CHAPTER 34		INDEXING PRINCIPLES FOR CATEGORY M 
(NAMED GROUPS) 
 

34.1		Category M contains headings which 
represent persons as people or as professionals. Earlier editions of MeSH  
contained a statement at the head of the M categorized list reading, 
 
"Whenever possible, the use of terms for groups of persons has been avoided  
because of the close relationship between these groups and the activity in which  
they are engaged.  Preference has been given to the broader term for the  
activity (e.g., Mining rather than Miners). The groups included here are those  
in which primary emphasis is placed on the individual or for which no  
satisfactory activity name is available." 
 

34.2		Terms from Category M are almost always IM. 
 

34.3		The subheadings available for use with Category M are  
/classification 
/education 
/history 
/legislation & jurisprudence 
/psychology 
/statistics & numerical data 
 

34.4		The quoted statement of coverage of Category M has application  
particularly in the specialties, where the heading for the specialty is used for  
the field and the specialist, i.e., DERMATOLOGY is the specialty but is also for  
the dermatologist. The entire section listed under HEALTH PERSONNEL is also  
listed in N2 category. Several of the headings in this category, although terms  
for groups of people, are used also for the occupation or profession itself,  
training for it, its problems, duties, economics, etc. (e.g., CORONERS AND  
MEDICAL EXAMINERS, DENTAL ASSISTANTS, HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATORS, MEDICAL  
SECRETARIES, NURSES' AIDES). 
 

34.5		The main headings in Category M which are assigned also to other  
categories (NURSE MIDWIVES is also in Category N) have available to them  
additional subheadings which are quite reasonable (e.g., NURSE MIDWIVES/supply &  
distribution). Check for allowable qualifiers for additional subheading uses. 
 

34.6		Although all terms here are by definition human, and many are  
obviously age-limited (INFANT, NEWBORN) or sex-limited (PHYSICIANS, WOMEN;  
NURSES, MALE), the use of HUMAN and the appropriate age and sex check tags  
should be added (some are automatically added by the online indexing system.) 
 
Job-related diseases among nurses. 
* OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 
* NURSES 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Job-related diseases among male and female nurses. 
* OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES 
* NURSES 
* NURSES, MALE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
 
Alcoholism is sometimes the cause of impairment in women physicians. 
* ALCOHOLISM 
PHYSICIANS, WOMEN / * psychol 
* PHYSICIAN IMPAIRMENT 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
 

34.7		ETHNIC GROUPS and the specific ethnic groups are discussed in  
Category I, 30.6.1 - 30.6.7.  In some of this discussion they are related to  
RACIAL STOCKS. ETHNIC GROUPS and the specific ethnic groups in Category M are  
usually IM, and are coordinated usually with a geographical term. The  
subheadings allowed with them are: /class, /educ, /hist, /legis, /psychol,  
/statist. See 27.15 for ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY in relation to /psychology with various  
ethnic groups. 
 

34.7.1	MINORITY GROUPS is also available and is coordinated IM with a  
specific term under ETHNIC GROUPS or RACIAL STOCKS.  
 

34.8		The following age groups occur as check tags as well as main  
headings: INFANT, NEWBORN; INFANT; CHILD, PRESCHOOL; CHILD; ADOLESCENCE; ADULT;  
MIDDLE AGE; AGED. Their greater use is as check tags (see 18.5 on age groups).  
However when viewed as a social, sociological, psychological political, cultural  
or economic entity, each group here is IM. The online system automatically adds  
HUMAN when an age group is indexed. When an online indexer uses an age group as  
IM the online system adds the equivalent check tag. This is removed  
automatically during processing of the citation into MEDLINE. All examples to  
follow will show only the final (MEDLINE) indexing terms. 
 
The psychiatrist's child. 
* PSYCHIATRY 
* CHILD 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Safe pets for the preschool child. 
* ANIMALS, DOMESTIC 
* CHILD, PRESCHOOL 
HUMAN (check tag) 
ANIMAL (check tag) 
 
The status of the middle-aged Asian American. 
* MIDDLE AGE 
UNITED STATES 
HUMAN (check tag) 
* ASIAN AMERICANS 
 
The use of marijuana by teen-agers. 
* ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR 
* MARIJUANA ABUSE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
ADOLESCENCE (check tag) 
 
The sadness of the aged. 
AGED / * psychol 
* EMOTIONS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Toys for infants. 
* TOYS 
* INFANT 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Index articles on organs, systems, normal physiological processes, etc. in these  
age groups under the organs, etc. IM. Follow annotation and AQ restrictions for  
IM and use of subheadings. In a disease state however, the age group is a check  
tag. 
 
