Skip navigation

DHEA


What is it?

DHEA is a hormone that is naturally made by the human body. It can be made in the laboratory from chemicals found in wild yam and soy. However, the human body cannot make DHEA from these chemicals, so simply eating wild yam or soy will not increase DHEA levels. Don’t be misled by wild yam and soy products labeled as “natural DHEA.”

DHEA is used for slowing or reversing aging, improving thinking skills in older people, and slowing the progress of Alzheimer’s disease.

Athletes and other people use DHEA to increase muscle mass, strength, and energy. But DHEA use is banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

DHEA is also used by men for erectile dysfunction (ED), and by healthy women and women who have low levels of certain hormones to improve well-being and sexuality.

Some people try DHEA to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), weak bones (osteoporosis), multiple sclerosis (MS), low levels of steroid hormones (Addison’s disease), depression, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. It is also used for preventing heart disease, breast cancer, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

DHEA is used for weight loss, for decreasing the symptoms of menopause, and for boosting the immune system.

People with HIV sometimes use DHEA to ease depression and fatigue.

Women who have passed menopause sometimes use DHEA inside the vagina for strengthening the walls of the vagina and for increasing bone mineral density.

Like many dietary supplements, DHEA has some quality control problems. Some products labeled to contain DHEA have been found to contain no DHEA at all, while others contained more than the labeled amount.

DHEA is being investigated and may eventually be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a prescription drug for treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and improving bone mineral density in women with lupus who are taking steroid drugs for treatment. The FDA is still studying the pharmaceutical company’s application for approval.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for DHEA are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Schizophrenia. DHEA may be more effective in women than men.
  • Improving the appearance of older people’s skin. Taking DHEA by mouth seems to increase skin thickness and moisture, and decrease facial “age spots” in elderly men and women.
  • Improving ability to achieve an erection in men with sexual dysfunction. But it doesn’t seem to be helpful if erectile dysfunction is caused by diabetes or nerve disorders.
  • Improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment may help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA may also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers. DHEA also seems to strengthen bones in SLE patients being treated with high-dose steroids (corticosteroids).
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis). Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Improving sexual arousal in healthy women.

Likely ineffective for...

  • Improving thinking in healthy older people.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Adrenal insufficiency. There is contradictory information about whether taking DHEA can improve feelings of well-being, sexuality, depression, anxiety, and other symptoms in people with this hormone deficiency. Some research suggests that DHEA might improve these symptoms, while other research suggests that DHEA provides no benefit.
  • Metabolic syndrome (a cluster of conditions that put people at high risk for heart disease). There is early evidence that DHEA might lower some of the health risks that make overweight men and women more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. The risk factors that DHEA seems to lower are obesity, fat around the waist, and high insulin levels.
  • Weight loss. Early evidence suggests that DHEA seems to help overweight older people who are likely to get metabolic syndrome to lose weight. But it’s not known if DHEA helps younger people to lose weight.
  • Depression. There is some evidence that DHEA might improve mood and help depression.
  • Aging. Taking DHEA does not seem to improve body shape, bone strength, muscle strength, insulin sensitivity, or quality of life in people older than 60 who have low DHEA levels.
  • HIV/AIDS. Early studies suggest that taking DHEA may improve HIV patients’ mental health and quality of life. But DHEA doesn’t seem to actually impact the HIV disease process itself.
  • Addison’s disease. There is some early evidence that DHEA might improve symptoms of Addison’s disease.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). There is some evidence that DHEA might improve CFS symptoms.
  • Menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes. Studies to date show conflicting results.
  • Improving growth and maturation in girls with hormone deficiency. There is some evidence that DHEA might help growth and maturation in these girls.
  • Physical performance. Some research shows that older adults who take DHEA have improved measures of muscle strength. But other research has found no effect of taking DHEA on muscle strength.
  • Heart disease.
  • Breast cancer.
  • Infertility.
  • Diabetes.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate DHEA for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
DHEA is a “parent hormone” produced by the adrenal glands near the kidneys and in the liver. In men, DHEA is also secreted by the testes. It is changed in the body to a hormone called androstenedione. Androstenedione is then changed into the major male and female hormones.

