUPLOIDY. 
 
The unscheduled DNA synthesis assay in rat hepatocyte cultures:  recommended  
protocols in genotoxicity testing laboratories. 
	MUTAGENICITY TESTS / * methods 
	*DNA REPAIR 
	RATS 
	LIVER 
	CELLS, CULTURED 
Do not add the headings MUTAGENS or DNA /drug eff or CHROMOSOMES /drug eff 
 
Various organisms and cells are used to study the mutagenic effect of chemicals.  
Examples of mutagenicity tests using mammalian cells are: 
 
Mutation induction in Chinese hamster ovary cells treated with 6-nitrochrysene. 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
	CHO CELLS 
	6-nitrochrysene / * tox 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
Point mutation assays use either Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, V79 Chinese  
hamster lung cells or L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.  Treatment with a test  
chemical is carried out to induce a point mutation at a specific locus:  the  
L5178Y at the thymidine kinase (TK) locus, CHO and V79 at the X-linked  
hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus. 
 
Molecular characterization of mutations at the hprt locus in V79 Chisese hamster  
cells induced by bleomycin. 
	BLEOMYCINS / * tox 
	*DNA MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS 
	HAMSTERS, CHINESE 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
HYPOXANTHINE PHOSPHORIBOSYLTRANSFERASE / * genet 
	CELL LINE 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
Cell transformation assays use C3H/10)T1/2 mouse embryo cells, mouse fibroblast  
(BALB/C 3T3) and Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  The assay relies on the  
formation of morphologically altered colonies for the detection of cell  
transformation. 
 
Morphological and neoplastic transformation of C3H/10T1/2 mouse embryo cells by  
nickel compounds. 
	CELL TRANSFORMATION, NEOPLASTIC  
	CELLS, CULTURED 
	MICE, INBRED C3H 
	MUTAGENICITY TESTS / * methods 
	NICKEL / * tox 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
Chromosomal aberration (CA) and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) assays usually  
use (CHO) Chinese hamster ovary or Chinese hamster lung (V79) or human  
lymphocyte cultures. 
 
Response of V79 cells to N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) treatment. 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
	METHYLNITROSOGUANIDINE / * tox 
	HAMSTERS, CHINESE 
	SISTER CHROMATID EXCHANGE 
	CELL LINE 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
Cell hybrid test system uses a human-Chinese hamster hybrid cell line to measure  
aneuploidy and polyploidy induced by mutagens. 
 
Use of cell hybrid test system to demonstrate that benomyl induces aneuploidy  
and polyploidy. 
	BENOMYL / * tox 
	HYBRID CELLS 
	MUTAGENICITY TESTS / * methods  
	*ANEUPLOIDY 
	*POLYPLOIDY 
 

28.39.8.1	MICRONUCLEUS TESTS is the only specific heading under  MUTAGENICITY  
TESTS in MeSH. Do not add the heading MICRONUCLEI when indexing the test. 
 
Micronucleus test in 2-cell embryos as a simple assay system for human sperm  
chromosome aberration. 
	*MICRONUCLEUS TESTS 
	*X CHROMOSOME 
	SPERMATOZOA / * ultrastruct 
	*CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS 
	CLEAVAGE STAGE, OVUM 
 
The micronucleus test in pigs:  induction of micronuclei in polychromatic  
erythrocytes by various doses of x-rays. 
	MICRONUCLEUS TESTS / * methods 
	ERYTHROCYTES / * rad eff 
	DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIP, RADIATION 
	SWINE / genet 
	X-RAYS 
 
Non-mammalian organisms are used in mutagenicity tests. 
 
Salmonella are the test organisms in the Ames test, the arabinose-resistant  
(ARA) test, Salmonella forward mutation assay, and the Salmonella microsomal  
mutagenesis assay. 
 
The Ames test as a criterion in hygienic studies of the mutagenic effects of  
metals. 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM / genet /  drug eff 
	METALS / * tox 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
E coli PQ 37 genotoxicity assay measures the SOS response. 
 
Sources of variability in the Escherichia coli PQ37 genotoxicity assay (SOS  
chemotest). 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
	*SOS RESPONSE 
	ESCHERICHIA COLI / genet 
 
Drosophila are used in many assays - the spot test which measures somatic cell  
mutation and the sex-linked recessive lethal test. 
 
