CHAPTER 34 INDEXING PRINCIPLES FOR CATEGORY M (NAMED GROUPS) 34.1 Category M contains headings which represent persons as people or as professionals. Earlier editions of MeSH contained a statement at the head of the M categorized list reading, "Whenever possible, the use of terms for groups of persons has been avoided because of the close relationship between these groups and the activity in which they are engaged. Preference has been given to the broader term for the activity (e.g., Mining rather than Miners). The groups included here are those in which primary emphasis is placed on the individual or for which no satisfactory activity name is available." 34.2 Terms from Category M are almost always IM. 34.3 The subheadings available for use with Category M are /classification /education /history /legislation & jurisprudence /psychology /statistics & numerical data 34.4 The quoted statement of coverage of Category M has application particularly in the specialties, where the heading for the specialty is used for the field and the specialist, i.e., DERMATOLOGY is the specialty but is also for the dermatologist. The entire section listed under HEALTH PERSONNEL is also listed in N2 category. Several of the headings in this category, although terms for groups of people, are used also for the occupation or profession itself, training for it, its problems, duties, economics, etc. (e.g., CORONERS AND MEDICAL EXAMINERS, DENTAL ASSISTANTS, HOSPITAL ADMINISTRATORS, MEDICAL SECRETARIES, NURSES' AIDES). 34.5 The main headings in Category M which are assigned also to other categories (NURSE MIDWIVES is also in Category N) have available to them additional subheadings which are quite reasonable (e.g., NURSE MIDWIVES/supply & distribution). Check for allowable qualifiers for additional subheading uses. 34.6 Although all terms here are by definition human, and many are obviously age-limited (INFANT, NEWBORN) or sex-limited (PHYSICIANS, WOMEN; NURSES, MALE), the use of HUMAN and the appropriate age and sex check tags should be added (some are automatically added by the online indexing system.) Job-related diseases among nurses. * OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES * NURSES HUMAN (check tag) Job-related diseases among male and female nurses. * OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES * NURSES * NURSES, MALE HUMAN (check tag) MALE (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) Alcoholism is sometimes the cause of impairment in women physicians. * ALCOHOLISM PHYSICIANS, WOMEN / * psychol * PHYSICIAN IMPAIRMENT HUMAN (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) 34.7 ETHNIC GROUPS and the specific ethnic groups are discussed in Category I, 30.6.1 - 30.6.7. In some of this discussion they are related to RACIAL STOCKS. ETHNIC GROUPS and the specific ethnic groups in Category M are usually IM, and are coordinated usually with a geographical term. The subheadings allowed with them are: /class, /educ, /hist, /legis, /psychol, /statist. See 27.15 for ETHNOPSYCHOLOGY in relation to /psychology with various ethnic groups. 34.7.1 MINORITY GROUPS is also available and is coordinated IM with a specific term under ETHNIC GROUPS or RACIAL STOCKS. 34.8 The following age groups occur as check tags as well as main headings: INFANT, NEWBORN; INFANT; CHILD, PRESCHOOL; CHILD; ADOLESCENCE; ADULT; MIDDLE AGE; AGED. Their greater use is as check tags (see 18.5 on age groups). However when viewed as a social, sociological, psychological political, cultural or economic entity, each group here is IM. The online system automatically adds HUMAN when an age group is indexed. When an online indexer uses an age group as IM the online system adds the equivalent check tag. This is removed automatically during processing of the citation into MEDLINE. All examples to follow will show only the final (MEDLINE) indexing terms. The psychiatrist's child. * PSYCHIATRY * CHILD HUMAN (check tag) Safe pets for the preschool child. * ANIMALS, DOMESTIC * CHILD, PRESCHOOL HUMAN (check tag) ANIMAL (check tag) The status of the middle-aged Asian American. * MIDDLE AGE UNITED STATES HUMAN (check tag) * ASIAN AMERICANS The use of marijuana by teen-agers. * ADOLESCENT BEHAVIOR * MARIJUANA ABUSE HUMAN (check tag) ADOLESCENCE (check tag) The sadness of the aged. AGED / * psychol * EMOTIONS HUMAN (check tag) Toys for infants. * TOYS * INFANT HUMAN (check tag) Index articles on organs, systems, normal physiological processes, etc. in these age groups under the organs, etc. IM. Follow annotation and AQ restrictions for IM and use of subheadings. In a disease state however, the age group is a check tag. Heart rate in newborn infants. (The infants are healthy) * HEART RATE INFANT, NEWBORN / * physiol HUMAN (check tag) Heart rate in a case of arthritis in a preschool child. ARTHRITIS / * physiopathol * HEART RATE CHILD, PRESCHOOL (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) CASE REPORT (check tag) sex if specified Incidence of peptic ulcer in children compared to adults. PEPTIC ULCER / * epidemiol INCIDENCE CHILD (check tag) ADULT (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) COMP STUDY (check tag) sex if specified 34.9 The subheadings permitted with each age group are not uniform. 