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National Information Center on Health Services Research and Health Care Technology (NICHSR)

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Introduction to Health Services Research : A Self-Study Course

Module 2: Brief History of Health Services Research (Page 38 of 40)

Enrichment Section

The Enrichment Section links you to online resources of interest. The content in the links may be directly related to the topic or person, or of related interest.

Items in this section are organized by person and topic and are arranged alphabetically by topic or by person's surname.


AHRQ Partnerships Promote Patient Safety, By John M. Eisenberg, M.D., M.B.A. January, 2002. [Online] Site URL:
John Eisenberg describes the partnerships through the years that has enabled AHRQ to promote research and collaboration at the agency.

American Public Health Association

American Public Health Association Web Site. 2007. [Online] Site URL:
Learn about public health, become a member of the Association, order key public health books and attend the Association's Annual Meeting all from this site.

Cabot, Richard C.

Crenner, Christopher. "Diagnosis and Authority in the Early-Twentieth-Century Medical Practice of Richard C. Cabot." Bulletin of the History of Medicine 76.1, Spring 2002.
Abstract [Note: requires login/password to get full article].

Clinton's Health Security Plan of 1993

The National Health Security Plan (executive summary). (1993). [Online] Site URL:
Full text of the summary and Plan plus supporting documents.

Codman, E. A.

Guardians of Science: Fairness and Reliability of Peer Review H-D Daniel, VCH, (pounds sterling) 25, pp 118, ISBN 3-527-29041-9. (review) BMJ 1994;309:488 (13 August).
Discusses the work of E A Codman and Hans-Dieter Daniel in peer review.

Committee on the Costs of Medical Care

Ross, Joseph S. The Committee on the Costs of Medical Care and the History of Health Insurance in the United States. Einstein Quarterly, 2002. [Online]. Site URL:

Committee on Medicine and the Changing Order Publications

Allen, Raymond Bernard. Medical education and the changing order. New York, The Commonwealth fund, 1946. NLM ID: 26610060R [Book].

Carr, Malcolm Wallace. Dentistry, an agency of health service. New York, The Commonwealth fund, 1946. NLM ID: 50520285R [Book].

Corwin, Edward Henry Lewinski; Commonwealth Fund. The American hospital. New York, The Commonwealth fund, 1946. NLM ID: 53110100R [Book].

Sinai, Nathan; Anderson, Odin W (Odin Waldemar); Dollar, Melvin L. Health insurance in the United States. New York, The Commonwealth fund, 1946. NLM ID: 28120270R [Book].

Stern, Bernhard Joseph. Medical services by government, local, state, and federal. New York, The Commonwealth fund, 1946. NLM ID: 28120310R [Book].

Stern, Bernhard Joseph; Commonwealth Fund. Medicine in industry. New York, The Commonwealth fund, 1946. NLM ID: 30230760R [Book].

Donabedian, Avedis

Avedis Donabedian. Obituary. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000 78(12) 1475. [Online] Site URL:

History of Health Services Research Project: Interview with Avedis Donabedian. April 16, 1998. [Online]. Site URL:
Lengthy interview with Dr. Donabedian that covers his life and research in health services.

Farr, William

William Farr. Dictionary. n.d. [Online]. Site URL:
Long article on William Farr based on Wikipedia content.

Flexner, Abraham

Flexner, Abraham. Medical Education in the United States and Canada. Bulletin Number Four (1910). The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1910. [Online]. [Book in PDF] Site URL:

Hamilton, Alice

Alice Hamilton. Changing the Face of Medicine. 2003.  [Online] Site URL:

Alice Hamilton. Connecticut Women's Hall of Fame. n.d. [Online] Site URL:
Description of Alice Hamilton's life and work.

Alice Hamilton (1869-1970). Distinguished Women of Past and Present. 1997. [Online] Site URL:

American Chemical Society. National Historical Chemical Landmarks: Alice Hamilton: A Long Productive Life. 2006. [Online] Site URL:
Tells the story of this pioneer and social reformer.

American Chemical Society. National Historical Chemical Landmarks: Industrial Toxicology. 2006. [Online] Site URL:
Alice Hamilton's work in the area of industrial toxicology.


Envisioning the National Health Care Quality Report, Edited by Margarita P. Hurtado, Elaine K. Swift, and Janet M. Corrigan, Editors, Committee on the National Quality Report on Health Care Delivery, Board on Health Care Services. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. [Online] Site URL: or
"...[T]he committee studied different approaches to defining and measuring quality. It also reviewed leading national reports on health are quality and major national initiatives on quality measurement. In addition, it examined the ways in which states, other nations, and the World Health Organization (WHO) have formulated quality measurement and reporting frameworks, along with the ways they have presented information on quality to those outside the traditional audience of the health care community." [Introduction]

Health and Human Services (formerly Department of Health, Education and Welfare)

Historical Highlights, Health and Human Services. January 26, 2005. [Online] Site URL:
Timeline with highlights leading up to the creation of DHEW and to current events of importance in the agency's existence.

