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The following texts are regularly used by staff of the Medical Subject Headings Section in the creation and maintenance of MeSH. Some of those listed are considered standard sources for their fields (e.g., Gray's Anatomy, Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology), while others are utilized as reference works in certain subject areas. This bibliography does not include all texts used for the production of MeSH.


Bennington, J.L., ed. Saunders dictionary and encyclopedia of laboratory medicine and technology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1984.

Dale, D.C., ed. Scientific American medicine. New York: Scientific American, Inc., 2004.

Dorland's illustrated medical dictionary. 30th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003.

Jablonski, S. Dictionary of medical acronyms and abbreviations. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Hanley & Belfus, 2001.

McGraw Hill dictionary of scientific and technical terms. 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2003.

Segen, J.C. Current med talk: a dictionary of medical terms, slang & jargon. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1995.

Scott, T.A. Concise encyclopedia of biology. Berlin: W. De Gruyter, 1996.

Sloane, S.B. Medical abbreviations and eponyms. 2d ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1997.

Stedman's medical dictionary, illustrated. 27th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2000.


BrainInfo (2000). (Nov 22, 2004) Seattle: Neurosciences Division, RPRC, University of Washington.

Clemente, C.D., ed. Gray's anatomy. 30th American ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1985.

Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology. Terminologica anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme, 1998.

Junqueira, L.C. [and others]. Basic histology. 9th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1998.

Moore, K.L. Clinically oriented anatomy. 3d ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1992.

Parent, A. Carpenters human neuroanatomy. 9th ed. Media, PA: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.


Belshe, R.B. Textbook of human virology. 2d ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1991.

Boone, D.R., Castenholz, C.W., George M. Garrity, G.M., eds. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 1, 2d ed. New York, Springer, 2001.

Brusca, R. C.; Brusca, G.J. Invertebrates. 2d ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc., 2002.

Kirk, P. M. [and others]. Ainsworth & Bisby's dictionary of the fungi. 9th ed. Wallingford, Oxon, England: CAB International, 2001.

Markell, E.K. [and others]. Medical parasitology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1992.

Regenmortel, M.H.V. [and others], eds. Virus taxonomy: classification and nomenclature of viruses. Seventh report of the international committee on taxonomy of viruses. San Diego: Academic Press, 2000.

Sneath, P.H.A. [and others], eds. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 2. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1986.

Staley, J.T. [and others], eds. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 3. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989.

Stetzenbach, L. D; Yates, M. V. Dictionary of environmental microbiology. San Diego: Academic Press, 2003.

USDA, NRCS. 2004. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5. (Nov 23, 2004). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA.

Walker's mammals of the world. 6th ed. Revised by R.M. Nowak. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, 1999.

Williams, S.T. [and others], eds. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 4. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1989.


Adams, R.D. [and others]. Principles of neurology. 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1997.

Arnold, H.L. [and others]. Andrews' diseases of the skin. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990.

Bast, R.C. Jr., [and others], eds. Cancer medicine. 5th ed. Hamilton: Decker, 2000.

Behrman, R.E. [and others], eds. Nelson textbook of pediatrics. 17th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2004.

Bradley, W.G. [and others], eds. Neurology in clinical practice. Boston: Butterworth Heinemann, 2000.

Champion, R. H. [and others], eds. Textbook in dermatology. 5th ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

Cote, R.A. [and others], eds. Systematized nomenclature of human and veterinary medicine (SNOMED International). 3d ed. Skokie, IL: College of American Pathologists, 1993.

Cunningham, F.G. [and others]. Williams obstetrics. 20th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1997.

DeVita, V.T. [and others], eds. Cancer: principles and practice of oncology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1997.

Donaghy, M. Brain’s diseases of the nervous system. 11th ed., New York, Oxford, 2001.

Fauci, A. S. [and others], eds. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 14th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1998.

Fishman, A.P. [and others]. Fishman’s pulmonary diseases and disorders. 3d ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 1998.

Fritz, A [and others], eds. International classification of diseases for oncology (ICD O). 3d ed. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2000.

Goldman, L.; Ausiello, D. A. eds. Cecil textbook of medicine. 22nd ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2004.

Haubrich, W.S. [and others], eds. Bockus gastroenterology. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1995.

Hunter, G.W. Hunter's tropical medicine and emerging infectious diseases. 8th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000.

The international classification of diseases; 9th revision, clinical modification; ICD 9 CM. 4th ed. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Health Care Financing Administration, 1991. (DHHS Pub. No. (PHS) 91 1260)

The international statistical classification of diseases and related health problems; 10th revision; ICD 10. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, 1992.

