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Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®)

2012AB Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) Source Information

The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) was developed by Dr. Sharon K. Inouye. The CAM included in the Metathesaurus is extracted from LOINC®and may not be a complete representation of the original source.

CAM is a standardized method that enables non-psychiatric clinicians to accurately identify delirium, and is designed to be completed in less than five minutes by clinicians.

CAM consists of nine criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III-R). 

CAM was developed for use by non-psychiatric clinicians in clinical and research settings.

Metathesaurus Update Frequency
CAM is updated in each Metathesaurus release as part of LOINC.

Sites Consulted

  1. Inouye SK, van Dyck CH, Alessi CA, Balkin S, Siegal AP, Horwitz RI. Clarifying confusion: the confusion assessment method. A new method for detection of delirium [abstract]. Ann Intern Med. 1990 Dec 15;113(12):941-8. Cited in: PubMed; PMID 2240918. Available from:
  2. The Hospital Elder Life Program (HELP) [Internet]. Boston: Hospital Elder Life Program; c2007. Confusion Assessment Method; c2007 [cited 2010 Jun 03]. Available from: