CHAPTER 30	INDEXING PRINCIPLES FOR CATEGORY I 
	(SOCIAL SCIENCES) 
 

30.1		Category I is devoted to the subject of sociology and the social  
sciences (I3), to education (I2) and to various other human activities (I3). 
 

30.2		Terms in Category I tend to be indexed as IM and are seldom required  
as NIM parameters (but see 30.5 below). 
 

30.3		The subheadings available for use with Category I are 
 
/classification				/methods 
/economics				/organization & administration 
/education				/prevention & control 
/ethnology				/psychology 
/history				/standards 
/injuries				/statistics & numerical data 
/legislation &				/supply & distribution 
jurisprudence				/trends 
/manpower				/utilization 
 

30.4		The subheadings above are not allowed with all Category I terms;  
check each term for allowed qualifiers. 
 

30.5		Such headings as ANTHROPOLOGY, CRIMINOLOGY, ETHNOLOGY, SOCIOLOGY,  
etc., are used as subject fields but also may be used for respectively,  
"anthropological aspects of", "sociological aspects of", "criminological aspects  
of",  "ethnological aspects of", "sociological aspects of", etc., specific  
subjects. Tend to index articles of this nature under the specific subject (IM)  
and the I category terms NIM. 
 

30.6		ETHNOLOGY is both a main heading and a subheading. ETHNOLOGY is used  
to index general articles on ethnology as a field of science or as a profession.   
Most articles found in INDEX MEDICUS, however, will not  be on ethnology as a  
profession: but will deal instead with an ethnological facet of a specific  
subject, such as the ethnological aspects of risk-taking. Index these general  
aspects under the specific subject (IM) with /ethnology if permitted or else  
coordinate with ETHNOLOGY (NIM). 
 

30.6.1	The subheading /ethnology is allowed with diseases (Category C and  
F3), social sciences (Category I) and with geographical terms (Category Z). 
 
/ethnology is used to express the ethnic, cultural, anthropological, or racial  
aspects of diseases. For general articles do not coordinate with ETHNIC GROUPS  
or RACIAL STOCKS: /ethnology is adequate. 
 
For use of /ethnology with Category C and Z see the illustrations in 19.8.32.  
Coordinate a specific ethnic group or specific racial stock with /ethnology. 
 

30.6.2	Index a specific ethnic group in MeSH (IM), adding if relevant (and  
it usually is) a geographic term (NIM) from Category Z. 
 
Index an ethnic group not in MeSH under ETHNIC GROUPS (IM) coordinated with a  
geographic term. If the ethnic group is no longer in its native country, index  
their native land with /ethnology and index a geographic term without the  
subheading as the adopted locale. 
 

30.6.2.1	ABORIGINES is treed under ETHNIC GROUPS. If the Aborigines are  
considered as an ethnic goup, for instance in cultural, psychological or  
sociological studies, index ABORIGINES + country. 
 
Health promotion for Aboriginal communities. 
* HEALTH PROMOTION 
* ABORIGINES 
country (NIM) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
If however the article discusses Aborigines as a racial stock in physiological,  
genetic, or anatomical studies, index ABORIGINES, specify race and country; and  
if a disease study, coordinate /ethnology with the disease. 
 
Chronic rheumatic heart disease in the Australian Aborigines. 
RHEUMATIC HEART DISEASE / * ethnol 
CHRONIC DISEASE 
* ABORIGINES 
* AUSTRALOID RACE 
AUSTRALIA (NIM) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

30.6.3	The examples below illustrate the use of ETHNOLOGY and ETHNIC  
GROUPS. Note particularly the use of a geographic term with and without the  
subheading /ethnology. Note also the presence or absence of the heading ETHNIC  
GROUPS in relation to a specific ethnic group indented in the tree under this  
general term. 
 
Training in ethnology for social psychologists. 
ETHNOLOGY/ * educ 
PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL / * educ 
 
The contribution of ethnology to epidemiology. 
* ETHNOLOGY 
* EPIDEMIOLOGY 
 
Ethnological aspects of wife-beating. 
SPOUSE ABUSE / * ethnol 
MALE (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Ethnological aspects of diabetes. 
DIABETES MELLITUS / * ethnol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Family characteristics among various ethnic groups. 
FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS / * ethnol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Family characteristics of New York City Jews. 
FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS / * ethnol 
* JEWS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
NEW YORK CITY / epidemiol 
 