DHEA levels seem to go down as people get older. DHEA levels also seem to be lower in people with certain conditions like depression. Some researchers think that replacing DHEA with supplements might prevent some diseases and conditions.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
DHEA is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when used for just a few months. It can cause some side effects including acne, hair loss, stomach upset, and high blood pressure. Some women can have changes in menstrual cycle, facial hair growth, and a deeper voice after taking DHEA.

DHEA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in larger amounts and long-term. Do not use DHEA in doses higher than 50-100 mg a day or for a long period of time. Using higher doses or long-term use of DHEA can increase the chance of side effects.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: DHEA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy or breast-feeding. It can cause higher than normal levels of a male hormone called androgen. This might be harmful to the baby. Don’t use DHEA if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: DHEA is a hormone that can affect how estrogen works in the body. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use DHEA.

Liver problems: DHEA might make liver problems worse. Don’t use DHEA if you have liver problems.

Diabetes: DHEA can affect how insulin works in the body. If you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar carefully if you are taking DHEA.

Depression and mood disorders: There is some concern that patients with a history of depression and bipolar disorder might have some mental side effects if they use DHEA. DHEA can cause mania (excitability and impulsiveness), irritability, and sexual inappropriateness in people with mood disorders. If you have a mood disorder, be sure to discuss DHEA with your healthcare provider before you start taking it. Also, pay attention to any changes in how you feel.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Taking DHEA might make this condition worse. Don’t use DHEA if you have PCOS.

Cholesterol problems: DHEA might lower “good cholesterol” (high lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL). If your HDL level is already too low, discuss DHEA with your healthcare provider before you start taking it.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Anastrozole (Arimidex)
The body changes DHEA to estrogen in the body. Anastrozole (Arimidex) is used to help lower estrogen levels in the body. Taking DHEA along with anastrozole (Arimidex) might decrease the effectiveness of anastrozole (Arimidex). Do not take DHEA if you are taking anastrozole (Arimidex).

Exemestane (Aromasin)
The body changes DHEA to estrogen in the body. Exemestane (Aromasin) is used to help decrease estrogen in the body. Taking DHEA along with exemestane (Aromasin) might decrease the effectiveness of exemestane (Aromasin). Do not take DHEA if you are taking exemestane (Aromasin).

Fulvestrant (Faslodex)
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Fulvestrant (Faslodex) is used for this type of cancer. DHEA might increase estrogen in the body and decrease the effectiveness of fulvestrant (Faslodex) for treating cancer. Do not take DHEA if you are taking fulvestrant (Faslodex).

Insulin
Insulin is used to lower blood sugar. Insulin can also lower the amount of DHEA in the body. By lowering DHEA in the body, insulin might lower the effectiveness of DHEA supplements.

Letrozole (Femara)
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Letrozole (Femara) is used for this type of cancer. DHEA might increase estrogen in the body and decrease the effectiveness of letrozole (Femara) for treating cancer. Do not take DHEA if you are taking letrozole (Femara).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. DHEA might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking DHEA along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking DHEA, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is used to help treat and prevent these types of cancer. DHEA increases estrogen levels in the body. By increasing estrogen in the body, DHEA might decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen (Nolvadex). Do not take DHEA if you are taking tamoxifen (Nolvadex).

Triazolam (Halcion)
The body breaks down triazolam (Halcion) to get rid of it. DHEA might decrease how quickly the body breaks down triazolam (Halcion). Taking DHEA along with triazolam (Halcion) might increase the effects and side effects of triazolam (Halcion).

Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Medications for inflammation (Corticosteroids)
The body naturally makes DHEA. Some medications for inflammation might decrease how much DHEA the body makes. Taking some medications for inflammation might decrease the effects of taking DHEA pills.

Some medications for inflammation include dexamethasone (Decadron), hydrocortisone (Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and others.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Soy
Soy might decrease the effects of DHEA.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Vegetarian diet
Strict vegetarians have higher levels of DHEA in their blood than non-vegetarians. However, this difference seems to disappear after menopause. Researchers aren't sure how important these findings are.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • In postmenopausal women and in elderly men: Doses of 25-50 mg daily are commonly used.
  • For treatment of schizophrenia: Increasing doses of DHEA of 25 mg daily for 2 weeks, 25 mg two times daily for 2 weeks, and 50 mg two times daily for 2 weeks.
  • For replacement of hormones when the adrenal glands are not working well (androgen deficiency): 25-50 mg given daily as a single dose.
  • For systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): 200 mg per day along with conventional medical treatment, but doses up to 600 mg per day have been used.
  • For improving bone mineral density in people with weak bones (osteoporosis): 50-100 mg per day.
  • For erectile dysfunction: 50 mg per day.

Other names

Return to top
3b-Hydroxy-Androst-5-Ene-17-One, 3BetaHydroxy-Androst-5-Ene-17-One, Androstenolone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Déhydroépiandrostérone, DHEA-S, GL701, Prasterone, Prastérone.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the DHEA page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/331.html.

  1. Baker WL, Karan S, Kenny AM. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on muscle strength and physical function in older adults: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:997-1002.
  2. Alkatib AA, Cosma M, Elamin MB, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of DHEA treatment effects on quality of life in women with adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:3676-81.
  3. Nair KS, Rizza RA, O'Brien P, et al. DHEA in elderly women and DHEA or testosterone in elderly men. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1647-59.
  4. Grimley Evans J, Malouf R, Huppert F, van Niekerk JK. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;CD006221.
  5. Mulder JW, Frissen PH, Krijnen P, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone as predictor for progression of AIDS in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Infect Dis 1992;165:413-8.
  6. Jacobson MA, Fusaro RE, Galmarini M, Lang W. Decreased serum dehydroepiandrosterone is associated with an increased progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection in men with CD4 cell counts of 200-499. J Infect Dis 1991;164:864-8.
  7. Piketty C, Jayle D, Leplege A, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in patients with advanced HIV disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001;55:325-30.
  8. Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76.
  9. Kokoska L, Polesny Z, Rada V, et al. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;82:51-3.
  10. Petri MA, Lahita RG, Van Vollenhoven RF, et al. Effects of prasterone on corticosteroid requirements of women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:1820-9.
  1. Genelabs Technologies, Inc. Prestara Background. Available at: http://www.genelabs.com/development/prestaraBackground.html (Accessed 10 December 2004).
  2. Foth D, Nawroth F. Effect of soy supplementation on endogenous hormones in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2003;55:135-8.
  3. Thompson RD, Carlson M, Thompson RD, Carlson M. Liquid chromatographic determination of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in dietary supplement products. J AOAC Int 2000;83:847-57.
  4. Parasrampuria J, Schwartz K, Petesch R. Quality control of dehydroepiandrosterone dietary supplement products. JAMA 1998;280:1565.
  5. Rosenfield RL. Ovarian and adrenal function in polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1999;28:265-93.
  6. Ciolino H, MacDonald C, Memon O, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the expression of carcinogen-activating enzymes in vivo. Int J Cancer 2003;105:321-5 .
  7. Acacio BD, Stanczyk FZ, Mullin P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of dehydroepiandrosterone and its metabolites after long-term daily oral administration to healthy young men. Fertil Steril 2004;81:595-604.
  8. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO, Kohrt WM. Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;53:561-8.
  9. Sun Y, Mao M, Sun L, et al. Treatment of osteoporosis in men using dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.Chin Med J (Engl) 2002;115:402-4.
  10. Gordon CM, Grace E, Emans SJ, et al. Effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone on bone density in young women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:4935-41.
  11. Petri MA, Mease PJ, Merrill JT, et al. Effects of prasterone on disease activity and symptoms in women with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:2858-68.
  12. Kochan Z, Karbowska J. Dehydroepiandrosterone up-regulates resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2004;218:57-64.
  13. Tchernof A, Labrie F. Dehydroepiandrosterone, obesity and cardiovascular disease risk: a review of human studies. Eur J Endocrinol 2004;151:1-14.
  14. Stratigos AJ, Arndt KA, Dover JS. Advances in cutaneous aesthetic surgery. JAMA 1998;280:1397-98.
  15. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men. JAMA 2004;292:2243-8.
  16. Buvat J. Androgen therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone. World J Urol. 2003;21:346-55.
  17. Genazzani AD, Stomati M, Bernardi F, et al. Long-term low-dose dehydroepiandrosterone oral supplementation in early and late postmenopausal women modulates endocrine parameters and synthesis of neuroactive steroids. Fertil Steril 2003;80:1495-501.
  18. Ng MK, Nakhla S, Baoutina A, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone, an adrenal androgen, increases human foam cell formation: a potentially pro-atherogenic effect. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1967-74.
  19. Wolkowitz OM, Kramer JH, Reus VI, et al. DHEA treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology 2003;60:1071-6.
  20. Stomati M, Monteleone P, Casarosa E, et al. Six-month oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in early and late postmenopause. Gynecol Endocrinol 2000;14:342-63.
  21. Lasco A, Frisina N, Morabito N, et al. Metabolic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol 2001;145:457-61.
  22. Percheron G, Hogrel JY, Denot-Ledunois S, et al. Effect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to 60- to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:720-7.
  23. Calhoun K, Pommier R, Cheek J, et al. The effect of high dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels on tamoxifen blockade and breast cancer progression. Am J Surg 2003;185:411-5.
  24. Morris KT, Toth-Fejel S, Schmidt J, et al. High dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate predicts breast cancer progression during new aromatase inhibitor therapy and stimulates breast cancer cell growth in tissue culture: a renewed role for adrenalectomy. Surgery 2001;130:947-53.
  25. Calhoun KE, Pommier RF, Muller P, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate causes proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells despite treatment with fulvestrant. Arch Surg 2003;138:879-83.
  26. Hackbert L, Heiman JR. Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on sexual arousal in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11:155-62.
  27. Arlt W, Callies F, Koehler I, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in healthy men with an age-related decline of dehydroepiandrosterone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:4686-92.
  28. Meno-Tetang GM, Blum RA, Schwartz KE, Jusko WJ. Effects of oral prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone) on single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral prednisone and cortisol suppression in normal women. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:1195-205.
  29. Strous RD, Maayan R, Lapidus R, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in the management of negative, depressive, and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:133-41.
  30. Wit JM, Langenhorst VJ, Jansen M, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate treatment for atrichia pubis. Horm Res 2001;56:134-9.
  31. Callies F, Fassnacht M, van Vlijmen JC, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency: effects on body composition, serum leptin, bone turnover, and exercise capacity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1968-72.
  32. Rowland NE, Marshall M, Robertson K. Anorectic effect of dehydroepiandrosterone combined with dexfenfluramine or thionisoxetine. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;419:61-64.
  33. Piketty C, Jayle D, Gonzalez-Canali G, et al. Low plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and incidence of lipodystrophy. HIV Med 2001;2:136-8.
  34. Mazat L, Lafont S, Berr C, et al. Prospective measurements of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in a cohort of elderly subjects: relationship to gender, subjective health, smoking habits, and 10-year mortality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001;98:8145-50.
  35. Reiter WJ, Schatzl G, Mark I, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with different organic etiologies. Urol Res 2001;29:278-81.
  36. Kim SS, Brody KH. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;97:96-7.
  37. Meston CM, Heiman JR. Acute dehydroepiandrosterone effects on sexual arousal in premenopausal women. J Sex Marital Ther 2002;28:53-60.
  38. Johannsson G, Burman P, Wiren L, et al. Low dose dehydroepiandrosterone affects behavior in hypopituitary androgen-deficient women: a placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2046-52.
  39. Pepping J. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:2048-50, 2053-4, 2056.
  40. Araghiniknam M, Chung S, Nelson-White T, et al. Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Life Sci 1996;59:PL147-57.
  41. Himmel PB, Seligman TM. A Pilot Study Employing Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. [Abstract]. J Clin Rheumatol 1999:5:56-9.
  42. Kuratsune H, Yamaguti K, Sawada M, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. Int J Mol Med 1998;1:143-6.
  43. Robinzon B, Cutolo M. Should dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy be provided with glucocorticoids? Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999;38:488-95.
  44. Genazzani AD, Stomati M, Strucchi C, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation modulates spontaneous and growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion in early and late postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril 2001;76:241-8.
  45. Dean CE. Prasterone (DHEA) and mania. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:1419-22.
  46. van Vollenhoven RF, Park JL, Genovese MC, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone in severe lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1999;8:181-7.
  47. Baulieu EE, Thomas G, Legrain S, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and aging. Contribution of the DHEAge study to a sociobiomedical issue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:4279-84.
  48. Stoll BA. Dietary supplements of dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to breast cancer risk. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:771-5.
  49. Markowitz JS, Carson WH, Jackson CW. Possible dihydroepiandrosterone-induced mania. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:241-2.
  50. Jarrar D, Wang P, Cioffi WG, et al. Mechanisms of the salutary effects of dehydroepiandrosterone after trauma-hemorrhage. Direct or indirect effects on cardiac and hepatocellular functions? Arch Surg 2000;135:416-23.
  51. van Vollenhoven RF. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000;26:349-62.
  52. Mease PJ, Ginzler EM, Gluck OS, et al. Improvement in bone mineral density in steroid-treated SLE patients during treatment with GL701 (prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone). 2000 American College of Rheumatology Meeting. Philadelphia, PA. October 29-November 2. abstract 835.
  53. Mease PJ, Merrill JT, Lahita RG, et al. GL701 (prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) improves systemic lupus erythematosus. 2000 American College of Rheumatology Meeting. Philadelphia, PA. October 29-November 2. Abstract 1230.
  54. Mazza E, Maccario M, Ramunni J, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women. Relationships with age, body mass index and insulin levels. (abstract) J Endocrinol Invest 1999;22:681-7.
  55. Tilvis RS, Kahonen M, Harkonen M. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, diseases and mortality in a general aged population. (abstract) Aging (Milano) 1999;11:30-4.
  56. Callies F, Arlt W, Siekmann L, et al. Influence of oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on urinary steroid metabolites in males and females. Steroids 2000;65:98-102.
  57. Barnhart KT, Freeman E, Grisso JA, et al. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation to symptomatic perimenopausal women on serum endocrine profiles, lipid parameters, and health-related quality of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3896-902.
  58. Arlt W, Haas J, Callies F, et al. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2170-6.