Health Insurance

The development and growth of employer-provided health insurance, by Laura A. Scofea March, Monthly Labor Review, 1994. [Online] Site URL:
A fairly long article dealing with the development and growth of health insurance over the years.

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996. Health Hippo. 2000. [Online] Site URL:
Gives background information and brief contents of the Act.

Health Services Research

Overview of Health Services Research, in: Institute of Medicine. Health services research: work force and educational issues. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1995. Chapter 2, p. 25-42. [Online] Site URL:

White, Kerr L. Health Care Research: Old Wine in New Bottles. Presented in the University of Virginia's History of the Health Sciences Lecture Series on September 24, 1992. [Online] PDF URL:

Hull House

American Chemical Society. National Historical Chemical Landmarks: Hull House. 2006. [Online]. Site URL:
Alice Hamilton's work at Hull House and the innovations this effort developed across the United States.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO)

The Joint Commission: Over a century of quality and safety.. 2015. [Online] PDF URL:
Timeline with important events leading to today's JCAHO and beyond.

Karnofsky, David A.

David A. Karnofsky. Who Named It. 2007. [Online]. Site URL:

Karnofsky Performance Status. Penn Medicine. n.d. [Online]. Site URL:

Medical Errors

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. 2000. [Online]. Site URL:
First in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project. It examines "the often startling statistics of medical error and the disparity between the incidence of error and public perception of it, given many patients' expectations that the medical profession always performs perfectly. A careful examination is made of how the surrounding forces of legislation, regulation, and market activity influence the quality of care provided by health care organizations and then looks at their handling of medical mistakes." It offers "a clear prescription for raising the level of patient safety in American health care."

Institute of Medicine, Committee on Quality of Health Care in America. Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. 2001. [Online]. Site URL:
Second in a series of publications from the Institute of Medicine's Quality of Health Care in America project. The book "documents the causes of the quality gap, identifies current practices that impede quality care, and explores how systems approaches can be used to implement change".

Medical Sociology

Lawrence J. Rhoades. A History of the ASA: 1905-1980. American Sociological Association. 1981. [Online]. Site URL:
Rhoades provides a detailed description of the American Sociological Association from its early years to 1980.

American Sociological Association. A History of ASA: 1981-2004. 2005. [Online]. Site URL:
This book is intended to be a companion volume to the 1981 publication, A History of the American Sociological Association 1905 - 1980. It also updates the 1905-1980 version's appendices.


A Chronology of Significant Events Leading to the Enactment of Medicare. September 16, 2004. [Online] Site URL:
Describes the events leading up to the enactment of Medicare in 1965.

The Story of Medicare: A Timeline. Kaiser Family Foundation. December 2012. [Online] Site URL:
The History of Medicare is presented as a timeline.

Medicare Prospective Payment System

American Hospital Directory. Medicare Prospective Payment System. 2005. [Online] Site URL:
A good explanation of DRGs and PPS. The document lists the ten highest volume Medicare DRGs which represent about 30% of total Medicare patients.

National Center for Health Statistics

National Center for Health Statistics. NCHS Overview. May 2015. [Online] Site URL:

National Center for Health Statistics. Surveys and Data Collection Systems. January 11, 2007. [Online] Site URL:
This NCHS page describes the "two major types of data systems: systems based on populations, containing data collected through personal interviews or examinations; and systems based on records, containing data collected from vital and medical records." It provides links to the Center's major surveys.

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

National Health Interview Survey, National Center for Health Statistics, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. April 13, 2005. [Online] Site URL:
Links to information about the NHIS including questionnaires, datasets, documentation, methodology, published materials using the survey, and related documents.

Neighborhood Health Centers

Julius B. Richmond, M.D. Carter Administration, 1977-1981. n.d., [Online] Site URL:
While at the OEO, Richmond was primarily responsible for funding the Neighborhood Health Centers through a demonstration grants mechanism. Richmond remains best known for his leadership in devising and implementing quantitative goals for public health, first published in 1979 as Healthy People: The Surgeon General's Report on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention.

Nightingale, Florence

Small, Hugh. Florence Nightingale's Statistical Diagrams. 2003. Florence Nightingale Museum. [Online] Site URL:
Nightingale's most famous graphics "illustrated what she called the "loss of an army" - the British army sent to the Crimea. ... they were prescriptive rather than descriptive. She used recent data to persuade the Government to improve army hygiene.

University of Guelph. Dept. of Sociology & Anthropology. The Collected Works of Florence Nightingale. 2007-2013. [Online] Site URL:
The Collected Works of Florence Nightingale "makes available Nightingale’s major published books, articles and pamphlets (many long out of print) and a vast amount of heretofore unpublished correspondence and notes." Sixteen volumes will eventually be published. To date nine are available but more should be available in 2006 and 2007.

National Institutes of Health (NIH)

A Short History of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). n.d. [Online]. Site URL:
Gives a brief history of NIH that covers its beginning in 1887 through its research to the successes of today. Many images.