Mental disorders in Indians of the Southwest. 
MENTAL DISORDERS / * ethnol 
INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN / * psychol 
SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES / epidemiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Food habits of Hispanic Americans from Puerto Rico. 
* HISPANIC AMERICANS 
FOOD HABITS / * ethnol 
	HUMAN (check tag) 
UNITED STATES / epidemiol 
PUERTO RICO /  ethnol 
 
Alcoholism among Alaskan Eskimos. 
ALCOHOLISM /  * ethnol 
* ESKIMOS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
ALASKA / epidemiol 
 
Alcoholism among Alaskan Eskimos in Canada. 
ALCOHOLISM /  * ethnol 
* ESKIMOS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
ALASKA / ethnol 
CANADA / epidemiol 
 
Alcoholism  among American Jews and Italians. 
ALCOHOLISM / * ethnol 
* JEWS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
UNITED STATES / epidemiol 
ITALY / ethnol 
 

30.6.4	RACIAL STOCKS (I1) must be differentiated from ETHNIC  GROUPS (I1  
and M1). If the article concerns the physical characteristics, genetic  
characteristics, anthropometric measurements, physiology, etc. of a group, the  
correct heading will be RACIAL STOCKS for general articles on race or one of the  
four specific racial stocks in MeSH: AUSTRALOID RACE, CAUCASOID RACE, MONGOLOID  
RACE and NEGROID RACE. See example of Aborigines 30.6.2.1. 
 
If the article is on the cultural, psychological, social, sociological or  
ethnological aspects of a people or a group of people, index under ETHNIC GROUPS  
or the specific ethnic group in MeSH: ESKIMOS; INDIANS, NORTH AMERICAN; JEWS;  
BLACKS and etc. as detailed in 30.6.3. 
 
When indexing in this area, distinguish carefully between the physical or  
genetic (racial) and the social or sociological (ethnic). Sometimes authors tend  
to use "ethnic" in their titles when they mean "racial". Examine the text and  
follow the distinction given above. 
 

30.6.5	Index RACIAL STOCKS or a specific race (IM) coordinated with the  
specific subject of the article (IM) and a geographical location from Category  
Z. 
 

30.6.5.1	Do not assume that you must index under a race term every time you  
index with a geographic term as demanded by the article. That is, while the  
population of the Ivory Coast is predominantly black, an article on: 
 
The incidence of Burkitt's Lymphoma in the Ivory Coast. 
BURKITT'S LYMPHOMA / * epidemiol 
IVORY COAST / epidemiol 
INCIDENCE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
but not also under BLACKS or NEGROID RACE. 
 
Do not add a racial or ethnic concept unless it is particularly discussed by the  
author as racial or ethnic.  
Diabetes in China. 
DIABETES MELLITUS / * epidemiol 
CHINA  / epidemiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
but do not add routinely MONGOLOID RACE. 
 
The incidence of obesity in the United States. 
OBESITY /  * epidemiol 
UNITED STATES / epidemiol 
INCIDENCE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
(The author does not discuss any racial or ethnic groups.) 
 

30.6.5.2	By the MeSH definition of /ethnology, this subheading may be used  
with reference to race as well as to ethnicity. See 19.8.32. 
 

30.6.6	Since BLACKS is treed with ETHNIC GROUPS and NEGROID RACE with  
RACIAL STOCKS, the indexer must differentiate between the word blacks in a title  
or text as described in 30.6.4 for racial and ethnic aspects. 
 
The following hypothetical titles will guide the indexer in differentiating  
between the headings BLACKS and NEGROID RACE. 
 
Blood groups in blacks. (physiology) 
* NEGROID RACE 
* BLOOD GROUPS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Educational achievement among African-Americans.(cultural or social) 
* BLACKS 
* EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT 
UNITED STATES 
 
A case of postoperative complication in appendicitis. (although the author  
states that the patient is black, this is irrelevant) 
APPENDICITIS  / * surg 
* POSTOP COMPL 
HUMAN (check tag) 
MALE or FEMALE (check tag) 
AGE (check tag) 
CASE REPORT (check tag) 
 
Diabetes among blacks. (physiology) 
* NEGROID RACE 
DIABETES MELLITUS / * ethnol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
if dietary - cultural: 
* BLACKS 
DIABETES MELLITUS / * ethnol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Epidemiology of yaws in Central Africa. (an epidemiological study by country or  
geographic location: neither BLACKS nor NEGROID RACE is relevant unless the  
author makes a special point of ethnicity or race) 
YAWS / * epidemiol 
AFRICA, CENTRAL / epidemiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

30.6.7	It is not necessary to index under CAUCASOID RACE unless the author  
makes a point of it. WHITES is available as an ethnic group. When a title  
compares BLACKS and WHITES, both should be indexed. 
 
