Skip navigation

DHEA


What is it?

DHEA is a hormone that is naturally made by the human body. It can be made in the laboratory from chemicals found in wild yam and soy. However, the human body cannot make DHEA from these chemicals, so simply eating wild yam or soy will not increase DHEA levels. Don’t be misled by wild yam and soy products labeled as “natural DHEA.”

DHEA is used for slowing or reversing aging, improving thinking skills in older people, and slowing the progress of Alzheimer’s disease.

Athletes and other people use DHEA to increase muscle mass, strength, and energy. But DHEA use is banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA).

DHEA is also used by men for erectile dysfunction (ED), and by healthy women and women who have low levels of certain hormones to improve well-being and sexuality.

Some people try DHEA to treat systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), weak bones (osteoporosis), multiple sclerosis (MS), low levels of steroid hormones (Addison’s disease), depression, schizophrenia, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and to slow the progression of Parkinson’s disease. It is also used for preventing heart disease, breast cancer, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.

DHEA is used for weight loss, for decreasing the symptoms of menopause, and for boosting the immune system.

People with HIV sometimes use DHEA to ease depression and fatigue.

Women who have passed menopause sometimes use DHEA inside the vagina for strengthening the walls of the vagina and for increasing bone mineral density.

Like many dietary supplements, DHEA has some quality control problems. Some products labeled to contain DHEA have been found to contain no DHEA at all, while others contained more than the labeled amount.

DHEA is being investigated and may eventually be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a prescription drug for treating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and improving bone mineral density in women with lupus who are taking steroid drugs for treatment. The FDA is still studying the pharmaceutical company’s application for approval.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for DHEA are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Aging skin. Some research shows that taking DHEA by mouth increases the thickness and hydration of the top layer of the skin in elderly people. Early research shows that applying DHEA to the skin for 4 months improves the appearance of skin.
  • Depression. Most research shows that taking 30-500 mg of DHEA by mouth daily improves symptoms of depression. However, other early research shows that using lower doses of 5-20 mg daily over three weeks does not improve depression.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Withdrawal symptoms. Early research shows that taking 100 mg of DHEA daily together with standard therapy for 12 months does not improve symptoms of drug withdrawal in people addicted to heroin. Taking 100 mg of DHEA daily for 12 weeks also did not improve symptoms of cocaine withdrawal.
  • Psoriasis. Early research suggests that injecting 300 mg of DHEA as a shot weekly might not improve symptoms of psoriasis in most people.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research suggests that taking 200 mg of DHEA by mouth for 16 weeks might not reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in older people.

Likely ineffective for...

  • Mental function. Most research shows that taking DHEA by mouth does not seem to improve mental function or decrease mental decline in healthy older people. However, some early research suggests that taking 50 mg of DHEA daily for 4 weeks might improve vision and memory in middle-aged and older women..
  • Dry mouth (Sjogrens syndrome). Research suggests that taking 50-200 mg of DHEA daily for 4-12 months does not improve a condition called Sjogrens syndrome that causes symptoms including dry mouth.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Addison’s disease . Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for treating Addison’s disease is inconsistent. There is some early evidence that DHEA might improve symptoms of Addison’s disease, including weight loss, but might not improve mental function.
  • Adrenal insufficiency. There is contradictory information about whether taking DHEA can improve feelings of well-being, sexuality, depression, anxiety, and other symptoms in people with this hormone deficiency. Some research suggests that DHEA might improve these symptoms, while other research suggests that DHEA provides no benefit.
  • Aging. Taking DHEA does not seem to improve body shape, bone strength, muscle strength, insulin sensitivity, or quality of life in people older than 60 who have low DHEA levels.
  • Improving growth and maturation in girls with hormone deficiency (atrichia pubis). There is some evidence that DHEA might help growth and maturation in these girls.
  • Abnormal cell growth on the cervix (cervical dysplasia). Early research shows that administering 150 mg of DHEA through the vagina for up to 6 months reverses abnormal cell growth on the cervix.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Early evidence suggests that taking 25-100 mg of DHEA daily for 6 months reduces chronic fatigue.
  • Lung disease (Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). Early research suggests that taking 200 mg of DHEA daily for 3 months appears to improve lung function in people with COPD.
  • Fibromyalgia. Early research shows that taking 50 mg of DHEA daily for 3 months does not reduce symptoms of fibromyalgia.
  • HIV/AIDS. Early studies suggest that taking DHEA might improve HIV patients’ mental health and quality of life. However, DHEA does not seem to actually impact the HIV disease process itself.
  • Infertility. Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for infertility is inconsistent. Early research suggests that taking 75 mg of DHEA before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments appears to improve the success rates of IVF. However, other research suggests it does not increase pregnancy rates.
  • Inflammatory bowel disease. Early research shows that taking 200 mg of DHEA by mouth daily for 56 days reduces symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.
  • Inducing labor. Research suggests that administering DHEA through IV twice weekly until the start of labor after 38 weeks of pregnancy or daily for 3 days shortens the time before labor and the length of labor.
  • Menopausal symptoms. Evidence on the effects of DHEA on menopausal symptoms is inconsistent. Some research suggest that taking 10-25 mg of DHEA by mouth daily reduces symptoms including hot flashes. Other evidence suggests DHEA might provide no benefit.
  • Metabolic syndrome (a cluster of conditions that put people at high risk for heart disease). There is early evidence that DHEA might lower some of the health risks that make overweight men and women more likely to develop metabolic syndrome. The risk factors that DHEA seems to lower are obesity, fat around the waist, and high insulin levels.
  • Inherited condition with many symptoms including muscle wasting (myotonic dystrophy). Taking 100 to 400 mg of DHEA daily for 12 weeks might not affect muscle strength in people with myotonic dystrophy. However, administering DHEA through injections seems to improve daily function, heart function and muscle strength.
  • Weak bones (osteoporosis). Evidence on the effects of DHEA for weak bones is inconsistent. Taking DHEA by mouth daily seems to improve bone mineral density (BMD) in older women and men with osteoporosis or osteopenia (pre-osteoporosis). DHEA may also increase BMD in young women with the eating disorder called anorexia nervosa.
  • Hormone deficiency in men (partial androgen deficiency). Early research suggests that taking 25 mg of DHEA daily for one year might improve mood, fatigue and join pain in older men with hormone deficiency.
  • Physical performance. Some research shows that older adults who take DHEA have improved measures of muscle strength. However, other research has found no effect of taking DHEA on muscle strength.
  • Schizophrenia. Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for schizophrenia is unclear. Some research shows that taking DHEA by mouth improves schizophrenia symptoms. DHEA may be more effective in women than men. Other research shows it provides no benefit.
  • Sexual dysfunction. Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for sexual dysfunction is inconsistent. Taking DHEA by mouth for 24 weeks seems to improve symptoms including erectile dysfunction and overall satisfaction in men. However, it does not seem to be helpful if erectile dysfunction is caused by diabetes or nerve disorders. Some research shows that it might improve sexual function in women, while also research suggests no benefits.
  • Improving symptoms of lupus (SLE). Evidence on the effectiveness of DHEA for SLE is inconsistent. Some research suggests it provides no benefits. Other research suggests that taking DHEA by mouth along with conventional treatment might help reduce the number of times symptoms flare up and may allow a reduction in the dose of prescription drugs needed. DHEA might also help SLE symptoms such as muscle ache and mouth ulcers.
  • Vaginal weakness (vaginal atrophy). Applying 3.25 to 13 mg of a specific DHEA product (Vaginorm) to the vagina daily for 12 weeks seems to benefit elderly women with vaginal atrophy.
  • Weight loss. Early evidence suggests that DHEA seems to help overweight older people who are likely to get metabolic syndrome to lose weight. It is not known if DHEA helps younger people to lose weight.
  • Heart disease.
  • Breast cancer.
  • Diabetes.
  • Parkinson’s disease.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate DHEA for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
DHEA is a “parent hormone” produced by the adrenal glands near the kidneys and in the liver. In men, DHEA is also secreted by the testes. It is changed in the body to a hormone called androstenedione. Androstenedione is then changed into the major male and female hormones.