Patient Outcomes Research Teams (PORT)

Molla S. Donaldson and Alexander M. Capron, Editors; Committee on Potential Conflicts of Interest in Patient Outcomes Research Teams, Institute of Medicine. Patient Outcomes Research Teams (PORTS): Managing Conflict of Interest. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1991. [Online] Site URL:

Petty, William Sir

Charles H. Hull, Petty's Place in the History of Economic Theory. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1900. [Online] Site URL:
Article gives a brief biography and lists the titles and dates of printing of his numerous publications and describes the importance of Hull's work in economic theory.

Quality of Life Instruments

Activities of Daily Living Scale. Family Practice 2000. [Online] Site URL:
Examines Katz's ADL Scale, the ADL Scale and other activities of daily living including instruments and criteria. Broad areas in the ADLs are listed but not the particulars.

Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW. Studies of Illness in the Aged. The Index of ADL: A Standardized Measure of Biological and Psychosocial Function. JAMA. 1963 Sep 21;185:914-9. PMID: 14044222 [PubMed - OLDMEDLINE for Pre1966].
Citation only; no abstract.

Instruments. Medical Outcomes Trust. 2001. [Online] Site URL:
Lists many of the most important quality of life scales, gives a brief description of the instrument and lists the developer and availability.

Rand Health Insurance Experiment

Rand Health Insurance Experiment Publications. n.d. [Online] Site URL:
The RAND Health Insurance Experiment (HIE), the most important health insurance study ever conducted, "addressed two key questions in health care financing:

  • How much more medical care will people use if it is provided free of charge?
  • What are the consequences for their health?"

The HIE project "was started in 1971 and funded by the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (now the Department of Health and Human Services). It was a 15-year, multimillion-dollar effort that to this day remains the largest health policy study in U.S. history. The study's conclusions encouraged the restructuring of private insurance and helped increase the stature of managed care."

Social Security Act (1935)

The History of Social Security, Social Security Online. April 3, 2005. [Online]. Site URL:
Extensive chronology of the events leading up to the signing of the Social Security Act and including today. Also included are a number of oral histories from the staff of the Social Security Administration.

Sydenstricker, Edgar

Susser E. Bresnahan M. Origins of Epidemiology, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 954:6-18 (2001) [Medline]
Briefly describes the work of Sydenstricker.

U.S. Public Health Service

The History of the Commissioned Corps, Public Health Service. n.d. [Online]. Site URL:
Beginning with the origins of the Public Health Service back in 1798 as a service designed to provide for the care and relief of sick and injured merchant seamen, through changes in the laws and responsibilities of the Corps to date. Partial list of references. Link to more information at the Office of the Public Health Service Historian at the National Library of Medicine.

Images From the History of the Public Health Service: A Photographic Exhibit. Arranged by Ramunas Kondratas, Ph.D. April 27, 1998. [Online] Site URL:
"This exhibit is an online version of Images from the History of the Public Health Service; A Photographic Exhibit by Ramunas Kondratas, Ph.D. printed in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Public Health Service."

John L. Parascandola, Public Health Service, pp. 487-93 in Ed. George Thomas Kurian, A Historical Guide to the U.S. Government. New York: Oxford University Press, 1998. [Online]. Site URL:
Describes the challenges faced by the US-PHS since its inception in 1798.

Plagues & Politics (Media Player). n.d. [Online]. Site URL:
A 20-minute video reviewing the 200-year history of the Public Health Service. This is a direct link to the video; the video will open with a current version of the Windows Media Player. (see Help for a link to the Media player).

Wennberg, John

The Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. n.d.[Online] Site URL:
The Dartmouth Atlas Project "works to accurately describe how medical resources are distributed and used in the United States. The project offers comprehensive information and analysis about national, regional, and local markets, as well as individual hospitals and their affiliated physicians, in order to provide a basis for improving health and health systems."

White, Kerr L.

On-Line Bibliography and Exhibit of the Kerr White Health Care Collection, University of Virginia. 2006. [Online] Site URL:
Kerr White "is the author or co-author of some 225 publications, including ten books, in the fields of health services, health statistics, epidemiology, public health and medical education." The site provides biographical information about Kerr L. White, interviews, speeches he has made and bibliographic citations to his major publications. Links to related sites are provided.

Interview with Kerr L. White, conducted by Edward Berkowitz, March 12, 1998, Charlottesville, Virginia. [Online] PDF URL: or Site URL: (NLM's History of Health Services Research Project).

World Health Organization (WHO)

World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2004 - Changing History. Geneva: WHO, 2004. [Online] Site URL:
The World Health Report 2004 - Changing History "argues that a comprehensive HIV/AIDS strategy linking prevention, treatment, care and support for people living with the virus could save the lives of millions of people in poor and middle-income countries."

World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2005 - Make Every Mother and Child Count. Geneva: WHO, 2005. [Online] Site URL:
The World Health Report 2005 - Make Every Mother and Child Count "examines the reasons why so many children under five years of age and women in pregnancy, during childbirth or soon after continue to die from causes that are largely preventable - and how the annual toll can be reduced."

World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2006 - Working Together for Health . Geneva: WHO, 2006. [Online] Site URL:
The 2006 World Health Report "contains both an expert assessment of the current crisis in the global health workforce and an ambitious set of proposals to tackle it over the next ten years, starting immediately."

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