CHAPTER 32		INDEXING PRINCIPLES FOR CATEGORY K 
	(HUMANITIES) 
 

32.1		Category K is devoted to the humanities: art, history, philosophy  
and religion. 
 
		For the most part terms in this category are IM.  The area of  
HISTORY OF MEDICINE merits special consideration since there is special policy  
for this term because of its relation to the publication types and check tags.   
See 32.4, 32.5 and 32.17. 
 

32.2		The K list of allowed subheadings includes the following: 
			/classification		/psychology 
			/education		/statistics & numerical data 
			/history		/trends 
 
		Review the AQ list for individual terms to determine which ones are  
allowed.  In many cases there are not enough articles in the course of a year to  
subdivide the entries in Index Medicus. 
 
		For indexing the subheading /history, see 19.8.36. 
 

32.3		Reserve HISTORY for general articles on the concept of history in  
mankind's time on this planet or for history as a field or discipline.  In most  
cases the subheading /history with a MeSH heading is the correct indexing and  
not the main heading HISTORY at all. 
 
		A sense of history is indexed as HISTORY (IM).  The historian's view  
of history is indexed as HISTORY (IM).  The history of science is indexed  
SCIENCE/history but not as HISTORY. 
 

32.4		Reserve HISTORY OF MEDICINE for the most general of articles where  
either the entire range of time in the history of medicine is at issue or where  
no specific time segment is important.  Do not use it as a coordinate for  
history of medicine articles on specific medical subjects. 
 
		Building a medical history collection is indexed as HISTORY OF  
MEDICINE (IM) + LIBRARIES, MEDICAL (IM). The history of tuberculosis throughout  
the ages is indexed as TUBERCULOSIS/history (IM) and not HISTORY OF MEDICINE;  
"throughout the ages" is covered by all pertinent chronological check tags and  
the publication type Historical Article (PT). 
 

32.5		HISTORY OF MEDICINE is used relatively little since our system,  
considering this area so important, has insti- tuted the use of specially  
designed historical tags: publication types Historical Article (PT) and  
Biography (PT), and check tags HISTORY OF MEDICINE, ANCIENT; HISTORY OF  
MEDICINE, MEDIEVAL; HISTORY OF MEDICINE, MODERN and its specific centuries in  
Category K, to be sought out in every article for routine indexing.  HISTORY OF  
MEDICINE, MODERN, even though present in the check tag list, is not used as a  
check tag (see 32.6.2). 
 

32.6		The rules governing the publication types are found in 17.42 and  
32.15+ for Historical Article (PT) and 17.13 and 32.16+ for Biography (PT).   
Those covering the chronological terms (HISTORY OF MEDICINE, ANCIENT; HISTORY OF  
MEDICINE, 15TH CENT., etc.) are found in 32.17+. 
 

32.6.1	HISTORY OF MEDICINE, EARLY MODERN will generally only be used by  
HISTLINE indexers to denote the 15th and 16th centuries.  Since there are only  
two indentions under this term, the rule of three does not apply, so MEDLINE  
indexers should use the individual centuries for either IM or NIM. 
 

32.6.2	HISTORY OF MEDICINE, MODERN should be used only as an IM term when  
more than three of the specific centuries (17th - 20th) are wanted as IM.  In  
such a case use HISTORY OF MEDICINE, MODERN (IM) and use the check tags for the  
individual centuries.  HISTORY OF MEDICINE, MODERN should never be used as a  
check tag. 
 

32.7		HISTORY OF DENTISTRY and HISTORY OF NURSING are likewise for general  
articles only.  They are not to be used as coordinates for dental headings or  
nursing headings with the subheading /history. 
 
			19th century dentistry in England. 
				* HISTORY OF DENTISTRY 
				ENGLAND  
				HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 19TH CENT. (check tag) 
				Historical Article (PT) 
 
			19th century periodontics. 
				PERIODONTICS /*history  
				HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 19TH CENT. (check tag) 
				Historical Article (PT) 
				not HISTORY OF DENTISTRY 
 
			Nursing in the 17th century. 
				* HISTORY OF NURSING 
				HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 17TH CENT. (check tag) 
				Historical Article (PT) 
 
			Pediatric nursing in the early 20th century. 
				PEDIATRIC NURSING /*history 
				HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 20TH CENT. (check tag) 
				Historical Article (PT) 
				not HISTORY OF NURSING 
 
			Early tuberculosis nursing in British Columbia. 
				Tuberculosis /*history 
				Tuberculosis /nursing 
				Historical Article (PT) 
				Human (to coordinate with Tuberculosis) 
				British Columbia 
				appropriate century check tags 
 

32.8		Do not index current biographies or obituaries of physicians,  
dentists or nurses under HISTORY OF MEDICINE, HISTORY OF DENTISTRY or HISTORY OF  
NURSING.  The handling of biographies and obituaries is discussed in 32.16. 
 

32.9		Often classical articles are reprinted in journals currently  
indexed.  They are handled as historical articles with the original author made  
the biographee whose name is supplied in Field 15.  In addition, in keeping with  
cataloging policy, the author's name is also entered as author in Field 10.  If  
there are more than three au-thors, enter them in the author field (Field 10)  
but leave Field 15 (Subject) blank.  See 32.18.5. 
 
		The title of the reprinted classic is marked to include the rubric  
[classical article] and the original date of publication.  The indexer must add  
Classical Article (PT).  The online indexing system adds this PT in response to  
the rubric in the title. 
 

32.9.1	Descriptive indexing of classical articles 
 
		Unfortunately there is no uniform format among publishers and  
editors in their presentation of classical articles.  Descriptive indexing will  
have to be tailored to each type.  Certain elements, however, must always be  
present: 
 
		- identification as a classical article by the rubric and    the  
publication type 
		- the title of the classical article being cited 
		- the author or authors of the classical article 
		- the year the classical article was originally written 
		- sometimes the title of the periodical or book in which the article  
was originally published if it appears as  part of the title and not as a  
footnote 
		- do not add an author affiliation 
		- do not add an abstract 
 
		The author of the classical article will be cited as the author in  
the usual way, using the Index Medicus form for citation of authors: last name  
followed by one or two initials with not punctuation (Freud S for Sigmund Freud,  
Pott P for Percival Pott, Lister J for Joseph Lister). 
 
		Except for the presence of a date and the rubric [classical article]  
after the title, the citation in the Index Medicus Subject and Author sections  
will be the same as that for the standard article currently written.  For  
example, a classical article written in 1905 by Mechnikov, entitled "Immunity in  
infective disease" will be cited with regard to the title as 
 
		Immunity in infective disease. 1905 [classical article] 
 
		It will appear in the Author Section under Mechnikov II with the  
title as above.  It will also appear under (Mechnikov II) as biographee to  
indicate the biographical nature of the article. 
 

32.9.2	Subject indexing of classical articles 
 
		- supply the author or authors of the classical article    in Field  
15 of the dataform (SUBJ NAME on Panel 5) in    addition to their citation as  
authors in Field 10        (Panel 3) 
		- index under the required subjects with the subheading    /history  
if appropriate 
		- make the specific subject IM 
		- do not add a very general specialty heading IM or NIM    unless  
the subject of the classic is a general one.      Classical articles, however,  
tend to be very specific. 
		- do not depth index since this is a historical article;    do not  
mislead the user into thinking the article was    written yesterday. 
		- do not index with specific age groups as is done with    standard  
articles 
		- do not check the tag CASE REPORT 
		- check the chronological tag for the date the classical    article  
was originally published 
		- use Historical Article (PT) 
		- use Biography (PT) 
		- use Journal Article (PT) if appropriate 
		- do not supply a geographic heading unless the classic    relates  
to geography 
		- index under PORTRAITS (NIM) if a portrait of the author    is  
present 
 

32.9.3	If the classical article is a translation from the original language  
include the translator(s) in the author field, following the original author.   
Use only the ori- ginal authors in the Subject Name field.  Add TRANSLATIONS  
(NIM). 
 

32.10		The main heading BIOGRAPHY is used for the writing of biography or  
for biography as a literary form.  Do not confuse it with Biography (PT).  See  
17.13 and  32.16	 for explanation of this publication type.  Because more  
emphasis in the MEDLARS system is placed on the indexing of biographical  
articles and biographical notes with the publication type and check tags, by  
comparison BIOGRAPHY is little used.  When it is, it is likely to be IM. 
 
		The value of oral biographies is indexed as BIOGRAPHY (IM).   
Research methods in biographical studies is indexed as BIOGRAPHY (IM) + RESEARCH  
/methods (NIM).  But a biography of William Osler is indexed as Osler W in Field  
15 (Panel 5) and Biography (PT) and Historical Article (PT) with other  
appropriate headings. 
 

32.11		AUTOBIOGRAPHY is used for articles on the writing of autobiographies  
or for autobiography as a literary form.  It is usually IM.  An autobiographical  
article or note by a physician or other figure in the biomedical fields is  
indexed under AUTOBIOGRAPHY (NIM).  Index, of course, under a subject with the  
subheading /history if pertinent and all the required biographical and  
historical publication types, check tags and geography as spelled out in 32.16.   
 
		Do not index a first-person account as AUTOBIOGRAPHY if it does not  
include the usual type of biographical information. 
 

32.12	FAMOUS PERSONS refers to persons conventionally known as "famous": great  
historical figures, famous musicians and artists, famous athletes, motion  
picture stars, etc. Biographical articles on such persons will be indexed only  
if there is reference to medical or biomedical subjects in the article. 
 
		FAMOUS PERSONS is usually IM and is indexed without a subheading.   
Coordinate with the field in which the subject is famous with the subheading  
/history (IM) and all appropriate tags.  The indexing rules for FAMOUS PERSONS  
are discussed in relation to biographies in 32.16.12 and 32.16.13.  If the  
famous personage is the subject of a note within the larger context of the  
article, then FAMOUS PERSONS should be NIM. 
 

32.13		MEDICINE, AYURVEDIC is indented under HISTORY OF MEDICINE.  It is  
also treed under MEDICINE, TRADITIONAL with MEDICINE, ARABIC,  MEDICINE, AFRICAN  
TRADITIONAL, and MEDICINE, ORIENTAL TRADITIONAL in categories E2 and I1.  These  
terms are intended to refer the great historical body of medical knowledge known  
as "Arabic medicine", "Hindu" or "Ayurvedic medicine" or "oriental medicine".   
They do not mean respectively, "medicine in Arabic coun- tries", "medicine in  
India" or "medicine in the Orient". 
 