DHEA levels seem to go down as people get older. DHEA levels also seem to be lower in people with certain conditions like depression. Some researchers think that replacing DHEA with supplements might prevent some diseases and conditions.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
DHEA is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when used for just a few months. It can cause some side effects including acne, hair loss, stomach upset, and high blood pressure. Some women can have changes in menstrual cycle, facial hair growth, and a deeper voice after taking DHEA.

DHEA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in larger amounts and long-term. Do not use DHEA in doses higher than 50-100 mg a day or for a long period of time. Using higher doses or long-term use of DHEA can increase the chance of side effects.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: DHEA is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when taken by mouth during pregnancy or breast-feeding. It can cause higher than normal levels of a male hormone called androgen. This might be harmful to the baby. Don’t use DHEA if you are pregnant or breast-feeding.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: DHEA is a hormone that can affect how estrogen works in the body. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use DHEA.

Liver problems: DHEA might make liver problems worse. Don’t use DHEA if you have liver problems.

Diabetes: DHEA can affect how insulin works in the body. If you have diabetes, monitor your blood sugar carefully if you are taking DHEA.

Depression and mood disorders: There is some concern that patients with a history of depression and bipolar disorder might have some mental side effects if they use DHEA. DHEA can cause mania (excitability and impulsiveness), irritability, and sexual inappropriateness in people with mood disorders. If you have a mood disorder, be sure to discuss DHEA with your healthcare provider before you start taking it. Also, pay attention to any changes in how you feel.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): Taking DHEA might make this condition worse. Don’t use DHEA if you have PCOS.

Cholesterol problems: DHEA might lower “good cholesterol” (high lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL). If your HDL level is already too low, discuss DHEA with your healthcare provider before you start taking it.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Anastrozole (Arimidex)
The body changes DHEA to estrogen in the body. Anastrozole (Arimidex) is used to help lower estrogen levels in the body. Taking DHEA along with anastrozole (Arimidex) might decrease the effectiveness of anastrozole (Arimidex). Do not take DHEA if you are taking anastrozole (Arimidex).

Exemestane (Aromasin)
The body changes DHEA to estrogen in the body. Exemestane (Aromasin) is used to help decrease estrogen in the body. Taking DHEA along with exemestane (Aromasin) might decrease the effectiveness of exemestane (Aromasin). Do not take DHEA if you are taking exemestane (Aromasin).

Fulvestrant (Faslodex)
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Fulvestrant (Faslodex) is used for this type of cancer. DHEA might increase estrogen in the body and decrease the effectiveness of fulvestrant (Faslodex) for treating cancer. Do not take DHEA if you are taking fulvestrant (Faslodex).

Insulin
Insulin is used to lower blood sugar. Insulin can also lower the amount of DHEA in the body. By lowering DHEA in the body, insulin might lower the effectiveness of DHEA supplements.

Letrozole (Femara)
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Letrozole (Femara) is used for this type of cancer. DHEA might increase estrogen in the body and decrease the effectiveness of letrozole (Femara) for treating cancer. Do not take DHEA if you are taking letrozole (Femara).

Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates)
Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver. DHEA might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking DHEA along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking DHEA, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Medications for depression (Antidepressant drugs)
DHEA increases a brain chemical called serotonin. Some medications for depression also increase the brain chemical serotonin. Taking DHEA along with these medications for depression might increase serotonin too much and cause serious side effects including heart problems, shivering, and anxiety. Do not take DHEA if you are taking medications for depression.

Some of these medications for depression include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), amitriptyline (Elavil), clomipramine (Anafranil), imipramine (Tofranil), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
DHEA might slow blood clotting. Taking DHEA along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Tamoxifen (Nolvadex)
Some types of cancer are affected by hormones in the body. Estrogen-sensitive cancers are cancers that are affected by estrogen levels in the body. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex) is used to help treat and prevent these types of cancer. DHEA increases estrogen levels in the body. By increasing estrogen in the body, DHEA might decrease the effectiveness of tamoxifen (Nolvadex). Do not take DHEA if you are taking tamoxifen (Nolvadex).

Triazolam (Halcion)
The body breaks down triazolam (Halcion) to get rid of it. DHEA might decrease how quickly the body breaks down triazolam (Halcion). Taking DHEA along with triazolam (Halcion) might increase the effects and side effects of triazolam (Halcion).

Tuberculosis Vaccine
Taking DHEA might reduce the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine. People receiving a vaccination for tuberculosis should use DHEA cautiously.

Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Estrogens
DHEA seems to increase estrogen levels in the body. Taking DHEA along with estrogen pills might cause too much estrogen in the body.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Medications for inflammation (Corticosteroids)
The body naturally makes DHEA. Some medications for inflammation might decrease how much DHEA the body makes. Taking some medications for inflammation might decrease the effects of taking DHEA pills.

Some medications for inflammation include dexamethasone (Decadron), hydrocortisone (Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and others.

Testosterone
Taking DHEA with a testosterone pill might cause there to be too much testosterone in the body. This might increase the chance of testosterone side effects.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Using DHEA along with herbs that can slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bleeding in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.

Licorice
Taking licorice increases the levels of DHEA in the body. Taking licorice with DHEA might increase the side effects of DHEA.

Soy
Soy might increase or decrease DHEA levels in the body. Taking soy with DHEA might increase the effects of DHEA.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Fiber
Eating fiber seems to decrease levels of DHEA in the body. Eating fiber while taking DHEA might decrease the effects of DHEA.

Soy
Soy might increase or decrease DHEA levels in the body. Taking soy with DHEA might increase the effects of DHEA.

Vegetarian diet
Strict vegetarians have higher levels of DHEA in their blood than non-vegetarians. However, this difference seems to disappear after menopause. Researchers aren't sure how important these findings are.

What dose is used?

Return to top
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • In postmenopausal women and in elderly men: Doses of 25-50 mg daily are commonly used.
  • For treatment of schizophrenia: Increasing doses of DHEA of 25 mg daily for 2 weeks, 25 mg two times daily for 2 weeks, and 50 mg two times daily for 2 weeks.
  • For replacement of hormones when the adrenal glands are not working well (androgen deficiency): 25-50 mg given daily as a single dose.
  • For systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): 200 mg per day along with conventional medical treatment, but doses up to 600 mg per day have been used.
  • For improving bone mineral density in people with weak bones (osteoporosis): 50-100 mg per day.
  • For erectile dysfunction: 50 mg per day.

Other names

Return to top
3b-Hydroxy-Androst-5-Ene-17-One, 3BetaHydroxy-Androst-5-Ene-17-One, Androstenolone, Dehydroepiandrosterone, Déhydroépiandrostérone, DHEA-S, GL701, Prasterone, Prastérone.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the DHEA page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/331.html.