A comparison of diets of blacks and whites in three areas of the United States. 
DIET / * statist 
BLACKS / * statist 
WHITES / * statist 
UNITED STATES 
COMP STUDY (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Hemodynamic responses to exercise in blacks and whites. 
* NEGROID RACE 
* CAUCASOID RACE 
HEMODYNAMICS / * physiol 
EXERCISE / * physiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

30.7		EDUCATION and all terms in Category I2 will probably be indexed as  
IM. 
 
Many of the headings overlap considerably in concept, and titles of articles use  
many of these words loosely and sometimes interchangeably. Another word often  
used non-restrictively in articles is "training". 
 

30.7.1	EDUCATION refers basically to the field of imparting knowledge but  
it also includes both the imparting of information and the acquiring of it. It  
can be used in indexing as a discipline for the field of education as a  
profession and for its practitioners, the educators. When used thus EDUCATION is  
usually IM. 
 

30.7.2	The subheading /education is available for use with the various  
disciplines, professions and fields in MeSH. In accordance with the policy of  
using a subheading when possible in preference to a main heading duplicate, the  
subheading /education will receive more use than EDUCATION. See section 19.8.28. 
 

30.7.3	When indexing in the area of education, the indexer must choose from  
among the variety of MeSH terms available in relation to the slant of the  
article. In general be guided by the grouping below: 
 
EDUCATION			the discipline or profession of imparting and acquiring  
knowledge. 
SCHOOLS			the physical plants and facilities where education is  
given and received. 
FACULTY			the persons imparting knowledge 
STUDENTS			the  persons receiving knowledge 
TEACHING			the activity of the faculty 
LEARNING			the activity of the student 
CURRICULUM			the arrangement of material taught 
 
While the words EDUCATION, SCHOOLS, FACULTY, etc., are used to illustrate the  
scope of the terms above, the indexer will, more often than not, encounter  
instead EDUCATION, MEDICAL and specific related headings; SCHOOLS, MEDICAL;  
FACULTY, MEDICAL and dental and nursing, etc., 
 

30.7.4	When indexing in the field of medical, dental, pharmacy and nursing  
education, index under the specific subject with the subheading /education (IM)  
and coordinate with the specific type of education (IM) EDUCATION, MEDICAL;  
EDUCATION, NURSING etc. Use when available the specific level of advancement  
(IM) EDUCATION, PREMEDICAL; EDUCATION, DENTAL, GRADUATE; EDUCATION, NURSING,  
BACCALAUREATE etc. 
 
Premedical training in biology. 
BIOLOGY / * educ 
* EDUCATION, PREMEDICAL 
 
Microbiology for the predental student. 
MICROBIOLOGY / * educ 
* EDUCATION, PREDENTAL 
 
Psychology for graduate nurses' training. 
PSYCHOLOGY / * educ 
* EDUCATION, NURSING, GRADUATE 
 
Master's degree programs for podiatrists. 
PODIATRY / * educ 
* EDUCATION, GRADUATE 
 
See section 19.8.28 for more examples. 
 

30.7.5	If the subheading /education is not allowed with the appropriate  
MeSH heading, index under the specific heading required, without a subheading  
(IM) and coordinate IM the proper, most specific EDUCATION main heading. 
 
The training of a practicing surgeon in laparoscopic surgery. 
* SURGERY, LAPAROSCOPIC 
SURGERY / * educ 
* EDUCATION, MEDICAL, CONTINUING 
 
The training of the medical technician in blood protein electrophoresis. 
* BLOOD PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS 
TECHNOLOGY, MEDICAL / * educ 
 

30.8		SCHOOLS  and the more commonly used SCHOOLS, MEDICAL and others in  
this tree usually refer to specifically named schools, like the University of  
Pennsylvania School of Medicine or Christchurch Clinical School. The school  
headings can, however, be used generically as in  "Optimum lighting in schools"  
or "A directory of medical schools". 
 
Index a specific school under the heading SCHOOLS or one of the specific  
indentions (IM) and a geographical heading (NIM) to locate it. 
 
A school in a psychiatric hospital in New York City. 
* SCHOOLS 
* HOSPITALS, PSYCHIATRIC 
NEW YORK CITY 
 
The changing role of the medical and dental school. 
SCHOOLS, MEDICAL / * trends 
SCHOOLS, DENTAL / * trends 
* ROLE 
 
A description of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. 
* SCHOOLS, MEDICAL 
PENNSYLVANIA 
but not also under UNIVERSITIES. 
 