		Use MEDICINE, ARABIC and MEDICINE, AYURVEDIC chiefly as historical  
concepts.  MEDICINE, TRADITIONAL and its in- dentions may be used for historical  
articles and for the application of historical practices in modern medicine.   
When indexing under any of these terms, do not forget to check all required  
historical publication types and his- torical check tags. A geographical heading  
is also re- quired. Modern applications of traditional medicine will  
		not require Historical Article (PT) or century check tags. 
 

32.14		Distinguish between the main heading PORTRAITS and the corresponding  
publication type (see 17.60).  Portraits (PT) is used for cataloging historical  
materials.  Index PORTRAITS as IM for this graphic art form as a subject. 
 
		Portraits of a confrontation: Abernethy and Lawrence. 
			*PORTRAITS 
			*INTERPROFESSIONAL RELATIONS 
			SOCIETIES, MEDICAL /*history 
			SURGERY /*history 
			ENGLAND 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 18TH CENT. (check tag) 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 19TH CENT. (check tag) 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			Abernethy J (subject name) 
			Lawrence W (subject name) 
 
		Neurologic diseases in portraits by the Old Masters. 
			*PORTRAITS 
			 NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES /*history 
			*MEDICINE IN ART 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			check tags for appropriate centuries 
			geographic term if pertinent 
 
		Portraits of famous schizophrenics. 
			*PORTRAITS 
			*MEDICINE IN ART 
			*FAMOUS PERSONS 
			SCHIZOPHRENIA /*history 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			check tags for appropriate centuries 
			geographic term if pertinent 
 

32.14.1	Index PORTRAITS as NIM every time a portrait of a health  
professional or scientist accompanies an historical article or a biographical  
article. 
 
		Index the article following all the rules for historical articles  
(32.15) or biographies of physicians and other scientists (32.16.7-8) and for  
FAMOUS PERSONS (32.16.12-13) but add also the main heading PORTRAITS (NIM).  Up  
to three subject names may be entered in Field 15 (Panel 5).  If there are more  
than three subjects (for instance for group portraits) index only with PORTRAITS  
(NIM), His-torical Article (PT) and appropriate check tags.  Do not add  
Biography (PT) if biographical information is not given.  In the latter case, do  
not make any entries of subject names in Field 15 (Panel 5).  Do not use the  
publication type Portraits. 
 
		PORTRAITS may refer to reproductions of photographs, paintings,  
statues, medallions, drawings, etchings, etc. - any kind of representation of  
persons.  However, do not use PORTRAITS for the "postage stamp" size photograph  
of the author which are routine in some journals. 
 
		Do not use PORTRAITS for famous persons who are not health  
professionals or scientists. 
 
		HISTORICAL ARTICLE, HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY and CURRENT BIOG-OBIT were  
citation types prior to 1991, and became publication types in that year.  As of  
1997, Historical Biography (PT) and Current Biog-Obit (PT) are replaced by  
Biography (PT).  Instructions for the use of these terms as publication types  
are found in 17.13 and 17.42.  The following section outlines indexing policy  
for these areas. 
 

32.15		Historical Article (PT) - Panel 5 w (19A on the dataform) 
 

32.15.1	Historical Article (PT) is used for the conventional meaning of  
history, historical note, or historical as- pects of a subject.  It should be  
used either for an article devoted entirely to a historical presentation of a  
subject or for a portion of an article giving a sub- stantive discussion on its  
historical aspects. The time frame may be in the distant past, but Historical  
Article (PT) may also be used for discussions of developments in the recent or  
immediate past, as for example, invention of the scanning electron microscope. 
 

32.15.2	Most articles checked as Historical Article (PT) will be historical  
articles or historical notes on the various fields of medicine and science, on  
specific diseases, on specific therapies, on specific techniques, etc.  
Historical articles on drugs are more likely to be on the great historical  
remedies like quinine and medicinal herbs rather than on the history of  
hydrochlorothiazide. 
 

32.15.3	If an article contains enough information on persons related to a  
specific subject heading being indexed to warrant indexing the article as a  
biography under the personal aspect also, then additional headings and  
additional PTs will be required as outlined in 32.16. 
 

32.15.4	If Historical Article (PT) is used, the indexer must account also  
for the date or "orientation in time" by checking one or more of the historical  
tags on Panel 5 (Field 20).  These are discussed in full in 32.17. 
 

32.15.5	One or more geographic headings from MeSH must nearly always be  
provided as coordination for historical items. The geographic term is usually a  
nation, in the interests of national pride in one's history. 
 
		Special attention is given here to historical locales.  MeSH has  
gathered together in category Z the HISTORICAL GEOGRAPHICALS (NON-MeSH),  
including ancient lands and more modern European entities as well as the  
countries of the Middle East and of the former Soviet Union. 
 
		Although MeSH has the headings GERMANY, WEST and GERMANY, EAST for  
the period 1949-1990, use GERMANY for historical material and for reunified  
Germany after October 3, 1990.  An article on Beethoven's deafness is indexed  
just as GERMANY.  Health care in Bonn in the 1970's is GERMANY, WEST.  Silicosis  
in the Thuringen region in the period 1985-1989 is GERMANY, EAST.  A joint FRG  
and GDR study on blood pressure is both GERMANY, EAST and GERMANY, WEST.  The  
future of health care programs for unified Germany is GERMANY. 
 
		Similarly, although MeSH lists main headings for Russia as both USSR  
(the Soviet Union) or as the various regions and republics within the USSR prior  
to December 1991, if the historical aspect refers to Czarist Russia, RUSSIA  
(PRE-1917) is the required heading.  See 36.12 for discussion of the  
COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES. 
 