  1. Morales, A. J., Nolan, J. J., Nelson, J. C., Yen, S. S. Effects of replacement dose of dehydroepiandrosterone in men and women of advancing age. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994;78:1360-7. View abstract.
  2. Crosbie, D., Black, C., McIntyre, L., Royle, P. L., Thomas, S. Dehydroepiandrosterone for systemic lupus erythematosus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;:CD005114. View abstract.
  3. Nissen, S. L., Sharp, R. L. Effect of dietary supplements on lean mass and strength gains with resistance exercise: a meta-analysis. J Appl Physiol 2003;94:651-9. View abstract.
  4. Huppert, F. A., Van Niekerk, J. K. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function (Cochrane Review). Cochrane Database (Issue 2) 2001;2:CD000304. View abstract.
  5. Guay, A. T. Decreased testosterone in regularly menstruating women with decreased libido: a clinical observation. J Sex Marital Ther 2001;27:513-9. View abstract.
  6. Panjari, M., Davis, S. R. DHEA for postmenopausal women: a review of the evidence. Maturitas 2010;66:172-9. View abstract.
  7. Teede, H. J., Dalais, F. S., McGrath, B. P. Dietary soy containing phytoestrogens does not have detectable estrogenic effects on hepatic protein synthesis in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:396-401. View abstract.
  8. Schlegel, W., Petersdorf, L. I., Junker, R., Schulte, H., Ebert, C., Von Eckardstein, A. The effects of six months of treatment with a low-dose of conjugated oestrogens in menopausal women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1999;51:643-51. View abstract.
  9. Bernardi, F., Pieri, M., Stomati, M., Luisi, S., Palumbo, M., Pluchino, N., Ceccarelli, C., Genazzani, A. R. Effect of different hormonal replacement therapies on circulating allopregnanolone and dehydroepiandrosterone levels in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol 2003;17:65-77. View abstract.
  10. Holzmann, H., Morsches, B., Krapp, R., Hoede, N., Oertel, G. W. [Therapy of psoriasis with dehydroepiandrosterone-enanthate. II. Intramuscular depot application of 300 mg weekly (author's transl)]. Archiv fur Dermatol Forsch 1973;247:23-8. View abstract.
  1. Sugino, M., Ohsawa, N., Ito, T., Ishida, S., Yamasaki, H., Kimura, F., Shinoda, K. A pilot study of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in myotonic dystrophy. Neurology 1998;51:586-9. View abstract.
  2. Mochizuki, M., Honda, T., Deguchi, M., Morikawa, H., Tojo, S. A study on the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate on so-called cervical ripening. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1978;57:397-401. View abstract.
  3. Ishikawa, M., Shimizu, T. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and induction of labor. Am J Perinatol 1989;6:173-5. View abstract.
  4. Scarpellini, L., Scarpellini, F., Spina, V. [Clinical evaluation of DHEA-S plasma levels and possible therapeutic value of the hormone in the third trimester]. Clin Ter 1993;143:383-8. View abstract.
  5. Labrie, F., Archer, D., Bouchard, C., Fortier, M., Cusan, L., Gomez, J. L., Girard, G., Baron, M., Ayotte, N., Moreau, M., Dube, R., Cote, I., Labrie, C., Lavoie, L., Berger, L., Gilbert, L., Martel, C., Balser, J. Intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (Prasterone), a physiological and highly efficient treatment of vaginal atrophy. Menopause 2009;16:907-22. View abstract.
  6. Labrie, F., Archer, D., Bouchard, C., Fortier, M., Cusan, L., Gomez, J. L., Girard, G., Baron, M., Ayotte, N., Moreau, M., Dube, R., Cote, I., Labrie, C., Lavoie, L., Berger, L., Martel, C., Balser, J. High internal consistency and efficacy of intravaginal DHEA for vaginal atrophy. Gynecol Endocrinol 2010;26:524-32. View abstract.
  7. Nouveau, S., Bastien, P., Baldo, F., de Lacharriere O. Effects of topical DHEA on aging skin: a pilot study. Maturitas 2008;59:174-81. View abstract.
  8. Vogiatzi, M. G., Boeck, M. A., Vlachopapadopoulou, E., el-Rashid, R., New, M. I. Dehydroepiandrosterone in morbidly obese adolescents: effects on weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin resistance. Metabolism 1996;45:1011-5. View abstract.
  9. Suh-Burgmann, E., Sivret, J., Duska, L. R., Del Carmen, M., Seiden, M. V. Long-term administration of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone on regression of low-grade cervical dysplasia--a pilot study. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2003;55:25-31. View abstract.
  10. Hartkamp, A., Geenen, R., Godaert, G. L., Bijl, M., Bijlsma, J. W., Derksen, R. H. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on fatigue and well-being in women with quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2010;69:1144-7. View abstract.
  11. Morales, A., Black, A., Emerson, L., Barkin, J., Kuzmarov, I., Day, A. Androgens and sexual function: a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study of testosterone vs. dehydroepiandrosterone in men with sexual dysfunction and androgen deficiency. Aging Male 2009;12:104-12. View abstract.
  12. Ritsner, M. S., Gibel, A., Shleifer, T., Boguslavsky, I., Zayed, A., Maayan, R., Weizman, A., Lerner, V. Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, 2-center, parallel-group trial. J Clin Psychiatry 2010;71:1351-62. View abstract.
  13. Giltay, E. J., van Schaardenburg, D., Gooren, L. J., von Blomberg, B. M., Fonk, J. C., Touw, D. J., Dijkmans, B. A. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1998;37:705-6. View abstract.
  14. Muller, M., van den Beld, A. W., van der Schouw, Y. T., Grobbee, D. E., Lamberts, S. W. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and atamestane supplementation on frailty in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:3988-91. View abstract.
  15. Igwebuike, A., Irving, B. A., Bigelow, M. L., Short, K. R., McConnell, J. P., Nair, K. S. Lack of dehydroepiandrosterone effect on a combined endurance and resistance exercise program in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:534-8. View abstract.
  16. Dayal, M., Sammel, M. D., Zhao, J., Hummel, A. C., Vandenbourne, K., Barnhart, K. T. Supplementation with DHEA: effect on muscle size, strength, quality of life, and lipids. J Womens Health (Larchmt) 2005;14:391-400. View abstract.
  17. Gleicher, N., Ryan, E., Weghofer, A., Blanco-Mejia, S., Barad, D. H. Miscarriage rates after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation in women with diminished ovarian reserve: a case control study. Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2009;7-108. View abstract.
  18. Genazzani, A. R., Stomati, M., Valentino, V., Pluchino, N., Pot, E., Casarosa, E., Merlini, S., Giannini, A., Luisi, M. Effect of 1-year, low-dose DHEA therapy on climacteric symptoms and female sexuality. Climacteric 2011;14:661-8. View abstract.
  19. Andus, T., Klebl, F., Rogler, G., Bregenzer, N., Scholmerich, J., Straub, R. H. Patients with refractory Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis respond to dehydroepiandrosterone: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:409-14. View abstract.