30.9		FACULTY and related faculty terms are for the teaching staff and  
members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational  
institution. FACULTY or the specific faculty term will generally discuss the  
personal or professional identity of the faculty. 
 
The recreational preferences of teachers. 
* RECREATION 
FACULTY / * psychol 
see other example in section 19.8.28 
 

30.10		TEACHING is the educational process of instructing. TEACHING will  
tend to imply the act of teaching whereas FACULTY implies the people teaching. 
 
Methods of teaching physics. 
TEACHING / * methods 
PHYSICS / * educ 
 

30.11	Articles will be indexed under STUDENTS when the author is writing on  
students as individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program. 
 
The indexer should carefully determine whether the word "student" is used by the  
author as defined above or merely to describe the age group in the author's  
study. 
 
The TV viewing habits of students. 
* TELEVISION 
STUDENTS / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Reading preferences of high school students. 
* READING or * LITERATURE 
STUDENTS / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
(if the author means students as a specific group.)  
 
* READING or * LITERATURE 
* ADOLESCENT PSYCHOL 
ADOLESCENCE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
if the author meant "high school students" to mean adolescents. 
 

30.12	Articles on LEARNING are seldom encountered in education journals. In  
INDEX MEDICUS they are met more frequently in psychology journals where the  
emphasis is on the learning process and attendant mechanisms in man and animal.  
Note that LEARNING is not treed with the EDUCATION terms in this category: it is  
in Category F with the psychology headings. 
 

30.13	Articles on specific disciplines and courses in a curriculum are indexed  
under the name of the discipline or subject with the subheading /education if  
permitted by definition or allowed qualifiers (IM), under the specific EDUCATION  
term to show the type of education and the educational level (IM) and CURRICULUM  
(IM). 
 
Medical technology courses in medical school. 
TECHNOLOGY, MEDICAL / * educ 
* EDUCATION, MEDICAL, UNDERGRADUATE 
* CURRICULUM 
 
Courses on recent advances in contraception for continuing education classes for  
nurses. 
* CONTRACEPTION 
* EDUCATION, NURSING, CONTINUING 
* CURRICULUM 
 

30.14		Category I3 is HUMAN ACTIVITIES (Non MeSH) and will usually require  
the check tag HUMAN. 
 
Auditory perception during automobile driving. 
* AUTOMOBILE DRIVING 
* AUDITORY PERCEPTION 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

30.15	SPORTS, the activities, should be differentiated from SPORTS MEDICINE, the  
specialty dealing with the medical or physiological aspect of SPORTS.  
 
If a sport indented under SPORTS is the subject of an article, index under the  
specific sport (IM). If the article is on a physiological or medical aspect of  
sports in general or of a specific sport, index under the physiological or  
medical aspect (IM) and SPORTS (IM) or the specific sport (IM). Do not index  
under SPORTS MEDICINE (the specialty). If an injury is discussed, index under  
the specific injury (IM) and the specific sport (in MeSH) with /injuries or with  
ATHLETIC INJURIES in a sport not in MeSH as a main heading. Do not add SPORTS  
MEDICINE. 
 
The personality of the sportsman. 
SPORTS / * psychol 
* PERSONALITY 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Preference for sports as related to birth order. 
* BIRTH ORDER 
SPORTS / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Research in sports medicine in the United States. 
* SPORTS MEDICINE 
RESEARCH 
UNITED STATES 
 
Circulatory competence in experienced joggers. 
* BLOOD CIRCULATION 
JOGGING / * physiol 
HUMAN  (check tag) 
 
Respiratory function tests during skating. 
SKATING / * physiol 
* RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Respiration in handball players (handball is not in MeSH). 
SPORTS / * physiol 
* RESPIRATION 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Injuries in sports. 
* ATHLETIC INJURIES 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Volley ball injuries (volley ball is not in MeSH). 
* ATHLETIC INJURIES 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Injuries to skaters. 
SKATING / * inj 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

30.15.1	When indexing injuries in a specific sport or ATHLETIC INJURIES  
index also under the specific injury (IM). See also section 19.8.28 and 23.23.2. 
 
Fractures of the nose in lacrosse. 
LACROSSE / * inj 
NASAL BONES / * inj 
SKULL FRACTURES / * etiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Dislocation of the shoulder in football players. 
FOOTBALL / * inj 
SHOULDER DISLOCATION / * etiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Tooth fracture in adolescent sports. 
TOOTH FRACTURES / * etiol 
* ATHLETIC INJURIES 
ADOLESCENCE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag)