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Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®)

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Source Information

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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) was developed and is maintained by the American Psychiatric Association.

DSM-IV provides a standardized classification system for the diagnosis of mental health disorders for both children and adults.

DSM-IV disorder and condition terms are organized into 18 classes, and most terms are linked to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes. For more information about ICD-9-CM, see the ICD-9-CM source synopsis.

DSM-IV uses a five-axis model for the development of treatment options and prognoses. The axes are:

  • Clinical Disorders/Other Conditions That May Be a Focus of Clinical Attention
  • Personality Disorders/Mental Retardation
  • General Medical Conditions
  • Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
  • Global Assessment of Functioning

DSM-IV is used by clinicians, therapists, nurses, social workers, researchers, and others involved in the field of mental health.

Update Frequency
DSM-IV was last updated in 2000.

Metathesaurus Update Frequency
DSM-IV was last updated in the Metathesaurus in 1995.

Sites Consulted

  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV [Internet]. 4th ed. Washington (DC): American Psychiatric Association; 1994 [cited 2010 Mar 8]. 866 p. Available from:

Last Reviewed: November 23, 2010