  20. Artini, P. G., Simi, G., Ruggiero, M., Pinelli, S., Di Berardino, O. M., Papini, F., Papini, S., Monteleone, P., Cela, V. DHEA supplementation improves follicular microenviroment in poor responder patients. Gynecol Endocrinol 2012;28:669-73. View abstract.
  21. Sonmezer, M., Ozmen, B., Cil, A. P., Ozkavukcu, S., Tasci, T., Olmus, H., Atabekoglu, C. S. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation improves ovarian response and cycle outcome in poor responders. Reprod Biomed Online 2009;19:508-13. View abstract.
  22. Wiser, A., Gonen, O., Ghetler, Y., Shavit, T., Berkovitz, A., Shulman, A. Addition of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for poor-responder patients before and during IVF treatment improves the pregnancy rate: a randomized prospective study. Hum Reprod 2010;25:2496-2500. View abstract.
  23. Maayan, R., Touati-Werner, D., Shamir, D., Yadid, G., Friedman, A., Eisner, D., Weizman, A., Herman, I. The effect of DHEA complementary treatment on heroin addicts participating in a rehabilitation program: a preliminary study. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2008;18:406-13. View abstract.
  24. Shoptaw, S., Majewska, M. D., Wilkins, J., Twitchell, G., Yang, X., Ling, W. Participants receiving dehydroepiandrosterone during treatment for cocaine dependence show high rates of cocaine use in a placebo-controlled pilot study. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol 2004;12:126-35. View abstract.
  25. Usiskin K. S., Butterworth S., Clore J. N., Arad Y., Ginsberg H. N., Blackard W. G., Nestler J. E. Lack of effect of dehydroepiandrosterone in obese men. Int J Obes 1990;14:457-63. View abstract.
  26. Forrest AD, Drewery J, Fotherby K, Laverty SG. A clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (Diandrone). J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1960;23:52-5. View abstract.
  27. Schmidt, P. J., Daly, R. C., Bloch, M., Smith, M. J., Danaceau, M. A., St Clair, L. S., Murphy, J. H., Haq, N., Rubinow, D. R. Dehydroepiandrosterone monotherapy in midlife-onset major and minor depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2005;62:154-62. View abstract.
  28. Wolkowitz, O. M., Reus, V. I., Roberts, E., Manfredi, F., Chan, T., Ormiston, S., Johnson, R., Canick, J., Brizendine, L., Weingartner, H. Antidepressant and cognition-enhancing effects of DHEA in major depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:337-9. View abstract.
  29. Kawano, H., Yasue, H., Kitagawa, A., Hirai, N., Yoshida, T., Soejima, H., Miyamoto, S., Nakano, M., Ogawa, H. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation improves endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:3190-95. View abstract.
  30. Wolf, O. T., Koster, B., Kirschbaum, C., Pietrowsky, R., Kern, W., Hellhammer, D. H., Born, J., Fehm, H. L. A single administration of dehydroepiandrosterone does not enhance memory performance in young healthy adults, but immediately reduces cortisol levels. Biol Psychiatry 1997;42:845-8. View abstract.
  31. Stangl, B., Hirshman, E., and Verbalis, J. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances visual-spatial performance in postmenopausal women. Behav Neurosci 2011;125:742-52. View abstract.
  32. Merritt, P., Stangl, B., Hirshman, E., Verbalis, J. Administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) increases serum levels of androgens and estrogens but does not enhance short-term memory in post-menopausal women. Brain Res 11-5-2012;1483:54-62. View abstract.
  33. Hirshman, E., Wells, E., Wierman, M. E., Anderson, B., Butler, A., Senholzi, M., Fisher, J. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on recognition memory decision processes and discrimination in postmenopausal women. Psychon Bull Rev 2003;10:125-34. View abstract.
  34. Dumas de La Roque, E., Savineau, J. P., Metivier, A. C., Billes, M. A., Kraemer, J. P., Doutreleau, S., Jougon, J., Marthan, R., Moore, N., Fayon, M., Baulieu, E. E., Dromer, C. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) improves pulmonary hypertension in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a pilot study. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 2012;73:20-2. View abstract.
  35. Hartkamp, A., Geenen, R., Godaert, G. L., Bijl, M., Bijlsma, J. W., Derksen, R. H. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on lumbar spine bone mineral density in patients with quiescent systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:3591-95. View abstract.
  36. Bloch, M., Ish-Shalom, S., Greenman, Y., Klein, E., Latzer, Y. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment effects on weight, bone density, bone metabolism and mood in women suffering from anorexia nervosa-a pilot study. Psychiatry Res 2012;200(2-3):544-9. View abstract.
  37. Kenny, A. M., Boxer, R. S., Kleppinger, A., Brindisi, J., Feinn, R., Burleson, J. A. Dehydroepiandrosterone combined with exercise improves muscle strength and physical function in frail older women. J Am Geriatr Soc 2010;58:1707-14. View abstract.
  38. Abrams, D. I., Shade, S. B., Couey, P., McCune, J. M., Lo, J., Bacchetti, P., Chang, B., Epling, L., Liegler, T., Grant, R. M. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on HIV replication and host immunity: a randomized placebo-controlled study. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2007;23:77-85. View abstract.
  39. Christiansen, J. J., Bruun, J. M., Christiansen, J. S., Jorgensen, J. O., Gravholt, C. H. Long-term DHEA substitution in female adrenocortical failure, body composition, muscle function, and bone metabolism: a randomized trial. Eur J Endocrinol 2011;165:293-300. View abstract.
  40. van Thiel, S. W., Romijn, J. A., Pereira, A. M., Biermasz, N. R., Roelfsema, F., van Hemert, A., Ballieux, B., Smit, J. W. Effects of dehydroepiandrostenedione, superimposed on growth hormone substitution, on quality of life and insulin-like growth factor I in patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency: a randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3295-3303. View abstract.
  41. Gurnell, E. M., Hunt, P. J., Curran, S. E., Conway, C. L., Pullenayegum, E. M., Huppert, F. A., Compston, J. E., Herbert, J., Chatterjee, V. K. Long-term DHEA replacement in primary adrenal insufficiency: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:400-9. View abstract.
  42. Dhatariya, K. K., Greenlund, L. J., Bigelow, M. L., Thapa, P., Oberg, A. L., Ford, G. C., Schimke, J. M., Nair, K. S. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in hypoadrenal women: protein anabolism and skeletal muscle function. Mayo Clin Proc 2008;83:1218-25. View abstract.
  43. Arlt, W., Callies, F., Allolio, B. DHEA replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency--pharmacokinetics, bioconversion and clinical effects on well-being, sexuality and cognition. Endocr Res 2000;26:505-11. View abstract.
  44. Al-Dujaili, E. A., Kenyon, C. J., Nicol, M. R., Mason, J. I. Liquorice and glycyrrhetinic acid increase DHEA and deoxycorticosterone levels in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting adrenal SULT2A1 activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2011;336(1-2):102-9. View abstract.
  45. Goldin, B. R., Brauner, E., Adlercreutz, H., Ausman, L. M., Lichtenstein, A. H. Hormonal response to diets high in soy or animal protein without and with isoflavones in moderately hypercholesterolemic subjects. Nutr Cancer 2005;51:1-6. View abstract.
  46. Fischer, L., Mahoney, C., Jeffcoat, A. R., Koch, M. A., Thomas, B. E., Valentine, J. L., Stinchcombe, T., Boan, J., Crowell, J. A., Zeisel, S. H. Clinical characteristics and pharmacokinetics of purified soy isoflavones: multiple-dose administration to men with prostate neoplasia. Nutr Cancer 2004;48:160-70. View abstract.
  47. Wang, C., Catlin, D. H., Starcevic, B., Heber, D., Ambler, C., Berman, N., Lucas, G., Leung, A., Schramm, K., Lee, P. W., Hull, L., Swerdloff, R. S. Low-fat high-fiber diet decreased serum and urine androgens in men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:3550-9. View abstract.
  48. Dorgan, J. F., Reichman, M. E., Judd, J. T., Brown, C., Longcope, C., Schatzkin, A., Forman, M., Campbell, W. S., Franz, C., Kahle, L., Taylor, P. R. Relation of energy, fat, and fiber intakes to plasma concentrations of estrogens and androgens in premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 1996;64:25-31. View abstract.
  49. Bonorden, M. J., Greany, K. A., Wangen, K. E., Phipps, W. R., Feirtag, J., Adlercreutz, H., Kurzer, M. S. Consumption of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum do not alter urinary equol excretion and plasma reproductive hormones in premenopausal women. Eur J Clin Nutr 2004;58:1635-42. View abstract.
  50. White, T., Jain, J. K., Stanczyk, F. Z. Effect of oral versus transdermal steroidal contraceptives on androgenic markers. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005;192:2055-9. View abstract.
  51. Cibula, D., Fanta, M., Vrbikova, J., Stanicka, S., Dvorakova, K., Hill, M., Skrha, J., Zivny, J., Skrenkova, J. The effect of combination therapy with metformin and combined oral contraceptives (COC) versus COC alone on insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenaemia, SHBG and lipids in PCOS patients. Hum Reprod 2005;20:180-4. View abstract.
  52. Klove, K. L., Roy, S., Lobo, R. A. The effect of different contraceptive treatments on the serum concentration of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Contraception 1984;29:319-24. View abstract.
  53. Binder, G., Weber, S., Ehrismann, M., Zaiser, N., Meisner, C., Ranke, M. B., Maier, L., Wudy, S. A., Hartmann, M. F., Heinrich, U., Bettendorf, M., Doerr, H. G., Pfaeffle, R. W., Keller, E. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone therapy on pubic hair growth and psychological well-being in adolescent girls and young women with central adrenal insufficiency: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase III trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:1182-90. View abstract.
  54. Shun YP, Shun LH, Feng YY, and et al. [The effect of DHEA on body fat distribution and serum lipids in elderly overweight males]. Practical Geriatrics 1999;13:31-33.
  55. Virkki, L. M., Porola, P., Forsblad-d'Elia, H., Valtysdottir, S., Solovieva, S. A., Konttinen, Y. T. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) substitution treatment for severe fatigue in DHEA-deficient patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) 2010;62:118-24. View abstract.
  56. Yeung, T. W., Li, R. H., Lee, V. C., Ho, P. C., Ng, E. H. A randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial on the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone for 16 weeks on ovarian response markers in women with primary ovarian insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2013;98:380-8. View abstract.
  57. Hartkamp, A., Geenen, R., Godaert, G. L., Bootsma, H., Kruize, A. A., Bijlsma, J. W., Derksen, R. H. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on fatigue, well-being, and functioning in women with primary Sjogren syndrome: a randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 2008;67:91-7. View abstract.
  58. Mamas, L., Mamas, E. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in assisted reproduction: rationale and results. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2009;21:306-8. View abstract.
  59. Panjari, M., Bell, R. J., Jane, F., Wolfe, R., Adams, J., Morrow, C., Davis, S. R. A randomized trial of oral DHEA treatment for sexual function, well-being, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women with low libido. J Sex Med 2009;6:2579-90. View abstract.
  60. Christiansen, J. J., Andersen, N. H., Sorensen, K. E., Pedersen, E. M., Bennett, P., Andersen, M., Christiansen, J. S., Jorgensen, J. O., Gravholt, C. H. Dehydroepiandrosterone substitution in female adrenal failure: no impact on endothelial function and cardiovascular parameters despite normalization of androgen status. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2007;66:426-33. View abstract.
  61. Pillemer, S. R., Brennan, M. T., Sankar, V., Leakan, R. A., Smith, J. A., Grisius, M., Ligier, S., Radfar, L., Kok, M. R., Kingman, A., Fox, P. C. Pilot clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) versus placebo for Sjogren's syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 2004;51:601-4. View abstract.
  62. Lovas, K., Gebre-Medhin, G., Trovik, T. S., Fougner, K. J., Uhlving, S., Nedrebo, B. G., Myking, O. L., Kampe, O., Husebye, E. S. Replacement of dehydroepiandrosterone in adrenal failure: no benefit for subjective health status and sexuality in a 9-month, randomized, parallel group clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2003;88:1112-18. View abstract.
  63. Gebre-Medhin, G., Husebye, E. S., Mallmin, H., Helstrom, L., Berne, C., Karlsson, F. A., Kampe, O. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy in women with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;52:775-80. View abstract.
  64. Forsblad-d'Elia, H., Carlsten, H., Labrie, F., Konttinen, Y. T., Ohlsson, C. Low serum levels of sex steroids are associated with disease characteristics in primary Sjogren's syndrome; supplementation with dehydroepiandrosterone restores the concentrations. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:2044-51. View abstract.
  65. Weiss, E. P., Villareal, D. T., Ehsani, A. A., Fontana, L., Holloszy, J. O. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in older adults improves indices of arterial stiffness. Aging Cell 2012;11:876-84. View abstract.
  66. McHenry, C. M., Bell, P. M., Hunter, S. J., Thompson, C. J., Courtney, C. H., Ennis, C. N., Sheridan, B., McCance, D. R., Mullan, K. R., Atkinson, A. B. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) replacement on insulin action and quality of life in hypopituitary females: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012;77:423-9. View abstract.
  67. Gomez-Santos, C., Hernandez-Morante, J. J., Tebar, F. J., Granero, E., Garaulet, M. Differential effect of oral dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate on metabolic syndrome features in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012;77:548-54. View abstract.