Mutagenicity of fenitrothion tested in Drosophila somatic and germ cells. 
	DROSOPHILA /  drug eff / genet 
	FENITROTHION / * tox 
	GERM CELLS / drug eff 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
	MUTAGENS / * tox 
 
Saccharomyces malsegregation system measures aneuploidy as does the Aspergillus  
assay. 
 
Reevaluation of the 9 compounds reported conclusive positive in yeast  
Saccharomyces cerevisiae aneuploidy test systems by the Gene-Tox Program. 
	*MUTAGENICITY TESTS 
	ANEUPLOIDY 
SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE / genet / drug eff 
 

28.40		Many of the studies in the genetics and molecular biology literature  
describe the methods used in biotechnology to manipulate biomolecules in order  
to structurally characterize the genetic material, ie, determine its nucleotide  
sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS) and obtain chromosome maps (CHROMOSOME MAPPING); to  
study its functioning (TRANSCRIPTION, TRANSLATION and GENE EXPRESSION  
REGULATION); and to study the structure and functioning of proteins. This group  
of technologies is variously called GENETIC ENGINEERING, an E5 heading,  
MOLECULAR GENETICS, or DNA recombinant technology. DNA sequencing, DNA cloning  
(MOLECULAR CLONING), PROTEIN ENGINEERING, and MUTAGENESIS are the most important  
techniques leading to the great advances in molecular biology. 
 
While most of the headings used for these articles are from Category E5 under  
GENETIC TECHNIQUES, they require coordination with G5 headings. The task of the  
indexer is to determine which of the many possible coordinates to include in the  
indexing of the procedures, and which to make IM vs NIM and what subheadings to  
assign. 
 
Techniques which are the point of the article, and usually mentioned in the  
title are IM.  Those which are discussed or cited as having bearing on the  
results of the study are probably NIM.  Techniques mentioned which are routine  
and not substantially discussed are probably not indexed at all.  See 26.2 for  
detailed discussion of the indexing of techniques. 
 

28.40.1	Recombinant DNA technology used to obtain pure DNA samples from  
large genomes in sufficient quantities for chemical and biological study is  
called MOLECULAR CLONING. Laboratory methods include 1) the use of restriction  
enzymes to cut DNA from an organism; 2) the construction of novel genomes  
involving the insertion or substitution of nucleotide sequences into a variety  
of vectors (GENETIC VECTORS); 3) the introduction of recombinant DNA into  
appropriate cells via a bacteriophage or a plasmid that can reproduce  
independently within a bacterial host (TRANSFECTION); 4) the manipulation of the  
sequence to optimize expression (PROTEIN ENGINEERING); 5) the expression of the  
molecularly engineered genes in a host (RECOMBINANT PROTEINS) and lastly; 6) the  
detection of mRNA and isolation of the gene or protein. Either genomic DNA or a  
cDNA clone (a molecule of complementary DNA copied from mRNA by enzymes) can be  
cloned.  Genomic DNA is usually selected from a GENOMIC LIBRARY, which is a  
collection of recombinant molecules maintained in phage particles or in plasmids  
growing in bacteria or yeast artificial chromosomes, that includes all DNA  
sequences of a given species.  The library can be screened for the phage or  
plasmid or chromosome that contains the DNA sequence of interest. 
 
If the cloning technique is the point of the article it is indexed IM, as is the  
specific gene cloned and the source of the gene. 
 
A simple method for cloning genes involved in glucan biosynthesis:  isolation of  
structural and regulatory genes for glycogen synthesis in E coli. 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR / * methods 
	E COLI / * genet 
	*GENES, STRUCTURAL, BACTERIAL 
	*GENES, REGULATOR 
	GLYCOGEN / * biosyn / genet 
 
For routine cloning articles where the point is the characterization of the  
cloned substance, the technique, MOLECULAR CLONING, is NIM. 
 
Molecular cloning of the 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene from Rhodobacter  
sphaeroides. 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR 
AMINOLEVULINIC ACID DEHYDRATASE / * genet 
RHODOBACTER SPHEROIDES / * genet / enzymol 
	*GENES, BACTERIAL 
 
Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of bovine T-cell receptor gamma and  
delta chains. 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA / * genet 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR 
 

28.40.1.1	The various steps in the cloning procedure, such as the specific  
restriction enzyme used, the vector, the transfection method, the host, and the  
recombinant protein term are indexed NIM, only if discussed. The routine  
laboratory techniques are usually third tier and not indexed at all. 
 
If any of these procedures is the point of the article it is indexed IM, with  
MOLECULAR CLONING IM or NIM depending on the slant of the article. 
 

28.40.1.1.1	Sometimes the vector is the point of the article. Many studies  
experiment with different host-vector systems. The most widely used host-vector  
systems are Escherichia coli as host with bacteriophage lambda as the vector. 
 
YAC's (yeast artificial chromosomes) have been prepared that can be used as  
vectors in yeast cells for very large genomic fragments.  YAC's are pieces of  
foreign DNA contained within yeast cells.  The DNA has been modified to function  
as a chromosome and then cloned.  They are used for physical mapping of many  
genomes.  YAC's are indexed: 
 
YAC cloning: options and problems. 
	GENOME, HUMAN 
	*YACS 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR / * methods 
 
If DNA from other organisms is used, substitute the other organisms and the  
appropriate checktag(s) for GENOME, HUMAN and HUMAN. 
 
Vectors most frequently used in mammalian cells are the small DNA viruses SV40  
and polyoma viruses, modified retroviridae, vaccinia virus, and baculoviruses.   
In plant cells, the most common vector is the Ti plasmid, whose host is  
Agrobacterium tumifaciens:  this bacterium fuses with and transfers the  
recombinant DNA to the plant cell.  Cloning vectors that have all the desired  
properties can be developed by making improvements to naturally occurring  
plasmids. 
 
Construction of a phage vector for Bacillus subtilis. 
	BACILLUS SUBTILIS / * genet 
	BACILLUS PHAGES / * genet 
	*GENETIC VECTORS 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR /  methods 
 

28.40.1.2	Different transfection techniques are studied.  In these articles,  
TRANSFECTION, or the specific, is indexed IM.  (See 28.38.3.4) 
 
Direct transfer of plasmid DNA from yeast to E. coli by electroporation. 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR / methods 
	E COLI 
	*ELECTROPORATION 
	PLASMIDS 
	SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE / * genet 
	DNA, FUNGAL / * genet 
 

28.40.1.3	If the focus of the article is the expression of the recombinant  
gene and the characterization or sequencing of the protein, index the specific  
protein IM with the subheading /genet, add the heading RECOMBINANT PROTEINS or  
the specific RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEINS or CHIMERIC PROTEINS. These proteins  
are sometimes referred to in the literature as hybrid proteins or heterologous  
proteins.  Add the heading GENE EXPRESSION NIM to the indexing if discussed. 
 
Expression of mammalian cytochrome P450 using vaccinia virus. 
	CYTOCHROME P450 / * genet / biosyn 
	RECOMBINANT PROTEINS / biosyn 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR / * methods 
	VACCINIA VIRUS / * genet 
	*GENETIC VECTORS 
 
Expression of bovine inhibin in Escherichia coli. 
	CATTLE 
	INHIBIN / * genet / biosyn 
	ESCHERICHIA COLI  
	CLONING, MOLECULAR 
	RECOMBINANT PROTEINS / biosyn 
 
Molecular cloning and expression of a rat V/a arginine vasopressin receptor. 
	ARGIPRESSIN RECEPTOR / * genet / biosyn 
	CLONING, MOLECULAR 
	RECOMBINANT PROTEINS / biosyn 
	RATS 
 

28.40.1.4	Cloning techniques routinely use bacterial restriction endonuclease  
enzymes (DNA RESTRICTION ENZYMES) to cut DNA from large genomes into manageable  
pieces.  These enzymes recognize specific short oligonucleotides from 4 to 8  
residues long in DNA and they cleave the DNA at each site generating a  
reproducible set of pieces.  Several hundred different restriction enzymes with  
different recognition sites are now available.  MeSH and the Supplementary  
Chemical Records provide many specific restriction enzymes. If a new restriction  
enzyme is discovered and is the point of the article it is indexed IM, as well  
as the source with the subheading / enzymol, if a heading.  If it is not a  
heading it should be flagged for the Chemical Specialist. 
 
SgrA1, a novel class II restriction endonuclease from Streptomyces griseus  
recognizing the octanucleotide sequence 5'-CR/CCGGYGl-3'. 
	*SGRA1 ENDONUCLEASE  
	STREPTOMYCES GRISEUS / * enzymol 
	BASE SEQUENCE 
 
In most articles, however, the restriction enzymes are routine and therefore  
indexed NIM, if at all.  The organism which is the source is not indexed, unless  
discussed. 
 

28.40.1.4.1	If the enzyme digests the DNA of an organism for which MeSH has a  
specific DNA heading, such as DNA, BACTERIAL, coordinate IM with that heading.   
If the article refers to a specific genome heading, such as GENOME, BACTERIAL,  
use that heading IM. Do not index under DNA if no specific is discussed. 
 

28.40.2	The ability to divide DNA into reproducible pieces allows the  
restriction sites to be mapped.  RESTRICTION MAPPING is a linear sequence of the  
sites at which a particular restriction enzyme cuts DNA at every point at which  
its target sequence occurs.  These fragments are separated by gel  
electrophoresis, either agarose or polyacrylamide, producing bands corresponding  
to the size of the fragment. Again, if the technique is the point of the article  
it is indexed IM. In most articles it is NIM. 
 
Construction of a restriction map of Streptococcus mutans genome. 
	STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS / * genet 
	*RESTRICTION MAPPING 
	*GENOME, BACTERIAL 
 
Restriction endonuclease mapping of the genome of feline herpesvirus type 1. 
	*GENOME, VIRAL 
	HERPESVIRIDAE / * genet 
	RESTRICTION MAPPING / * methods 
 
If the specific restriction enzyme is discussed, it is indexed IM. 
 
Application of methylase-limited partial NOT cleavage for a long-range  
restriction map of the human ABL locus. 
	*GENES, ABL 
	*RESTRICTION MAPPING 
	*ENDODEOXYRIBONUCLEASE NOT-1 
	CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN 
	DNA METHYLASE 
 
An SfII restriction map of Bacillus subtilis 168 genome. 
	BACILLUS SUBTILIS / * genet 
	*ENDODEOXYRIBONUCLEASE SFII  
	*GENOME, BACTERIAL 
	RESTRICTION MAPPING 
 

28.40.3	A difference in the restriction maps between individuals is called  
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM (RFLP).  It can be used as a GENETIC  
MARKER.  Instead of examining some feature of the phenotype, the genotype is  
assessed by restriction mapping. Do not add the heading GENETIC MARKERS unless  
the author uses the term. Index the disease with the subheading / genet, the  
specific restriction enzyme IM, and the technique IM if the point of the  
article. 
 
HpaI polymorphism and the sickle gene for beta globin in Nigerians. 
	*HPAI ENDONUCLEASE 
	*RFLP 
	NIGERIA 
	ANEMIA, SICKLE CELL / * genet 
	BETA GLOBIN / * genet 
 
Novel genetic markers of rheumatoid arthritis in Chilean patients by restriction  
fragment length polymorphism analysis. 
	ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID / * genet 
	*RFLP 
	*GENETIC MARKERS 
	CHILI 
 
Thirty-one new RFLP systems detected by twenty-four DNA markers on human  
chromosome 10. 
	*RFLP 
	*CHROMOSOMES, HUMAN, PAIR 10 
	*GENETIC MARKERS 
	Do not add DNA / anal 
 

28.40.4	Restriction fragment length polymorphisms are inherited according to  
Mendelian rules.  They occur frequently enough to be useful for genetic mapping.   
The frequency of polymorphisms means that every individual has a unique  
constellation of restriction sites.  The existence of RFLP provides the basis  
for a technique to establish unequivocal parent-progeny relationships.  The use  
of DNA restriction analysis to identify individuals is called DNA  
FINGERPRINTING. Do not add RFLP to indexing. Do not add DNA / anal. 
 