Heart rate in newborn infants. (The infants are healthy) 
* HEART RATE 
	INFANT, NEWBORN  / * physiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Heart rate in a case of arthritis in a preschool child. 
ARTHRITIS / * physiopathol 
* HEART RATE 
CHILD, PRESCHOOL (check tag)  
HUMAN (check tag) 
CASE REPORT (check tag) 
sex if specified 
 
Incidence of peptic ulcer in children compared to adults. 
PEPTIC ULCER / * epidemiol 
INCIDENCE 
CHILD (check tag) 
ADULT (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
COMP STUDY (check tag) 
sex if specified 
 

34.9		The subheadings permitted with each age group are not uniform. 
 

34.9.1	Subheadings allowed with INFANT, NEWBORN when IM: /blood,  
/csf, /growth, /immunol, /metab, /microbiol, /parasitol, /physiol, /psychol,  
/urine, and /virology. 
 
The urinary bile acid excretion in full-term infants during the neonatal period. 
INFANT, NEWBORN / * urine 
BILE ACIDS / * urine 
INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Index diseases of newborn infants in general or unspecified under INFANT,  
NEWBORN, DISEASES (IM) and check tag INFANT, NEWBORN. 
 
Pulmonary function testing on the ill neonate. 
INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES / * physiopathol 
* RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS 
INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Index a specific disease of a newborn infant under the name of the disease (IM)   
and check tag INFANT, NEWBORN but do not also index under INFANT, NEWBORN,  
DISEASES. 
 
Drug therapy for bacterial eye infections in  newborn infants. 
EYE INFECTIONS, BACTERIAL / * drug ther 
INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.9.2	No subheadings are allowed with INFANT. INFANT / psychol will  
give an error message = CHILD PSYCHOLOGY.  
 
Sleep states in infants. 
SLEEP STAGES / * physiol	 
INFANT (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Attachment of infants to their teddy bears. 
* INFANT PSYCHOLOGY 
* OBJECT ATTACHMENT 
INFANT (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.9.3		Subheadings allowed with CHILD, PRESCHOOL when IM: /class,  
/educ, /hist, /legis, and /statist. CHILD PRESCHOOL / psychol will give an error  
message = CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. 
 
The Great Flood of 1993 and Head Start: partner in recovery. 
* CHILD CARE 
* CHILD, PRESCHOOL 
* NATURAL DISASTERS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
geography (state) 
 

34.9.4	No subheadings are allowed with CHILD. CHILD /psychol will  
give an error message = CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. Subheadings are allowed with the more  
specific CHILD terms such as CHILD, ABANDONED; CHILD, EXCEPTIONAL; etc.  
 
Fears of hospitalized school age children. 
* FEAR 
CHILD, HOSPITALIZED / * psychol 
CHILD (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.9.4.1	CHILD OF IMPAIRED PARENTS is not restricted to youthful age groups.  
Coordinate with appropriate age tags. 
 
Are daughters of alcoholics more likely to marry alcoholics? 
ALCOHOLISM / * psychol 
CHILD OF IMPAIRED PARENTS / * psychol 
MARRIAGE / * psychol 
ADULTS (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
MALE	 (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.9.5	ADOLESCENCE only allows /physiol. The subheading /psychol will  
give an error message = ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY. 
 
The normal values of sex hormones in teenage boys and girls. 
SEX HORMONES / * blood 
ADOLESCENCE / * physiol 
NORMAL VALUES 
FEMALE (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Sex behavior among street youth. 
* SEX BEHAVIOR 
STREET YOUTH / * psychol 
ADOLESCENCE (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag 
 

34.10		ADULT and MIDDLE AGE allow the subheadings /physiol and /psychol.   
AGED only allows /psychol.  
 
An unusual case of chickenpox in a 50 year old woman. 
* CHICKENPOX 
MIDDLE AGE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
CASE REPORT (check tag) 
 
But "Estrogen synthesis in the middle aged female." 
ESTROGENS / * biosyn 
MIDDLE AGE / * physiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
 
Job opportunities for the middle-aged worker. 
* EMPLOYMENT 
* MIDDLE AGE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.10.1	The heading AGED deserves special mention in relation to GERIATRICS  
and AGING. 
 
Index under AGED when the elderly person is viewed in the article from the  
standpoint of his stature as a social, psychological, sociological or cultural  
being. AGED only allows the subheading / psychol. Index specific organs,  
physiological processes in the aged in general with AGED as IM. 
 
Since GERIATRICS is a medical specialty, the emphasis is on geriatrics as a  
field and on the geriatric physician. In unusual cases GERIATRICS may be used  
for very general articles on "geriatric diseases" (see 28.10.1 in the manual). 
 
Critical care for the geriatric patient. 
* CRITICAL CARE 
* GERIATRICS 
AGED (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Do not confuse AGED, the persons, with the physiological process of aging,  
AGING. Remember, too, that the aging process is going on at all times in man and  
in animals: it is not restricted to elderly or aged people. In an article on  
AGING in humans the check tag AGED might apply but the aging process touches the  
other age tags too. 
 