  68. Jankowski, C. M., Gozansky, W. S., Van Pelt, R. E., Wolfe, P., Schwartz, R. S., Kohrt, W. M. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in older adults: effects on central adiposity, glucose metabolism and blood lipids. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2011;75:456-63. View abstract.
  69. Srinivasan, M., Irving, B. A., Dhatariya, K., Klaus, K. A., Hartman, S. J., McConnell, J. P., Nair, K. S. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement on lipoprotein profile in hypoadrenal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:761-4. View abstract.
  70. Srinivasan, M., Irving, B. A., Frye, R. L., O'Brien, P., Hartman, S. J., McConnell, J. P., Nair, K. S. Effects on lipoprotein particles of long-term dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men and women and testosterone in elderly men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010;95:1617-25. View abstract.
  71. Nordmark, G., Bengtsson, C., Larsson, A., Karlsson, F. A., Sturfelt, G., Ronnblom, L. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplement on health-related quality of life in glucocorticoid treated female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Autoimmunity 2005;38:531-540. View abstract.
  72. Araneo, B. Daynes, R. Dehydroepiandrosterone functions as more than an antiglucocorticoid in preserving immunocompetence after thermal injury. Endocrinology 1995;136:393-401. View abstract.
  73. Casson, P. R., Santoro, N., Elkind-Hirsch, K., Carson, S. A., Hornsby, P. J., Abraham, G., Buster, J. E. Postmenopausal dehydroepiandrosterone administration increases free insulin-like growth factor-I and decreases high-density lipoprotein: a six-month trial. Fertil Steril 1998;70:107-110. View abstract.
  74. Penisson-Besnier, I., Devillers, M., Porcher, R., Orlikowski, D., Doppler, V., Desnuelle, C., Ferrer, X., Bes, M. C., Bouhour, F., Tranchant, C., Lagrange, E., Vershueren, A., Uzenot, D., Cintas, P., Sole, G., Hogrel, J. Y., Laforet, P., Vial, C., Vila, A. L., Sacconi, S., Pouget, J., Eymard, B., Chevret, S., Annane, D. Dehydroepiandrosterone for myotonic dystrophy type 1. Neurology 2008;71:407-12. View abstract.
  75. Kritz-Silverstein, D., von, Muhlen D., Laughlin, G. A., Bettencourt, R. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on cognitive function and quality of life: the DHEA and Well-Ness (DAWN) Trial. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56:1292-8. View abstract.
  76. Genazzani, A. R., Inglese, S., Lombardi, I., Pieri, M., Bernardi, F., Genazzani, A. D., Rovati, L., Luisi, M. Long-term low-dose dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in aging males with partial androgen deficiency. Aging Male 2004;7:133-43. View abstract.
  77. Libe, R., Barbetta, L., Dall'Asta, C., Salvaggio, F., Gala, C., Beck-Peccoz, P., Ambrosi, B. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation on hormonal, metabolic and behavioral status in patients with hypoadrenalism. J Endocrinol Invest 2004;27:736-41. View abstract.
  78. Poretsky, L., Song, L., Brillon, D. J., Ferrando, S., Chiu, J., McElhiney, M., Ferenczi, A., Sison, C., Haller, I., Rabkin, J. Metabolic and hormonal effects of oral DHEA in premenopausal women with HIV infection: a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled pilot study. Horm Metab Res 2009;41:244-9. View abstract.
  79. Jankowski, C. M., Gozansky, W. S., Kittelson, J. M., Van Pelt, R. E., Schwartz, R. S., Kohrt, W. M. Increases in bone mineral density in response to oral dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in older adults appear to be mediated by serum estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:4767-73. View abstract.
  80. Weiss, E. P., Shah, K., Fontana, L., Lambert, C. P., Holloszy, J. O., Villareal, D. T. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in older adults: 1- and 2-y effects on bone. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1459-67. View abstract.
  81. Rabijewski, M., Zgliczynski, W. [Positive effects of DHEA therapy on insulin resistance and lipids in men with angiographically verified coronary heart disease--preliminary study]. Endokrynol Pol 2005;56:904-10. View abstract.
  82. Mortola, J. F. Yen, S. S. The effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone on endocrine-metabolic parameters in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1990;71:696-704. View abstract.
  83. Lauritzen, C. [Therapeutic attempts with dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in threatened pregnancies]. Arch Gynakol 1971;211:247-9. View abstract.
  84. Aisaka, K., Mori, H., Ogawa, T., Kigawa, T. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S) administration on puerperal lactation and maternal prolactin and estradiol levels. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 1984;36:1935-42. View abstract.
  85. Labrie, F., Archer, D. F., Bouchard, C., Fortier, M., Cusan, L., Gomez, J. L., Girard, G., Baron, M., Ayotte, N., Moreau, M., Dube, R., Cote, I., Labrie, C., Lavoie, L., Berger, L., Gilbert, L., Martel, C., Balser, J. Intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (prasterone), a highly efficient treatment of dyspareunia. Climacteric 2011;14:282-8. View abstract.
  86. Bilger, M., Speraw, S., LaFranchi, S. H., Hanna, C. E. Androgen replacement in adolescents and young women with hypopituitarism. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2005;18:355-362. View abstract.
  87. Cui, Y., Choi, I. S., Koh, Y. A., Lin, X. H., Cho, Y. B., Won, Y. H. Effects of combined BCG and DHEA treatment in preventing the development of asthma. Immunol Invest 2008;37:191-202. View abstract.
  88. Bertoni, A., Rastoldo, A., Sarasso, C., Di Vito C., Sampietro, S., Nalin, M., Bagarotti, A., Sinigaglia, F. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate inhibits thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Steroids 2012;77:260-8. View abstract.
  89. Jesse, R. L., Loesser, K., Eich, D. M., Qian, Y. Z., Hess, M. L., Nestler, J. E. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits human platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Ann N.Y.Acad Sci 1995;774:281-90. View abstract.
  90. Baker WL, Karan S, Kenny AM. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone on muscle strength and physical function in older adults: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc 2011;59:997-1002. View abstract.
  91. Alkatib AA, Cosma M, Elamin MB, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials of DHEA treatment effects on quality of life in women with adrenal insufficiency. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;94:3676-81. View abstract.
  92. Nair KS, Rizza RA, O'Brien P, et al. DHEA in elderly women and DHEA or testosterone in elderly men. N Engl J Med 2006;355:1647-59. View abstract.
  93. Grimley Evans J, Malouf R, Huppert F, van Niekerk JK. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation for cognitive function in healthy elderly people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;CD006221. View abstract.