		Ancient Rome and early London should be indexed as ROME (not ITALY)  
and LONDON (not ENGLAND) for historical notes if they are so specified in the  
article. 
 
		For more on geographic headings, see section 36. 
 

32.15.6	In historical articles or for historical notes index a main heading  
with the subheading /history.  Note that /history may be used with main headings  
from most cate- gories except A, B, F1-2, G4-12 and Z.  See Figure 32.15.6. 
 
	Figure 32.15.6 
 
			Note the publication type HIST ART, the subheading /history,  
the specific century and the geographic heading.  
 
	Figure 32.15.6, continued 
 

32.15.7	When the subheading/history is used with a main heading, whether IM  
or NIM, a History of Medicine chronological tag from Panel 5 (Field 19) c, d, f- 
k must be used. In contrast, if a chronological tag is indexed, the sub- heading  
/history should be considered for proper attach- ment to a main heading. 
 

32.15.8	Many main headings to which /history is attached require other check  
tags such as HUMAN, ANIMAL, MALE, or FEMALE.  These check tags must be supplied  
because the use of Historical Article (PT)-related historical tags for  
historical aspects of an article does not relieve the indexer of the  
responsibility of completely indexing the non-historical aspects of the article. 
 

32.15.9	Even though HUMAN, MALE or FEMALE may be required for coordination  
of disease terms in historical articles, do not use the CASE REPORT check tag,  
and do not check any ages. 
 

32.15.10	Dataform indexers may check the first box (A) in field 19 for HIST  
ART.  When this is keyed into the online indexing system the computer will  
translate to Historical Article (PT).  Online indexers may enter w on Panel 5 or  
type HIST ART on Panel 6.  When Panel 6 is validated, this will be translated to  
Historical Article (PT) and will appear above the check tags on Panel 6. 
 

32.16	Biography (PT) - Panel 5 x or y (19B or 19C on dataform) 
 
		Biographical articles are indexed only if they provide substantive  
information about the person's life and sig- nificant achievements in a field  
related to biomedicine. Both historical and current biographies are chosen ac-  
cording to the same criteria - there must be sufficient discussion of the  
subject's accomplishments to be of use to a historian of science or medicine.   
 
		The item should be examined carefully and should not be indexed  
unless it is substantive.  This criterion should be applied very strictly  
regardless of the language of the journal or the national origin of the  
biographee.  A mere listing of degrees earned or awarded and places where the  
subject worked is not sufficient. 
 
		Index Medicus defines "substantive" in this matter thus: the article  
should give the type of material which will be of value to a researcher  
requesting material on the subject.  If the article appears to be little more  
than a newspaper notice, it should not be included in Index Medicus.  A birthday  
greeting or homage on an anniversary does not automatically make the "article"  
eligible for indexing.  An obituary, too, should give the same type of material  
valuable to history researchers: an obituary which says little more than a death  
notice in a  news-paper, despite its respectful tone, likewise should not be  
indexed.  As a general rule, biographies should be at least two pages long in  
order to be considered substan- tive. 
 
		Biographical data are indexed by providing the name of the  
biographical subject in the subject name field of Panel 5 (Field 15 of the  
dataform), coordinating with the appropriate chronological check tags (c, d, f- 
k) on this panel (Field 20 of the dataform).  See 32.18 for more discussion of  
subject names.  All biographical articles must also be indexed with Historical  
Article (PT). 
 

32.16.1	The subject name is entered with the last name first and up to two  
initials, in inverted form, using upper and lower case letters, without  
punctuation.  For the indexing of two or more biographees, see 32.18.5. 
 

32.16.2	The chronological tags checked will be those for the period in which  
the biographee thrived and contributed to medicine or science.  Thus, a  
physician born in 1892 takes only 20TH CENT, but someone born in 1870 probably  
was active during both the last years of the 19th century and into the 20th  
century. 
 

32.16.3	Prior to 1997, Historical Biography (PT) was used for substantive  
material relating to persons who died before the calendar year preceding the  
date of publication of the journal in which the biography appeared.  Current  
Biog-Obit (PT) was used for biographies of living persons and for obituaries for  
persons who died within the year of publication or the previous year.  Both were  
used for the usual biographic accounts of a person's life, and also for articles  
describing or evaluating the person's medical or scientific contributions,  
whether or not they included details of his or her personal history.  As of  
1997, all biographies, regardless of the date of death or living status, will be  
indexed with Biography (PT). 
 

32.16.4	Online indexers will not see any change in Panel 5 for CIT/PUB TYPE.   
They may check either of the biographical publication types (x HIST BIOG) or (y  
BIOG OBIT), and the indexing system will convert them to Biography (PT) on Panel  
6.  Until dataforms are reprinted, indexers working on paper may also check  
either B or C in Field 19.  The data entry system will convert either  
publication type to Biography (PT). 
 

32.16.5	The entire article does not need to be exclusively bio- graphical in  
order to apply Biography (PT).  If a portion of a non-biographic article  
provides useful biographical information, the indexer may index the small  
biographic portion, providing the name of the subject in Field 15 and including  
the required publication types and check tags for dates. 
 

32.16.6	Remember, however, that the indexing of other aspects of the  
article, i.e., the subject aspects, must also be handled, with all the proper  
check tags applicable to the subject matter indexed. 
 

32.16.7	Most material requiring Biography (PT) will be on physi- cians and  
scientists closely related to or contributing to the field of medicine or a  
related discipline. This PT will also be used for medical aspects or medical  
notes on famous persons who were not or are not physicians or scientists. If  
there are no medical aspects in the biographical material of such famous  
persons, the biography is not in scope for Index Medicus and should not be  
selected for indexing. 
 

32.16.8	If a biographical article or note is on a physician or scientist,  
index in the following way routinely: 
 
		- under the name of the physician or scientist, for  printing in the  
Author Section of Index Medicus, by filling out Field 15 (SUBJ NAME on  
Panel 5) (See  32.18) 
		- under the specific field or specialty for which the person is  
known, following the examples below (see also 32.16.10) 
		- with Biography (PT) 
		- with Historical Article (PT) 
		- with a geographic heading 
		- with a chronological check tag on Panel 5 (Field 20) 
		- NOT under the heading PHYSICIANS 
		- NOT under the heading FAMOUS PERSONS 
		- NOT with the check tags HUMAN, MALE or FEMALE to identify  
the sex of the biographee 
		- with Journal Article (PT) or (possibly) Letter (PT) or  
Editorial (PT) 
 
		John Smith - a biographical note. (The text tells you he was a  
pediatrician.) 
			Smith J (subject name) 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			Journal Article (PT) 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 19TH CENT (check tag) 
			PEDIATRICS / history 
			UNITED STATES 
 
		Etienne-Jules Marey: 19th century cardiovascular physiologist and  
inventor of cinematography. 
			Marey EJ (subject name) 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			Journal Article (PT) 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 19TH CENT (check tag) 
			CINERADIOGRAPHY /* history 
			CARDIOLOGY / * history 
			FRANCE 
 
		The rules governing the indexing of biographical material were  
designed basically with physicians in mind, for they are the most important and  
most common biographees found in Index Medicus. This explains, therefore, why it  
is un-necessary to index a physician each time under PHYSICIANS or, in the case  
of "famous physicians", under FAMOUS PERSONS.  If the biographical subject is  
renowned in a non-medical field, but also happens to be a physician, do not add  
FAMOUS PERSONS, but do index the non-medical field. 
 
		The presence of Historical Article (PT) should suggest to the  
indexer that there should also be a main heading with the subheading /history on  
Panel 6 (Field 21).  If there is not a subject field with /history applicable,  
the indexer should reconsider whether the biography is indeed substantive enough  
to be indexed. 
 

32.16.9	In general, the geographic term used should be a country, rather  
than a political subdivision of a country.  For US subjects, unless their whole  
career was spent within one state, prefer UNITED STATES.  For persons who have  
emigrated from one country to another, prefer the country in which they have  
made their major medical or scientific accomplishments.  However, for those who  
have been active in more than one country, use all that are necessary.  In  
addition, persons who are famous for both their country of birth and the one of  
their later years should be indexed in both locations.  Thus Marie Curie would  
be indexed with both POLAND and FRANCE if the article discusses both countries. 
 

32.16.10	An article sometimes gives a list of the biographee's writings.  If  
it does, index also with Bibliography (PT).  If the article is accompanied by a  
list of books and articles about the person, add BIOBIBLIOGRAPHY (NIM) plus  
Bibliography (PT).  See section 33.6. 
 

32.16.11	A biographical article may contain material on the con- tribution of  
the person to a specific field or a specific subject.  On the other hand, an  
article on a specific field or subject may contain biographical material on a  
physician or scientist. 
 
		The amount of material discussed will determine whether the article  
is predominantly IM for the subject or predominantly a biography with subject  
matter incidental and NIM.  Sometimes they are equal in importance. The indexer  
will make the decision based on the text, but in any event the subject field  
will be indexed with the subheading /history and all the required check tags,  
whether IM or NIM.  In most biographical articles the subject is incidental and  
therefore NIM. 
 
		An article entitled "John Smith" is likely to be basically a  
biographical article on John Smith, with his contribution to a specialty  
incidental.  This will usually be indexed as a biographical article with the  
required tags; the specialty, with /history, will be NIM.  Most articles are  
like this. 
 
		An article entitled "John Smith: his place in dermatology" or "John  
Smith and his contribution to dermatology" will be indexed with the proper  
biographical tags, but this time the specialty, with /history, is IM.  If the  
specialty appears in the title, it is probably discussed enough to be IM. 
 

32.16.12	Biography (PT) will be used also for famous persons not in the field  
of medicine or related disciplines, such as great historical figures, famous  
artists, musicians, writers, members of royal families, motion picture stars,  
baseball players, etc.  Biographies of famous persons living or recently dead  
should not be selected for indexing if there is no medically-oriented  
information in the article.  Substantive news items about specific persons will  
be handled as Biography (PT) in order to include the person in the subject name  
field. 
 

32.16.13	Articles on famous persons will be indexed in the follow- ing places  
routinely: 
 
		- under the name of the famous person for printing in the  
Author Section of Index Medicus, by filling out Field 15 (see 32.18) 
		- under the heading FAMOUS PERSONS (usually IM), without  
/history.  If the biographical information is not the main point of the  
article, FAMOUS PERSONS will be NIM. 
		- under the heading for the specific field the person was  
famous for as IM with /history if permitted and a disease, if pertinent, as  
IM with /history 
		- with Biography (PT) for the person 
		- with Historical Article (PT) for the subject areas 
		- under a geographic heading 
		- under a chronological check tag from Panel 5 (Field 20) 
		- NOT under HUMAN, MALE or FEMALE for the person, but under  
whatever check tags that are required if a disease is indexed 
		- not under CASE REPORT 
		- not with any age check tags 
		- with Journal Article (PT) or (possibly) Letter (PT) or  
Editorial (PT) 
 
		The death of Mozart [letter] 
			Mozart WA (subject name)		 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			Letter (PT) 
			HUMAN, MALE - to coordinate with ENDOCARDITIS, 			 
	SUBACUTE BACTERIAL 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 18TH CENT. (check tag) 
		   	* FAMOUS PERSONS 
			MUSIC /*history 
			ENDOCARDITIS, SUBACUTE BACTERIAL /* history 
			AUSTRIA 
 
		Did Caesar have epilepsy? 
			Caesar J (subject name) 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			Journal Article (PT) 
			HUMAN, MALE - to coordinate with EPILEPSY 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, ANCIENT (check tag) 
			* FAMOUS PERSONS 
			EPILEPSY /*history 
			ROME 
 

32.16.14	Articles on more than one famous person not brought out individually  
as biographees (e.g. "Epilepsy in famous persons" or "Syphilis in the kings of  
France") will be indexed under FAMOUS PERSONS (IM) and the proper tags (again  
including HUMAN for the diseases and not for the persons).  See 32.18.5. 
 

32.16.15	Memorial and award lectures 
 
		Many articles are written as memorial lectures in honor of an  
eminent physician or scientist. 
 
	The ear, the surgeon and the radiologist 
	Hickey lecture 
 
		The marking of the text for such titles is given in 14.5.3.  The  
article is indexed in the usual way based on the subject matter discussed.  If  
in addition, the article also discusses the biography of the person honored by  
the memorial lecture, index this material as a biographical note.  The person's  
name is entered in Field 15 and the rules for Biography (PT) are followed.  Use  
Lectures (PT) or Addresses (PT) depending on how the item is labeled in the  
journal. 
 

32.16.15.1	Articles on awards will be indexed when the name of  the award is  
given in the title, since such articles are of particular interest to  
librarians.  They usually include a biography of the awardee.  These will be  
taken even if the article is less than two pages long, as required for  
biographies in 32.16. It is not necessary to index an award article if the name  
of the award is not part of the title.  Beware of articles which merely announce  
that nominations for a particular award are being accepted - these should not be  
indexed. 
 
		Awards should be indexed as follows: 
			* AWARDS 
			* specialty /history (the specialty for which the  award is  
given, e.g., BIOCHEMISTRY) 
			  SOCIETIES, MEDICAL (SCIENTIFIC, etc.)(if a   society is  
issuing the award) 
			geographic term for the award itself 
			geographic for the individual, if different 
			with a chronological check tag 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT) 
			Awardee's name on Panel 5 (Field 15)(may be  multiple  
individuals) 
			Journal Article (PT) - but see 32.16.15.2 
 

32.16.15.2	Announcement of an award may also be accompanied by the text of an  
award lecture.  If the award presentation is one article, and the lecture is a  
separate article, index the award presentation as given above.  For the lecture,  
include the title of the award in the title of the article if the journal  
presents it that way, but do not add it otherwise.  If the title of the award is  
given in the title of the lecture, add in addition to the indexing of the  
article itself: 
			AWARDS (NIM) 
			SPECIALTY (NIM) 
			SOCIETIES MEDICAL (SCIENTIFIC, etc.)(if a society   is issuing  
the award) 
			geographic term for the society 
			Lectures (PT) or Addresses (PT)(depending on how   the article  
is labeled in the journal)  
			NOT with Journal Article (PT) 
 
		Do not index the biographical aspects of the awardee.  If the title  
of the award is not given in the title of the lecture, index only the subject of  
the lecture. 
 

32.16.15.3	If the award and the lecture are presented as one unit, but no  
biography of the awardee is given, index the subject of the lecture, then add: 
			AWARDS (NIM) 
			SPECIALTY (NIM) 
			SOCIETIES, MEDICAL (SCIENTIFIC, etc.) (if a society  is  
issuing the award) 
			geographic term for the society 
			Lectures (PT) or Addresses (PT)(depending on how   the article  
is labeled in the journal)  
			NOT with Journal Article (PT) 
 
		Do not index the biographical aspects of the awardee.   
 

32.16.15.4	If the award and the lecture are presented as one unit, but the  
biography of the awardee is included, index the subject of the lecture, then  
add: 
			* AWARDS 
			* specialty /history (the specialty for which the award is  
given, e.g., BIOCHEMISTRY) 
			  SOCIETIES, MEDICAL (SCIENTIFIC, etc.) (if a society is  
issuing the award) 
			  geographic term for the award itself 
			  geographic for the individual, if different 
			  with a chronological check tag 
			  Historical Article (PT) 
			  Biography (PT) 
			  Lectures (PT) or Addresses (PT) 
			  Awardee's name on Panel 5 (Field 15) (may be  multiple  
individuals) 
			  NOT with Journal Article (PT) 
 

32.16.16	Classical writings 
 
		Classical articles marking milestones in the history of medicine and  
science are often reprinted by editors under such rubrics as "Classic pages",  
"Classical reprint", "Milestones" and the like.  They are indexed in Index  
Medicus because of their historical importance. 
 
		This subject is discussed in 14.5.1.10 with regard to the author and  
to what is included in marking the title of the classic in order to highlight  
the historical nature of the reprint and with regard to the rubric [classical  
article].  See 17.20 for discussion of Classical Article (PT).  Indexing of  
these articles in discussed in 32.9. 
 
		The author of the classical article is included in both the author  
field and in Field 15 as the biographical subject.  Index the subject matter  
(probably with /history) without excessive depth, index as Biography (PT) plus  
Historical Article (PT), check the correct century tag.  See 32.9.2 
 

32.17	Chronological history check tags 
 

32.17.1	The check tags c through k, referred to as chronological tags, are  
always used in conjunction with the publication types Historical Article (PT)  
and Biography (PT).  These are discussed in 17.42 and 17.13, respectively. 
 

32.17.2	The chronological tags exist as check tags, but they are all main  
headings, which may also be used IM.  Although they are given in MeSH in fairly  
cumbersome form, they all have short forms (dataform abbreviations) which may be  
conveniently entered.  The short form is derived from the words in the heading  
following "HISTORY OF MEDICINE".  Thus HISTORY OF MEDICINE, ANCIENT can be  
entered as just ANCIENT; HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 17TH CENT. can be entered as 17  
CENT, etc.  The abbreviations printed on the dataform can also be used. 
 

32.17.3	If an article properly belongs in the field of the history of  
medicine, the indexer will index the article under the required main heading(s),  
probably with the subheading /history, with Historical Article (PT) and possibly  
Biography (PT), and in addition will account for the time segment covered in the  
article by checking one or more of the chronological tags.  A geography term may  
also be added. 
 

32.17.4	Virtually everything for the earlier centuries in the history of  
medicine will be indexed under the required chronological breakdown as IM,  
provided, of course, the century is the point of the article ("An ancient record  
of arthritis"; "Chemistry in medieval Denmark").  Less important material of the  
19th and 20th centuries should be indexed with the centuries merely as check  
tags. 
 

32.17.5	The headings HISTORY OF MEDICINE, ANCIENT; HISTORY OF MEDICINE,  
MEDIEVAL; HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 15TH CENT.; HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 16TH CENT.;  
HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 17TH CENT. and HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 18TH CENT. will be  
entered in Field 21 (Panel 6) when any of these centuries is the point of the  
article and therefore IM.  If they are not the point of the article and are  
being indexed for complete or depth indexing, they will be marked as check tags  
only. 
 
		It is important to emphasize this: that although much early history  
is of interest to the NLM History of Medicine Division for their database and  
publications, still everything accounted for in the indexing of the earlier  
centuries of medicine is not invariably IM.  Only if the point of the article is  
the early history will it be entered as IM.  If the early dates are to be  
accounted for only for complete indexing, do not make them IM.  All centuries,  
whether IM or NIM are retrievable online by the History of Medicine Division and  
the checking of the chronological check tags serves them well. Do not mislead  
the Index Medicus user by wrongly making an early period IM when it is merely a  
discussion within the article and not a whole article devoted to it. 
 

32.17.6	Material relating to two periods as IM will be indexed under each  
but material relating to ancient, medieval and modern - in other words, the  
whole range of time - will be indexed under HISTORY OF MEDICINE (IM) in Field 21  
(Panel 6) with the other headings.  Do not forget, however, to check each  
specific century as a tag. 
 

32.17.7	For material relating to the 17th through the 20th centuries picked  
up as NIM, check the individual centu- ries but DO NOT CHECK the tag Modern.  If  
however, the article covers most or all of the four centuries from the 17th  
through the 20th, and all would be required for IM, make HISTORY OF MEDICINE,  
MODERN (IM) in Field 21 (Panel 6) and check the specific centuries needed as NIM  
as check tags.  But again, do NOT check the tag Modern.  Also, do not use this  
check tag as a substitute for a range of times which the article does not give  
precisely. Note that HISTORY OF MEDICINE, EARLY MODERN, which covers the 15th  
and 16th centuries, is not represented as a check tag.  It will be used chiefly  
by the History of Medicine division, since indexers must use either or both of  
these centuries, whether the emphasis is IM or NIM.  (See 32.6.1). 
 

32.17.8	Many articles within the scope of MEDLINE and Index Medicus will be  
historical in nature but will not, strictly speaking, fall within the concept of  
"history of medicine".  For example, an article on the invention of the  
microscope as a notable contribution to all of science, can be interpreted as  
having an application beyond medicine.  In all such instances, the chronological  
headings and chronological tags may be loosely interpreted to mean "history of  
science" as well as "history of medicine" and may be used in order to pin- point  
the century for any field. 
 
		Use, therefore, the chronological tags when required for historical  
articles in dentistry, nursing, psychology, chemistry, all the sciences, all the  
technologies, etc.  It is to be assumed that any article indexed in scope in  
Index Medicus is worthy of retrieval for researchers in the history of medicine. 
 

32.18	Field 15 - SUBJECT NAME (Panel 5) 
 

32.18.1	Biographical articles are cited in the Author Section of Index  
Medicus in two places: under the name of the biographee and under the name of  
the author of the biography, if any. 
 
		The name of the biographee is printed in the Author Section within  
parentheses which are automatically supplied by the printing program when the  
indexer enters the name of the biographee, without parentheses, in Field 15 of  
the dataform: 
 
			Index Medicus citation		Field 15 
			(Washington G)		Washington G 
 
		In MEDLINE, the name of the biographee appears in the PS field  
(Personal Name as Subject).  The indexer fills in Field 15 or SUBJ NAME on Panel  
5, the data entry contractor will pick up the name of the author of the  
biograph- ical note or article from the printed text in the usual way. 
 

32.18.2	When an anonymous biography or obituary is indexed, the indexer does  
not have to check ANON on Panel 3 (Field 11 Anonymous on the dataform).  This is  
because the computer requires only a single denotation for storage or printing  
in Index Medicus: it can be an author in Field 10, an indication of anonymity in  
Field 11 or a biographee's name in Field 15.  As long as one of these is  
supplied, the program requirements are fulfilled. 
 

32.18.3	Field 15 must carry the name of a person only.  It will be in the  
usual inverted form for names and will bear only one or two initials. 
 
		The usual type will be Huntington G; Mitchell SW; Kennedy JF.   
Historical persons with only a single name may appear: Hippocrates; Copernicus.   
Sometimes an entire family forms the subject of a biographical presentation:   
"Identification of the remains of the Romanov family by DNA analysis" was  
indexed as Romanov family.  Royalty and popes sometimes are biographical  
subjects: Francis I; George III; Pope John XXIII is an acceptable form.  Do not  
convert Roman numerals to Arabic numbers: George III, not George 3rd. 
 

32.18.4	Always follow the text and always use the name in the most familiar  
spelling, usually easily detected from the text, from bibliographic references  
in the text, from Webster's dictionary, Garrison's History of Medicine, Dorland,  
etc.  It is acceptable to consult HISTLINE to see how the subject has been  
handled previously.  Do not do research beyond the above-mentioned sources. 
 
		If the subject is known to have used a pseudonym, use the form given  
in the article at hand.  If both names are given, enter both. 
 

32.18.5	When two or three biographees are substantively discussed in an  
article, Field 15 may be typed thus: 
 
		Panel 5 SUBJ NAME provides room for up to three biographical  
subjects. 
 
		If a biographical or historical article discusses more than three  
subjects, leave Field 15 blank and index the article by a subject approach,  
supplying all the required indexing terms with the subheading /history where  
permitted, plus Historical Article (PT), the applicable century tags and  
Biography (PT). 
 

32.18.6	When the biographical subject is not named in the title, the indexer  
must supply it from the text, typing it in full at the end of the title, in  
parentheses.  Field 15 will be handled in the usual way.  The samples below  
illustrate the style for an English and translated title. 
 

32.18.7	Index autobiographical articles or autobiographical sketches of a  
person exactly as biographies are indexed with regard to Field 15 and all  
required tags and all pertinent subject headings.  The only difference will be  
the addition of the NIM heading AUTOBIOGRAPHY.  Since the biographer is also the  
biographee, the author will be the same as the subject name in Field 15.  Be  
sure to enter the name as author on Panel 3 (Field 10) and as subject on Panel 5  
(Field 15). 
 

32.18.8	A festschrift is a group of articles published in honor of a person,  
usually in honor of his or her birthday or retirement or some other significant  
occasion. Fest- schriften are sometimes published as a memorial.  The articles  
within the festschrift will be indexed as a group with Festschrift (PT) by the  
Index Section overall specialist (see 17.37).  The honoree will be identified as  
the subject name on Panel 5 (Field 15), with the appropriate chronological tag  
for his or her productive life (see 32.16.2).  Add Historical Article (PT) and  
Biography (PT). 
 
		The individual papers within the festschrift will be indexed  
according to the subject material presented.  If biographical material is  
provided within the individual papers, it should be indexed.  If there is no  
biograph ical material beyond a respectful salute, do not add Biography (PT). 
 

32.19	LITERATURE, MODERN starts with the 15th century, writings from 500 A.D.  
through 1450 are LITERATURE, MEDIEVAL.  These terms should be coordinated with  
DRAMA (IM) or POETRY (IM) if appropriate.  If the author of the liter-ary work  
is particularly discussed, he or she becomes the biographical subject.  If the  
emphasis is on the literary work, but not the author, do not use Biography (PT). 
 
		Jack London. A modern analysis of his mysterious disease. 
			* FAMOUS PERSONS 
			LITERATURE, MODERN /* history 
			LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS, SYSTEMIC /*history 
			NEPHRITIS, INTERSTITIAL /*history 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 20TH CENT. (check tag) 
			HUMAN, MALE (for the diseases) 
			Historical Article (PT) 
			Biography (PT)  
 
		Literary works dealing with medical topics will also require  
MEDICINE IN LITERATURE (IM).  For artistic works, the corresponding term is  
MEDICINE IN ART (IM). 
 
 
		Images of physicians in literature: from quacks to heroes. 
			* MEDICINE IN LITERATURE 
			LITERATURE, MODERN /* history 
			PHYSICIANS /* history 
			QUACKERY  
			Appropriate century check tag 
			Appropriate geographic term(s) 
			Historical Article (PT) 
 
		The murals of Ile Royale hospital. 
			* MEDICINE IN ART 
			HOSPITALS /*history 
			PAINTINGS /*history 
			GUINEA 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 19TH CENT. (check tag) 
			HISTORY OF MEDICINE, 20TH CENT. (check tag) 
			Historical Article (PT)