Influence of aging on optokinetic nystagmus. (They discuss age group 21 to 66) 
AGING / * physiol 
NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC / * physiol 
ADULT (check tag) 
MIDDLE AGE (check tag) 
AGED (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Special attention is given the age group of persons over 80 in the form of the  
main heading AGED, 80 AND OVER. When the term AGED, 80 AND OVER is used, IM or  
NIM, the check tag AGED and HUMAN are checked. 
 
Heart rate and digestion in the aged. 
* HEART RATE 
* DIGESTION 
* AGED   
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Clothing for the aged. 
* CLOTHING 
* AGED 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The American attitude to the aged. 
* ATTITUDE 
* AGED 
UNITED STATES 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Self help devices for the aged. 
* SELF HELP DEVICES 
* AGED 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Attitude of the aged to death. 
* ATTITUDE TO DEATH 
AGED / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Sex behavior of the aged. 
* SEX BEHAVIOR 
AGED / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
But an unusual case of measles in an 85 year old man. 
* MEASLES 
AGED, 80 AND OVER 
AGED (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
CASE REPORT (check tag) 
 
See 35.5 for a discussion of AGE FACTORS. 
 

34.11		HEALTH PERSONNEL in general are also discussed in Category N 35.11. 
 

34.11.1	PHYSICIANS should be used when the article refers to the physician  
as a person distinguished from any other professional person (e.g., from a  
teacher or a nurse or a priest) and as a personality, as a citizen, as a member  
of the community and the like. 
 
Hobbies of physicians. 
* HOBBIES 
* PHYSICIANS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
  
The heading PHYSICIANS is not to be considered a substitute for the medical  
profession in general, for the general practitioner, or for any of the  
specialties. 
 
 The heart physician. 
* CARDIOLOGY 
 
General practitioners' attitudes toward computers. 
PHYSICIANS, FAMILY / * psychol 
* ATTITUDE TO COMPUTERS 
* ATTITUDE OF HEALTH PERSONNEL 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Diagnosis of fever in general practice. 
FEVER / * diag 
* GENERAL PRACTICE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The industrial physician. 
* INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE 
 
Smoking habits of physicians. 
* SMOKING 
 PHYSICIANS / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Drug addiction among doctors. 
* SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE 
* PHYSICIAN IMPAIRMENT 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.11.2	PHYSICIANS, WOMEN will almost always be used in addition to the  
specialty or disease. Index PHYSICIANS, WOMEN as IM. Do not, however, index  
biographical notes or articles on a specific woman physician under PHYSICIANS,  
WOMEN. 
 

34.11.3	The same indexing policy will apply with regard to DENTISTS and  
DENTISTS, WOMEN; NURSES, and NURSES, MALE. 
 
The periodontal dentist. 
* PERIODONTICS 
 
The woman periodontist. 
* PERIODONTICS 
* DENTISTS, WOMEN 
 
In the field of nursing, specify NURSES, MALE as an IM coordinate when  
pertinent. For women in the various nursing specialties, use only the specialty,  
do not also index under NURSES. 
 

34.12		MEN and WOMEN are only for articles on men and women as distinct  
social groups, as sociological, cultural, political, economic or psychological  
entities apart from their physiology or genetic sex. 
 
Articles on organ, diseases, physiological processes and the like in men are  
indexed under the specific heading (IM) and the check tags HUMAN and MALE.  
Likewise similar articles on women are indexed under the specific heading (IM)  
and the check tags HUMAN and FEMALE. See check tags 18.9 on MALE and FEMALE. 
 
Most articles will be clearly the physiological male or female (the check tags  
MALE and FEMALE) or the non-physiological man or women (MEN and WOMEN). When  
indexing under MEN and WOMEN, check the tags HUMAN and MALE and FEMALE. 
 
Heart rate in men. 
* HEART RATE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
 
Prevalence of epilepsy in women. 
EPILEPSY / * epidemiol 
PREVALENCE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
 
Comparative heart size in men and women. 
HEART / * anat 
* SEX CHARACTERISTICS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
COMP STUDY (check tag) 
 
The status of women's health in India. 
* WOMEN'S HEALTH  
* HEALTH STATUS 
INDIA 
HUMAN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag 
 
Smoking habits of men compared with women. 
* SMOKING 
WOMEN / * psychol 
MEN / * psychol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
MALE (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
COMP STUDY (check tag) 
 
Posttraumatic stress disorder among battered women. 
STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC / * etiol 
BATTERED WOMEN / * psychol 
FEMALE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.13		PATIENTS is restricted to articles on a sick person under treatment  
irrespective of his disease. Use PATIENTS, INPATIENTS, or OUTPATIENTS when the  
person's status as a patient is dominant over his disease state: when he is  
viewed as a patient, rather than as tubercular or diabetic. However, watch for  
many pre-coordinated patient terms, such as PATIENT ADVOCACY, PATIENT  
SATISFACTION, etc. 
 
Teaching self management for asthmatic patients. 
ASTHMA / * ther 
* PATIENT EDUCATION 
* SELF CARE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
On the other hand, do not confuse his condition as a patient with the preferred  
term for the disease when the disease is the point of the article: interpret the  
cardiac patient as HEART DISEASES and not as PATIENTS, the tuberculosis patient  
as TUBERCULOSIS and not as PATIENTS. 
 
Books and games for patients. 
* PATIENTS 
* BOOKS 
* TOYS 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The crankiness of patients. 
PATIENTS / * psychol 
* IRRITABLE MOOD 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
The personality of the cancer patient. 
NEOPLASMS / * psychol 
* PERSONALITY 
HUMAN (check tag) 
NOT PATIENTS 
 

34.14		Multiple-birth offspring are TWINS, TRIPLETS, etc. When discussed as  
individuals they are indexed as IM. 
 
When TWINS, etc. is used to define the number of fetuses or offspring from the  
viewpoint of pregnancy and the mother, coordinate TWINS, and the others as NIM  
with PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE (IM). See also 28.17.4. 
 
Perinatal management of twin pregnancy. 
* PRENATAL CARE 
* PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE 
TWINS 
PREGN (check tag) 
FEMALE (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
In articles which twins, triplets, etc. are viewed psychologically,  
sociologically, socially, culturally, epidemiologically index them as IM.  
 
Changes in perinatal mortality in twins. 
TWINS / * statist 
* PERINATAL MORTALITY 
INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
Index diseases in twins under the name of the disease (IM) and DISEASES IN TWINS  
(IM). The disease may be in only one of the pair or in both; if in both, the  
disease may occur simultaneously or at different times. 
 
Twin studies in multiple sclerosis. 
* DISEASE IN TWINS 
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS / * genet 
HUMAN (check tag) 
TWIN STUDY (PT) 
 
When indexing twins, specify TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC or TWINS, DIZYGOTIC if relevant.  
Don't forget also the check tag HUMAN. 
 

34.15		MILITARY PERSONNEL includes all uniformed personnel of the Army,  
Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and Marines. Most articles will be on the Defense  
Forces of the United States but MILITARY PERSONNEL will be used for other  
nations as well. 
 
Articles on their physiology, psychology and diseases will be indexed under  
MILITARY PERSONNEL. Standing alone it will refer to the Army and will not be  
coordinated with MILITARY MEDICINE. Such articles on the personnel of the other  
services, however, will be coordinated as required with NAVAL MEDICINE (NIM),  
and AEROSPACE MEDICINE (NIM). 
 
Study on respiratory mechanics in soldiers. 
* MILITARY PERSONNEL 
* RESPIRATORY MECHANICS 
	  HUMAN (check tag) 
 
MILITARY PERSONNEL is used also with reference to non-medical aspects such as  
the pre-enlistment economic status of sailors, the educational background of  
airmen, the reading preferences of soldiers, housing and obstetrical care of  
their wives and family. 
 
Lifestyles of military personnel and their families. 
MILITARY PERSONNEL / * psychol 
FAMILY  / * psychol 
* LIFE STYLE 
 
Psychiatric selection of European astronauts. (The author gave them personality  
tests.) 
* PERSONNEL SELECTION 
ASTRONAUTS / * psychol 
PERSONALITY TESTS 
EUROPE 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 
See 28.8 for a discussion of MILITARY MEDICINE, NAVAL MEDICINE, and AEROSPACE  
MEDICINE. 
 
When used correctly, MILITARY PERSONNEL will be IM. Check the appropriate sex  
and age tags and HUMAN. 
 
Incidence of hepatitis A infection among an Italian military population.  
(military) 
HEPATITIS A / * epidemiol 
MILITARY PERSONNEL / * statist 
INCIDENCE 
ITALY / epidemiol 
HUMAN (check tag) 
 

34.16		STUDENTS should be restricted to students as such, as distinguished  
from teachers or physicians or the rest of the population. Do not use STUDENTS  
or STUDENTS, MEDICAL as a substitute for EDUCATION or EDUCATION, MEDICAL,  
UNDERGRADUATE when an article mentions students or medical students. 
 
Do not index under STUDENTS articles on school children when the author uses  
"school child" merely to point out an age group: use only the proper age check  
tag (NIM). 
 
Check also HUMAN and tags for age and sex. 
 

34.17		FACULTY and the specific faculty terms are to be used only for the  
faculty as persons. The use of the terms FACULTY and STUDENTS are discussed in  
30.9 to 30.11.