Skip to main content

NLM Intramural Research Program


Research Interests

For the past 20 years, the goal of the Medical Ontology Research project has been to develop methods whereby ontologies could be acquired from existing resources, as well as validated against other knowledge sources. Our research is organized into two major areas.
  • Health information standards as an object of research – The goal of this research is to assess whether specific standards (e.g., the SNOMED CT terminology) are fit for purpose. Specific aspects of this research include quality assurance and interoperability assessment of biomedical terminologies.
  • Application of health information standards – Here, the goal is to investigate standards “in action”, e.g., in support of tasks, such as natural language processing, annotation, data integration and mapping across terminologies.


Vasilakes J, Fan Y, Rizvi R, Bompelli A, Bodenreider O, Zhang R. Normalizing Dietary Supplement Product Names Using the RxNorm Model. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2019 Aug 21;264:408-412. doi: 10.3233/SHTI190253. PubMed PMID: 31437955; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6792000.

Kho SJ, Sheth A, Bodenreider O. Automatic Identification of Individual Drugs in Death Certificates. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2019 Aug 21;264:183-187. doi: 10.3233/SHTI190208. PubMed PMID: 31437910.

Bodenreider O, Cornet R, Vreeman DJ. Recent Developments in Clinical Terminologies - SNOMED CT, LOINC, and RxNorm. Yearb Med Inform. 2018 Aug;27(1):129-139. doi: 10.1055/s-0038-1667077. Epub 2018 Aug 29. PubMed PMID: 30157516; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC6115234.

Cui L, Bodenreider O, Shi J, Zhang GQ. Auditing SNOMED CT hierarchical relations based on lexical features of concepts in non-lattice subgraphs. J Biomed Inform. 2018 Feb;78:177-184. doi: 10.1016/j.jbi.2017.12.010. Epub 2017 Dec 20. PubMed PMID: 29274386; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5835197.