34.9.1 Subheadings allowed with INFANT, NEWBORN when IM: /blood, /csf, /growth, /immunol, /metab, /microbiol, /parasitol, /physiol, /psychol, /urine, and /virology. The urinary bile acid excretion in full-term infants during the neonatal period. INFANT, NEWBORN / * urine BILE ACIDS / * urine INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Index diseases of newborn infants in general or unspecified under INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES (IM) and check tag INFANT, NEWBORN. Pulmonary function testing on the ill neonate. INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES / * physiopathol * RESPIRATORY FUNCTION TESTS INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Index a specific disease of a newborn infant under the name of the disease (IM) and check tag INFANT, NEWBORN but do not also index under INFANT, NEWBORN, DISEASES. Drug therapy for bacterial eye infections in newborn infants. EYE INFECTIONS, BACTERIAL / * drug ther INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) 34.9.2 No subheadings are allowed with INFANT. INFANT / psychol will give an error message = CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. Sleep states in infants. SLEEP STAGES / * physiol INFANT (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Attachment of infants to their teddy bears. * INFANT PSYCHOLOGY * OBJECT ATTACHMENT INFANT (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) 34.9.3 Subheadings allowed with CHILD, PRESCHOOL when IM: /class, /educ, /hist, /legis, and /statist. CHILD PRESCHOOL / psychol will give an error message = CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. The Great Flood of 1993 and Head Start: partner in recovery. * CHILD CARE * CHILD, PRESCHOOL * NATURAL DISASTERS HUMAN (check tag) geography (state) 34.9.4 No subheadings are allowed with CHILD. CHILD /psychol will give an error message = CHILD PSYCHOLOGY. Subheadings are allowed with the more specific CHILD terms such as CHILD, ABANDONED; CHILD, EXCEPTIONAL; etc. Fears of hospitalized school age children. * FEAR CHILD, HOSPITALIZED / * psychol CHILD (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) 188.8.131.52 CHILD OF IMPAIRED PARENTS is not restricted to youthful age groups. Coordinate with appropriate age tags. Are daughters of alcoholics more likely to marry alcoholics? ALCOHOLISM / * psychol CHILD OF IMPAIRED PARENTS / * psychol MARRIAGE / * psychol ADULTS (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) MALE (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) 34.9.5 ADOLESCENCE only allows /physiol. The subheading /psychol will give an error message = ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY. The normal values of sex hormones in teenage boys and girls. SEX HORMONES / * blood ADOLESCENCE / * physiol NORMAL VALUES FEMALE (check tag) MALE (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Sex behavior among street youth. * SEX BEHAVIOR STREET YOUTH / * psychol ADOLESCENCE (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) MALE (check tag) HUMAN (check tag 34.10 ADULT and MIDDLE AGE allow the subheadings /physiol and /psychol. AGED only allows /psychol. An unusual case of chickenpox in a 50 year old woman. * CHICKENPOX MIDDLE AGE (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) CASE REPORT (check tag) But "Estrogen synthesis in the middle aged female." ESTROGENS / * biosyn MIDDLE AGE / * physiol HUMAN (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) Job opportunities for the middle-aged worker. * EMPLOYMENT * MIDDLE AGE HUMAN (check tag) 34.10.1 The heading AGED deserves special mention in relation to GERIATRICS and AGING. Index under AGED when the elderly person is viewed in the article from the standpoint of his stature as a social, psychological, sociological or cultural being. AGED only allows the subheading / psychol. Index specific organs, physiological processes in the aged in general with AGED as IM. Since GERIATRICS is a medical specialty, the emphasis is on geriatrics as a field and on the geriatric physician. In unusual cases GERIATRICS may be used for very general articles on "geriatric diseases" (see 28.10.1 in the manual). Critical care for the geriatric patient. * CRITICAL CARE * GERIATRICS AGED (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Do not confuse AGED, the persons, with the physiological process of aging, AGING. Remember, too, that the aging process is going on at all times in man and in animals: it is not restricted to elderly or aged people. In an article on AGING in humans the check tag AGED might apply but the aging process touches the other age tags too. Influence of aging on optokinetic nystagmus. (They discuss age group 21 to 66) AGING / * physiol NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC / * physiol ADULT (check tag) MIDDLE AGE (check tag) AGED (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Special attention is given the age group of persons over 80 in the form of the main heading AGED, 80 AND OVER. When the term AGED, 80 AND OVER is used, IM or NIM, the check tag AGED and HUMAN are checked. Heart rate and digestion in the aged. * HEART RATE * DIGESTION * AGED HUMAN (check tag) Clothing for the aged. * CLOTHING * AGED HUMAN (check tag) The American attitude to the aged. * ATTITUDE * AGED UNITED STATES HUMAN (check tag) Self help devices for the aged. * SELF HELP DEVICES * AGED HUMAN (check tag) Attitude of the aged to death. * ATTITUDE TO DEATH AGED / * psychol HUMAN (check tag) Sex behavior of the aged. * SEX BEHAVIOR AGED / * psychol HUMAN (check tag) But an unusual case of measles in an 85 year old man. * MEASLES AGED, 80 AND OVER AGED (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) MALE (check tag) CASE REPORT (check tag) See 35.5 for a discussion of AGE FACTORS. 34.11 HEALTH PERSONNEL in general are also discussed in Category N 35.11. 34.11.1 PHYSICIANS should be used when the article refers to the physician as a person distinguished from any other professional person (e.g., from a teacher or a nurse or a priest) and as a personality, as a citizen, as a member of the community and the like. Hobbies of physicians. * HOBBIES * PHYSICIANS HUMAN (check tag) The heading PHYSICIANS is not to be considered a substitute for the medical profession in general, for the general practitioner, or for any of the specialties. The heart physician. * CARDIOLOGY General practitioners' attitudes toward computers. PHYSICIANS, FAMILY / * psychol * ATTITUDE TO COMPUTERS * ATTITUDE OF HEALTH PERSONNEL HUMAN (check tag) Diagnosis of fever in general practice. FEVER / * diag * GENERAL PRACTICE HUMAN (check tag) The industrial physician. * INDUSTRIAL MEDICINE Smoking habits of physicians. * SMOKING PHYSICIANS / * psychol HUMAN (check tag) Drug addiction among doctors. * SUBSTANCE DEPENDENCE * PHYSICIAN IMPAIRMENT HUMAN (check tag) 34.11.2 PHYSICIANS, WOMEN will almost always be used in addition to the specialty or disease. Index PHYSICIANS, WOMEN as IM. Do not, however, index biographical notes or articles on a specific woman physician under PHYSICIANS, WOMEN. 34.11.3 The same indexing policy will apply with regard to DENTISTS and DENTISTS, WOMEN; NURSES, and NURSES, MALE. The periodontal dentist. * PERIODONTICS The woman periodontist. * PERIODONTICS * DENTISTS, WOMEN In the field of nursing, specify NURSES, MALE as an IM coordinate when pertinent. For women in the various nursing specialties, use only the specialty, do not also index under NURSES. 34.12 MEN and WOMEN are only for articles on men and women as distinct social groups, as sociological, cultural, political, economic or psychological entities apart from their physiology or genetic sex. Articles on organ, diseases, physiological processes and the like in men are indexed under the specific heading (IM) and the check tags HUMAN and MALE. Likewise similar articles on women are indexed under the specific heading (IM) and the check tags HUMAN and FEMALE. See check tags 18.9 on MALE and FEMALE. Most articles will be clearly the physiological male or female (the check tags MALE and FEMALE) or the non-physiological man or women (MEN and WOMEN). When indexing under MEN and WOMEN, check the tags HUMAN and MALE and FEMALE. Heart rate in men. * HEART RATE HUMAN (check tag) MALE (check tag) Prevalence of epilepsy in women. EPILEPSY / * epidemiol PREVALENCE HUMAN (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) Comparative heart size in men and women. HEART / * anat * SEX CHARACTERISTICS HUMAN (check tag) MALE (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) COMP STUDY (check tag) The status of women's health in India. * WOMEN'S HEALTH * HEALTH STATUS INDIA HUMAN (check tag) FEMALE (check tag Smoking habits of men compared with women. * SMOKING WOMEN / * psychol MEN / * psychol HUMAN (check tag) MALE (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) COMP STUDY (check tag) Posttraumatic stress disorder among battered women. STRESS DISORDERS, POST-TRAUMATIC / * etiol BATTERED WOMEN / * psychol FEMALE (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) 34.13 PATIENTS is restricted to articles on a sick person under treatment irrespective of his disease. Use PATIENTS, INPATIENTS, or OUTPATIENTS when the person's status as a patient is dominant over his disease state: when he is viewed as a patient, rather than as tubercular or diabetic. However, watch for many pre-coordinated patient terms, such as PATIENT ADVOCACY, PATIENT SATISFACTION, etc. Teaching self management for asthmatic patients. ASTHMA / * ther * PATIENT EDUCATION * SELF CARE HUMAN (check tag) On the other hand, do not confuse his condition as a patient with the preferred term for the disease when the disease is the point of the article: interpret the cardiac patient as HEART DISEASES and not as PATIENTS, the tuberculosis patient as TUBERCULOSIS and not as PATIENTS. Books and games for patients. * PATIENTS * BOOKS * TOYS HUMAN (check tag) The crankiness of patients. PATIENTS / * psychol * IRRITABLE MOOD HUMAN (check tag) The personality of the cancer patient. NEOPLASMS / * psychol * PERSONALITY HUMAN (check tag) NOT PATIENTS 34.14 Multiple-birth offspring are TWINS, TRIPLETS, etc. When discussed as individuals they are indexed as IM. When TWINS, etc. is used to define the number of fetuses or offspring from the viewpoint of pregnancy and the mother, coordinate TWINS, and the others as NIM with PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE (IM). See also 28.17.4. Perinatal management of twin pregnancy. * PRENATAL CARE * PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE TWINS PREGN (check tag) FEMALE (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) In articles which twins, triplets, etc. are viewed psychologically, sociologically, socially, culturally, epidemiologically index them as IM. Changes in perinatal mortality in twins. TWINS / * statist * PERINATAL MORTALITY INFANT, NEWBORN (check tag) HUMAN (check tag) Index diseases in twins under the name of the disease (IM) and DISEASES IN TWINS (IM). The disease may be in only one of the pair or in both; if in both, the disease may occur simultaneously or at different times. Twin studies in multiple sclerosis. * DISEASE IN TWINS MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS / * genet HUMAN (check tag) TWIN STUDY (PT) When indexing twins, specify TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC or TWINS, DIZYGOTIC if relevant. Don't forget also the check tag HUMAN. 34.15 MILITARY PERSONNEL includes all uniformed personnel of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard and Marines. Most articles will be on the Defense Forces of the United States but MILITARY PERSONNEL will be used for other nations as well. Articles on their physiology, psychology and diseases will be indexed under MILITARY PERSONNEL. Standing alone it will refer to the Army and will not be coordinated with MILITARY MEDICINE. Such articles on the personnel of the other services, however, will be coordinated as required with NAVAL MEDICINE (NIM), and AEROSPACE MEDICINE (NIM). Study on respiratory mechanics in soldiers. * MILITARY PERSONNEL * RESPIRATORY MECHANICS HUMAN (check tag) MILITARY PERSONNEL is used also with reference to non-medical aspects such as the pre-enlistment economic status of sailors, the educational background of airmen, the reading preferences of soldiers, housing and obstetrical care of their wives and family. Lifestyles of military personnel and their families. MILITARY PERSONNEL / * psychol FAMILY / * psychol * LIFE STYLE Psychiatric selection of European astronauts. (The author gave them personality tests.) * PERSONNEL SELECTION ASTRONAUTS / * psychol PERSONALITY TESTS EUROPE HUMAN (check tag) See 28.8 for a discussion of MILITARY MEDICINE, NAVAL MEDICINE, and AEROSPACE MEDICINE. When used correctly, MILITARY PERSONNEL will be IM. Check the appropriate sex and age tags and HUMAN. Incidence of hepatitis A infection among an Italian military population. (military) HEPATITIS A / * epidemiol MILITARY PERSONNEL / * statist INCIDENCE ITALY / epidemiol HUMAN (check tag) 34.16 STUDENTS should be restricted to students as such, as distinguished from teachers or physicians or the rest of the population. Do not use STUDENTS or STUDENTS, MEDICAL as a substitute for EDUCATION or EDUCATION, MEDICAL, UNDERGRADUATE when an article mentions students or medical students. Do not index under STUDENTS articles on school children when the author uses "school child" merely to point out an age group: use only the proper age check tag (NIM). Check also HUMAN and tags for age and sex. 34.17 FACULTY and the specific faculty terms are to be used only for the faculty as persons. The use of the terms FACULTY and STUDENTS are discussed in 30.9 to 30.11.