Jablonski, S. Jablonski's dictionary of syndromes and eponymic diseases. 2d ed. Malabar, FL: Krieger, 1991.

Kase, N.G. [and others], eds. Principles and practice of clinical gynecology. 2d ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1990.

Krauss, H. Zoonoses. 3rd ed. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. 2003.

Kumar, V. [and others], eds. Robbins and Cotran. Pathological basis of disease. 7th ed., Philadelphia: Elsevier-Saunders, 2005.

Larsen, P.R. [and others] Williams textbook of endocrinology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2003.

Lee, G.R. [and others], eds. Wintrobe's clinical hematology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1999.

Magalini, S.I.; Magalini, S.C., eds. Dictionary of medical syndromes. 4th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1997.

Menkes, J.H. Textbook of child neurology. 5th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995.

Moschella, S.L.; Hurley, H.J., eds. Dermatology. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1992.

Paparella, M.M. [and others], eds. Otolaryngology. 3d ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991.

Scriver, C.R. [and others]. The metabolic and molecular basis of inherited disease. 8th ed. New York: McGraw Hill, 2001.

Walsh, P.C. [and others], eds. Campbell's urology. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1997.

Yanoff, M.; Duker, J. S., eds. Ophthalmology. 2d ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 2004.

Zipes, O.P. [and others], eds. Braunwald’s heart disease. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier-Saunders, 2005.


Adams, H.R., eds. Veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics. 7th ed. Ames: Iowa State Univ. Press, 1995.

Barclay, A.N. [and others]. The leucocyte antigen factsbook. 2d. ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.

Catterall, W. A. [and others] IUPHAR compendium of voltage-gated ion channels. Leeds: IUPHAR Media, 2002.

Dewick. P. M. Medicinal natural products. 2nd ed. West Sussex: Wiley, 2002.

DrugFacts and comparisons. 58th ed. St. Louis: Facts and Comparisons, 2004.

Fitzgerald, K.A. [and others]. The Cytokine factsbook. 2d ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 2001.

Gennaro, A. R. ed. Remington: the science and practice of pharmacy. 20th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2000.

Hardman, J.G. [and others], eds. Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 10th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001.

Hawley's condensed chemical dictionary. 14th ed. R.J. Lewis, Sr., ed. New York: John Wiley, 2001.

Ibelgaufts, H. Dictionary of cytokines. New York: VCH Publishers, 1995.

International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Nomenclature Committee. Enzyme nomenclature 1992. San Diego: Academic Press, 1992.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Commission on Quantities & Units in Clinical Chemistry. International Federation of Clinical Chemistry. Committee on Quantities & Units. Compendium of terminology and nomenclature of properties in clinical laboratory sciences. Cambridge: Blackwell Science, 1995.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Commission on the Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry. Nomenclature of inorganic chemistry II: recommendations, 2000. Oxford: Blackwell, 2001.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Division. Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. A Guide to IUPAC Nomenclature of Organic Compounds: recommendations, 1993. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Organic Chemistry Division. Commission on Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry. A guide to IUPAC nomenclature of organic compounds: recommendations, 1993. Oxford: Blackwell, 1993.

Kreis, T.; Vale, R., eds. Guidebook to the extracellular matrix and adhesion proteins. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1993.

Laudet, V. Gronemeyer, H. The Nuclear receptor factsbooks. San Diego: Academic Press, 2002.

Leigh, G. J. [and others]. Principles of chemical nomenclature. A guide to IUPAC recommendations. Cambridge: Blackwell Science, 1998.

Lide, D.R. [and others], eds. CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. 72d ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 1991.

Metzler, D. E. Biochemistry: the chemical reactions of living cells. 2d ed. San Diego: Harcourt / Academic Press, 2001.

Milne, G.W., ed. Drugs: Synonyms & properties. Hampshire: Ashgate, 2000.

Negwer, M. Organic chemical drugs and their synonyms. 7th ed. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1994.

O’Neil, M. [and others], eds. The Merck index; an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals. 13th ed., Rahway, NJ: Merck, 2001.

Parfitt, K., ed. Martindale: The complete drug reference. 32d ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press, 1999.

Physicians Desk Reference. 59th ed., Montvale: Thomson, 2005.

Pigott, R.; Power, C. The adhesion molecule factsbook. San Diego: Academic Press, 1993.

Schror, K.; Smith, E.F., III. Dictionary of prostaglandins and related compounds. Germany: Medikon, 1990.

Scott, T. Concise encyclopedia of biochemistry and molecular biology. Berlin: W. De Gruyter, 1997.

Smith, A. D., ed. Oxford dictionary of biochemistry and molecular biology. 2d ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Smith, C.M.; Reynard, A.M. Textbook of pharmacology. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1992.

Swiss Pharmaceutical Society. Index nominum : international drug directory. 17th ed. Stuttgart: Medpharm Scientific Publishers, 2000.

Trissel, L. A. Handbook on injectable drugs. 13th ed. Bethesda: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 2005.

USP DI. 24th ed. Englewood: Thomson, 2004.

USP dictionary of USAN and international drug names. 2004. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeia Convention.

USP27 / NF 22: United States Pharmacopeia. 2004. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopeial Convention.

Vaddi, K. [and others]. The Chemokine factsbook. San Diego, Academic Press, 1997.


American Academy of Periodontology. Current procedural terminology for periodontics and insurance reporting manual. 7th ed. Chicago: The Academy, 1995.

Blauvelt, C.T., Nelson, F.R.T. A manual of orthopaedic terminology. 5th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1994.

Current procedural terminology: CPT 2005. Standard edition. Chicago: AMA Press, 2004.

Jablonski, S. Jablonski's dictionary of dentistry. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1992.

Zwemer, T.J. [and others], eds. Boucher's clinical dental terminology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1993.


American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th ed. (DSM IV) Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994.

Campbell, R.J. Psychiatric dictionary. 7th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.

Cassileth, B. R. The alternative medicine handbook. New York: Norton Co., 1998.

Egerton, J. E.; Campbell, R. J. eds. American psychiatric glossary. 7th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

Gabbard, G.O., ed. Treatments of psychiatric disorders. 2d ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1995.

Hales, R.E. [and others], eds. American Psychiatric Press textbook of psychiatry. 2d ed. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1994.

Kaplan, H.I.; Sadock, B.J., eds. Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry. 6th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1995.

Walker, A., ed. Thesaurus of psychological index terms. 8th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1997.


Guyton, A.C.; Hall, J.E. Textbook of medical physiology. 10th ed. Philadelphia: Saunders, 2000.

Herbert, W.J. [and others] eds., Dictionary of immunology. 4th ed. London: Academic Press, 1995.

Hesketh, R. The Oncogene and tumour suppressor core factsbook. 2d ed., San Diego: Academic Press, 1997.

Jameson, J. L., ed. Principles of molecular medicine. Totowa: Humana Press, 1998.

Kendrew, J.C.; Lawrence, E., eds. The encyclopedia of molecular biology. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Science, 1994.

King, R.C.; Stansfield, W.D. A dictionary of genetics. 6th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2002.

Lackie J.M & Dow, J.A.T. Dictionary of cell and molecular biology. 3d ed. San Diego: Academic Press, 1999.

Last, J.M. [and others], eds. A dictionary of epidemiology. 4th ed. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2001.

Lewin, B. Genes VII. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 2000.

Lodish, H. [and others]. Molecular cell biology. 4th ed. New York : Freeman, 2000.

Migloni, G.S. Dictionary of plant genetics and molecular biology. New York: Hawthorne Press, 1998.

Rieger, R. [and others]. Glossary of genetics: classical and molecular. 5th ed. Germany: Springer Verlag, 1991.

Roitt, I. M. Delves, P. J. Roitt’s essential immunology. 10th ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2001.

Wassertheil Smoller, S. Biostatistics and epidemiology: a primer for health professionals. 2d ed. New York: Springer Verlag, 1995.

West. G., ed. Black's veterinary dictionary. 18th ed. London: Black, 1995.

West, J.B., ed. Best & Taylor's physiological basis of medical practice. 12th ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1991.


Berman, H.J. [and others]. The financial management of hospitals. 8th ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Administration Press, 1994.

Goldfarb, B. Health care defined. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1997.

O'Leary, M.R. Lexikon: dictionary of health care terms, organizations, and acronyms for the era of reform. Oakbrook Terrace, ILL: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, 1994.

Slee, V.N.; Slee, D.A. Health care reform terms. St. Paul, MN: Tringa Press, 1993.

Slee, V.N. [and others]. Health care terms. 3d ed. St. Paul, MN: Tringa Press, 1996.


Merriam Webster's geographical dictionary. 3d. ed. Springfield: Merriam Webster, 1997.

U.S. Board on Geographic Names. Geographic Names Processing System (GNPS). Foreign names information bulletin. National Imagery and Mapping Agency, Bethesda, MD.