  59. Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Harman M, et al. The relationship between longitudinal declines in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations and cognitive performance in older men. Arch Int Med 2000;160:2193-8.
  60. Barry NN, McGuire JL, van Vollenhoven RF. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship between dosage, serum levels, and clinical response. J Rheumatol 1998;25:2352-6.
  61. Moriyama Y, Yasue H, Yoshimura M, et al. The plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate are decreased in patients with chronic heart failure in proportion to the severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1834-40.
  62. Kline MD, Jaggers ED. Mania onset while using dehydroepiandrosterone (letter). Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:971.
  63. Hayashi T, Teiji Esaki T, Emiko Muto E, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone retards atherosclerosis formation through its conversion to estrogen: the possible role of nitric oxide. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:782-92.
  64. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in men with erectile dysfunction. Urology 2000;55:755-8.
  65. National Collegiate Athletic Association. List of banned drug classes for 2004-2005. Available at: www.ncaa.org.
  66. Flynn MA, Weaver-Osterholtz D, Sharpe-Timms KL, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in aging humans. [Abstract] J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:1527-33.
  67. Kudielka BM, Hellhammer J, Hellhammer D, et al. Sex differences in endocrine and psychological responses to psychosocial stress in healthy elderly subjects and the impact of a 2 week dehydroepiandrosterone treatment. [Abstract] J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1756-61.
  68. Arlt W, Justl H, Callies F, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone for adrenal androgen replacement: pharmacokinetics and peripheral conversion to androgens and estrogens in young healthy females after dexamethasone suppression. [Abstract] J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1928-34.
  69. Casson PR, Andersen RN, Herrod HG, et al. Oral dehyroepiandosterone in physiologic doses modulates immune function in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;1536-9.
  70. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. [Abstract] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)1998;49:421-32.
  71. Bates GW, Egerman RS, Umstot ES, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone attenuates study-induced declines in insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:291-3.
  72. Casson PR, Faquin LC, Stentz FB. Replacement of dehydroepiandrosterone enhances T-lymphocyte insulin binding in postmenopausal women. (abstract) Fertil Steril 1995;63:1027-31.
  73. Kroboth PD, Salek FS, Pittenger AL, et al. DHEA and DHEA-S: A review. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:327-48.
  74. Labrie F, Diamond P, Cusan L, et al. Effect of 12 month dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone, vagina, and endometrium in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3498-505.
  75. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Manfredi F, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of depression. [Abstract] Biol Psychiatry 1997;41:311-8.
  76. Wolf OT, Neumann O, Hellhammer DH, et al. Effects of a two-week physiological dehydroepiandrosterone substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in healthy elderly women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2363-7.
  77. Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of midlife dysthymia. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:1533-41.
  78. Christeff N, Gherbi N, Mammes O, et al. Serum cortisol and DHEA concentrations during HIV infection. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997;22:S11-8.
  79. Henderson E, Yang JY, Schwartz A. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and synthetic DHEA analogs are modest inhibitors of HIV-1 IIIB replication. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992;8:625-31.
  80. Dyner TS, Lang W, Geaga J, et al. An open-label, dose-escalation trial of oral dehydroepiandrosterone tolerance and pharmacokinetics in patients with HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6:459-65.
  81. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Keebler A, et al. Double-blind treatment of major depression with dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:646-9.
  82. Oelkers W. Dehydroepiandosterone for adrenal insufficiency (editorial). N Engl J Med 1999;341:1073-4.
  83. Arlt W, Callies F, van Vlijmen JC, et al. Dehydroepiandosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1013-20.
  84. van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37:1305-10.
  85. Yen SS, Morales AJ, Khorram O. Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women. Potential remedial effects. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:128-42.
  86. Ebeling P, Koivisto VA. Physiological importance of dehydroepiandrosterone. Lancet 1994;343:1479-81.
  87. Van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGurie JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Arth Rheum 1995;38:1826-31.
  88. Van Vollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, et al. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehydroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285-9.
  89. Skolnick AA. Scientific verdict still out on DHEA. JAMA 1996;276:1365-7.
  90. Kuritzky L. DHEA: Science or wishful thinking? Hosp Pract 1998;33:85-6.
  91. Frye RF, Kroboth PD, Folan MM, et al. Effect of DHEA on CYP3A-mediated metabolism of triazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67:109 (abstract PI-82).
  92. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Dehydroepiandosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Urol 1999;53:590-5.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 04/29/2013




Page last updated: 01 July 2014