The use of genetic differences between populations using DNA fingerprints. 
	*DNA FINGERPRINTING 
	*GENETICS, POPULATION 
 
The utility of DNA fingerprinting in forensic work. 
	*DNA FINGERPRINTING 
 

28.40.5	Several techniques routinely appear in these studies which analyze,  
separate, identify and sequence proteins and nucleic acids after they are  
digested into fragments by restriction enzymes.  AUTORADIOGRAPHY is used to  
detect radioisotope labeled molecules by their effect in creating an image on a  
photographic film.  CENTRIFUGATION is used to separate molecules that differ in  
mass or density.  Since it is difficult or virtually impossible to separate  
molecules by using chemical differences based on sequence differences, the  
unique length of a protein, RNA, or DNA molecule is measured for separation.   
MeSH provides several specific centrifugation headings. ELECTROPHORESIS, AGAR  
GEL is a technique based on the fact that dissolved molecules in an electric  
field move at a speed determined by their charge-mass ratio.  If two molecules  
have the same mass and shape, the one with the greater charge will move faster  
toward an electrode.  Nucleic acids with identical charge-mass ratios separate  
according to length, with the longer ones moving more slowly. ELECTROPHORESIS,  
GEL, TWO-DIMENSIONAL separates proteins in a sample by charge and then by size.   
Separation by charge is carried out by ISOELECTRIC FOCUSING. These proteins are  
then separated by ELECTROPHORESIS in a second dimension on the basis of size.   
Two dimensional gels are very useful in studying the expression of various genes  
in differentiated cells.  ELECTROPHORESIS, GEL, PULSED-FIELD is used to separate  
double-stranded DNA's in the range of 1-10 million base pairs. 
 
Unless a specific aspect of these techniques is the point of the article, they  
are indexed NIM or not at all since they are a routine part of many procedures. 
 

28.40.6	Because the ultimate functions of nucleic acids and proteins depend  
on the linear sequence of their monomers (BASE SEQUENCE, AMINO ACID SEQUENCE),  
research in molecular biology relies heavily on techniques that reveal and  
compare sequences. MeSH does not include the heading gene sequencing, therefore  
use BASE SEQUENCE for these articles. 
 

28.40.6.1	The sequence information in these studies varies in extent and type.  
Sometimes sequence relatedness is studied. MeSH headings include SEQUENCE  
ALIGNMENT (entry term SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT DETERMINATION), an E category heading,  
and SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY as the general heading with SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY, NUCLEIC  
ACID and SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY, AMINO ACID indented under it. The indexer must  
decide if the homology or the technique is discussed. Unless the technique is  
discussed at length it is usually not indexed. 
 
Bacterioferritins and ferritins are distinctly genetically related in evolution. 
	BACTERIOFERRITIN / * genet 
	FERRITIN / * genet 
	*SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY, NUCLEIC ACID 
	*EVOLUTION 
 
Homology of a candidate spermatogenic gene from the mouse Y chromosome to the  
ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1. 
	*Y CHROMOSOME 
	SPERMATOGENESIS / * genet 
	*SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY, NUCLEIC ACID 
	UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYME / * genet 
 
A novel randomized iterative strategy for aligning multiple protein sequences. 
	SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT / *methods 
	AMINO ACID SEQUENCE 
 
A new method for finding long consensus patterns in nucleic acid sequences. 
	SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT / *methods 
	*CONSENSUS SEQUENCE 
 

28.40.7	Often the studies seek to determine whether a particular sequence is  
present and its concentration in a cell or where within the genome the sequence  
of interest is located.  Sometimes the precise sequence of a protein or nucleic  
acid is studied.  A variety of techniques is used to address these questions and  
MeSH provides many headings to cover the recovery techniques. 
 

28.40.7.1	Under the conditions of temperature and ion concentration found in  
cells DNA is maintained as a double stranded structure.  These duplexes can be  
melted (NUCLEIC ACID DENATURATION) by changing the medium conditions and later  
reannealed.  In a mixture of nucleic acids only complementary strands  
reassociate (NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION).  Molecular hybridization can take  
place between DNA and RNA strands or between complementary strands of DNA or  
RNA.  ELECTRON MICROSCOPY of molecular hybrids can reveal the sequence  
relatedness of two nucleic acid samples. 
 

28.40.7.2	IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION is used for the identification of specific  
nucleic acids in chromosomes or in specific cell types. Cells are exposed to  
heat or acid, which fixes the cell contents in place on glass slides, and then  
exposed to labeled DNA or RNA or oligonucleotide, radioactive or non-radioactive  
(MOLECULAR PROBES) which reacts with the target DNA or RNA. Radioactive labels  
are usually 32P, 3H or 35S.  Non-radioactive labels are biotin or digoxigenin.  
The label is measured using autoradiography or densitometry or fluorescence  
microscopy. 
 
	MeSH trees these probes as follows: 
		MOLECULAR PROBES 
			NUCLEIC ACID PROBES 
				DNA PROBES 
					DNA PROBES, HLA 
					DNA PROBES, HPV 
				OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES 
				RNA PROBES 
 
If the probe is the point of the article it is indexed IM. 
 
Co-expression of cholecystokinin mRNA and tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA in  
populations of rat substantia nigra cells; a study using combined radioactive  
and non-radioactive in situ hybridization procedure. 
	SUBSTANTIA NIGRA / * metab 
	IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION / * methods 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * biosyn 
	CHOLECYSTOKININ / * biosyn 
	TYROSINE HYDROXYLASE / * biosyn 
 
In-situ hybridization using digoxigenin-labelled probes in human skin. 
	IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION / * methods 
	*DIGOXIGENIN 
	RNA, MESSENGER / * anal 
	*MOLECULAR PROBES 
	SKIN / * chem 
 
Comparison of biotinylated DNA and RNA probes for the rapid detection of  
varicella-zoster virus genome by in situ hybridization. 
	*BIOTIN 
	*DNA PROBES 
	*RNA PROBES 
	*GENOME, VIRAL  
	*IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION 
	VARICELLA-ZOSTER VIRUS / *isol / genet 
 
When indexing the IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION technique, unless discussed  
substantially, the probe, label, and autoradiography are routine parts of the  
procedure and not indexed. 
 

28.40.7.3	MeSH provides the heading MOLECULAR PROBE TECHNIQUES and the  
specifics BLOTTING, NORTHERN and BLOTTING, SOUTHERN. Southern blotting transfers  
denatured fragments obtained from a restriction enzyme digest of DNA or, whole  
chromosomes, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and transferred to a  
nitrocellulose filter.  After the DNA has been immobilized on the nitrocellulose  
it is hybridized with a labeled probe, either DNA or RNA, which is visualized by  
autoradiography. 
 
Northern blot is used to detect the presence of specific RNA molecules. A DNA or  
RNA probe is used for hybridization. 
 
BLOTTING, WESTERN is used to reveal the presence of specific proteins by  
exposing radioactive antibodies against the proteins to the nitrocellulose sheet  
containing the blotted proteins. MeSH does not classify this heading under  
MOLECULAR PROBE TECHNIQUES.  Do not add NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION, MOLECULAR  
PROBES or AUTORADIOGRAPHY when indexing MOLECULAR PROBE TECHNIQUES or specifics  
unless specifically discussed. 
 
Gen-Probe rapid diagnostic system for distinguishing between Mycobacterium avium  
and Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. 
	*MOLECULAR PROBE TECHNIQUES 
	MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM / * isol 
	MYCOBACTERIUM PARATUBERCULOSIS / * isol 
	BACTERIAL TYPING TECHNIQUES 
 
Detection of RNA on northern blots by negative staining with aurintricarboxylic  
acid. 
	*AURINTRICARBOXYLIC ACID 
	*MOLECULAR PROBES 
	RNA / * anal 
	*BLOTTING, NORTHERN 
	do not add MOLECULAR PROBE TECHNIQUES 
 

28.40.8	A powerful technique, POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR), can  
selectively and repeatedly replicate selected segments from a complex DNA  
mixture.  The protocol involves: 
	1) Cutting DNA by restriction endonucleases 
	2) Denaturing the DNA by heat 
	3) Annealing or hybridization of two oligonucleotide primers synthesized  
to be complementary to known sequences of the target DNA  
	4) Adding deoxynucleotides 
	5) Adding Taq polymerase to synthesize a single strand from the 3'-OH end  
of each primer 
	6) Cycling the temperature to denaturation and annealing. 
 
	Elongation occurs successively 
 
All previously synthesized products act as templates for new primer-extension  
reactions (DNA synthesis) in each ensuing cycle.  The result of this chain  
reaction is the geometric amplification of the new DNA product. 
 
When indexing POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION do not add GENE AMPLIFICATION or DNA /  
biosyn but add any specific DNA studied. When a title reads "Cancer diagnosis by  
gene amplification" check the article to see if it is actually using the PCR  
technique. When indexing PCR do not  automatically add TAQ POLYMERASE or NUCLEIC  
ACID DENATURATION or NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION unless specifically discussed. 
 
This technique can be used in the diagnosis of diseases associated with a  
particular sequence change. 
 
Prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies using PCR. 
	THALASSEMIA / * diag / genet 
	HEMOGLOBINOPATHIES / * diag / genet 
	*PCR 
	PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS / * methods 
	FETAL DISEASES / * diag 
 
Diagnostic value of the polymerase chain reaction for Chlamydia infections as  
determined in a follow-up study. 
	*PCR 
	DNA, BACTERIAL / * anal 
	CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS / genet / *isol 
	CHLAMYDIA INFECTIONS / * diag  
 
PCR can be used for the detection of organisms: 
 
Identification of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by the polymerase chain  
reaction. 
	CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE / *class / genet 
	*PCR 
	CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE TOXIN / * genet 
	DNA, BACTERIAL / * anal 
	CYTOTOXINS / * genet 
	BACTERIAL TYPING TECHNIQUES 
 
A search for Pneumocystis carinii in post-mortem lungs by DNA amplification. 
	LUNG / *microbiol 
	PNEUMOCYSTIS CARINII / *isol / genet 
	DNA, FUNGAL / * anal 
	*PCR 
 
PCR allows DNA to be amplified from very small samples, which is useful for  
diagnostic and forensic purposes. 
 
DNA analysis in human bone and other specimens of forensic interest by PCR. 
	BONE AND BONES / * chem 
	FORENSIC MEDICINE / * methods 
	*PCR 
Identification of a murder victim by DNA analysis. 
	*FORENSIC MEDICINE 
	*PCR 
	HOMICIDE 
 

28.40.9	PROTEIN ENGINEERING is an area of molecular biology which  
experiments with the production, by recombinant methods, of proteins  
(RECOMBINANT PROTEINS) in sufficient quantities for detailed biochemical,  
biological, and biophysical study. The studies focus on the factors that will  
influence the quantity and quality of the product, such as transcription  
efficiency, translation efficiency, gene copy number, mRNA and protein product  
stability, post-transcriptional modification, host viability, and secretion  
capability. 
 
These techniques are also used in the production of many therapeutically  
important biological substances including insulin, human growth hormone and the  
interferons. as well as diagnostic reagents and vaccines.  MeSH lists several  
specific RECOMBINANT PROTEINS.  In indexing, add the heading to distinguish  
between recombinant and non-recombinant protein engineering.  If a recombinant  
protein is produced by a drug company and has a generic or trade name assigned  
to it, it should be indexed under the name of the protein (IM) plus RECOMBINANT  
PROTEINS (NIM). 
 
Construction and expression of antibody-tumor necrosis factor fusion proteins. 
	RECOMBINANT FUSION PROTEINS / * biosyn 
	*PROTEIN ENGINEERING 
	TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR / * genet 
	IMMUNOTOXINS / * biosyn 
 
Protein engineering of chymosin and expression in Trichoderma. 
	TRICHODERMA / * metab 
	CHYMOSIN / * biosyn / genet 
	*PROTEIN ENGINEERING 
	RECOMBINANT PROTEINS /  biosyn 
	GENE EXPRESSION 
 
Engineering a novel beta-lactamase by a single point mutation. 
	*MUTAGENESIS, SITE-DIRECTED 
	PROTEIN ENGINEERING / * methods 
	BETA LACTAMASES / *genet 
	POINT MUTATION