  94. Mulder JW, Frissen PH, Krijnen P, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone as predictor for progression of AIDS in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. J Infect Dis 1992;165:413-8. View abstract.
  95. Jacobson MA, Fusaro RE, Galmarini M, Lang W. Decreased serum dehydroepiandrosterone is associated with an increased progression of human immunodeficiency virus infection in men with CD4 cell counts of 200-499. J Infect Dis 1991;164:864-8. View abstract.
  96. Piketty C, Jayle D, Leplege A, et al. Double-blind placebo-controlled trial of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in patients with advanced HIV disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2001;55:325-30. View abstract.
  97. Vierck JL, Icenoggle DL, Bucci L, Dodson MV. The effects of ergogenic compounds on myogenic satellite cells. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2003;35:769-76. View abstract.
  98. Kokoska L, Polesny Z, Rada V, et al. Screening of some Siberian medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;82:51-3. View abstract.
  99. Petri MA, Lahita RG, Van Vollenhoven RF, et al. Effects of prasterone on corticosteroid requirements of women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 2002;46:1820-9. View abstract.
  100. Genelabs Technologies, Inc. Prestara Background. Available at: http://www.genelabs.com/development/prestaraBackground.html (Accessed 10 December 2004).
  101. Foth D, Nawroth F. Effect of soy supplementation on endogenous hormones in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Obstet Invest 2003;55:135-8. View abstract.
  102. Thompson RD, Carlson M, Thompson RD, Carlson M. Liquid chromatographic determination of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in dietary supplement products. J AOAC Int 2000;83:847-57. View abstract.
  103. Parasrampuria J, Schwartz K, Petesch R. Quality control of dehydroepiandrosterone dietary supplement products. JAMA 1998;280:1565. View abstract.
  104. Rosenfield RL. Ovarian and adrenal function in polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 1999;28:265-93. View abstract.
  105. Ciolino H, MacDonald C, Memon O, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the expression of carcinogen-activating enzymes in vivo. Int J Cancer 2003;105:321-5 . View abstract.
  106. Acacio BD, Stanczyk FZ, Mullin P, et al. Pharmacokinetics of dehydroepiandrosterone and its metabolites after long-term daily oral administration to healthy young men. Fertil Steril 2004;81:595-604. View abstract.
  107. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO, Kohrt WM. Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;53:561-8. View abstract.
  108. Sun Y, Mao M, Sun L, et al. Treatment of osteoporosis in men using dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate.Chin Med J (Engl) 2002;115:402-4. View abstract.
  109. Gordon CM, Grace E, Emans SJ, et al. Effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone on bone density in young women with anorexia nervosa: a randomized trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:4935-41. View abstract.
  110. Petri MA, Mease PJ, Merrill JT, et al. Effects of prasterone on disease activity and symptoms in women with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 2004;50:2858-68. View abstract.
  111. Kochan Z, Karbowska J. Dehydroepiandrosterone up-regulates resistin gene expression in white adipose tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol 2004;218:57-64. View abstract.
  112. Tchernof A, Labrie F. Dehydroepiandrosterone, obesity and cardiovascular disease risk: a review of human studies. Eur J Endocrinol 2004;151:1-14. View abstract.
  113. Stratigos AJ, Arndt KA, Dover JS. Advances in cutaneous aesthetic surgery. JAMA 1998;280:1397-98. View abstract.
  114. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial.JAMA 2004;292:2243-8. View abstract.
  115. Buvat J. Androgen therapy with dehydroepiandrosterone. World J Urol. 2003;21:346-55. View abstract.
  116. Genazzani AD, Stomati M, Bernardi F, et al. Long-term low-dose dehydroepiandrosterone oral supplementation in early and late postmenopausal women modulates endocrine parameters and synthesis of neuroactive steroids. Fertil Steril 2003;80:1495-501. View abstract.
  117. Ng MK, Nakhla S, Baoutina A, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone, an adrenal androgen, increases human foam cell formation: a potentially pro-atherogenic effect. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003;42:1967-74. . View abstract.
  118. Wolkowitz OM, Kramer JH, Reus VI, et al. DHEA treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Neurology 2003;60:1071-6. . View abstract.
  119. Stomati M, Monteleone P, Casarosa E, et al. Six-month oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in early and late postmenopause. Gynecol Endocrinol 2000;14:342-63.. View abstract.
  120. Lasco A, Frisina N, Morabito N, et al. Metabolic effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Eur J Endocrinol 2001;145:457-61.. View abstract.
  121. Percheron G, Hogrel JY, Denot-Ledunois S, et al. Effect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to 60- to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:720-7.. View abstract.
  122. Calhoun K, Pommier R, Cheek J, et al. The effect of high dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels on tamoxifen blockade and breast cancer progression. Am J Surg 2003;185:411-5.. View abstract.
  123. Morris KT, Toth-Fejel S, Schmidt J, et al. High dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate predicts breast cancer progression during new aromatase inhibitor therapy and stimulates breast cancer cell growth in tissue culture: a renewed role for adrenalectomy. Surgery 2001;130:947-53.. View abstract.
  124. Calhoun KE, Pommier RF, Muller P, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate causes proliferation of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells despite treatment with fulvestrant. Arch Surg 2003;138:879-83.. View abstract.
  125. Hackbert L, Heiman JR. Acute dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) effects on sexual arousal in postmenopausal women. J Womens Health Gend Based Med 2002;11:155-62.. View abstract.
  126. Arlt W, Callies F, Koehler I, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation in healthy men with an age-related decline of dehydroepiandrosterone secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:4686-92.. View abstract.
  127. Meno-Tetang GM, Blum RA, Schwartz KE, Jusko WJ. Effects of oral prasterone (dehydroepiandrosterone) on single-dose pharmacokinetics of oral prednisone and cortisol suppression in normal women. J Clin Pharmacol 2001;41:1195-205.. View abstract.
  128. Strous RD, Maayan R, Lapidus R, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone augmentation in the management of negative, depressive, and anxiety symptoms in schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2003;60:133-41.. View abstract.
  129. Wit JM, Langenhorst VJ, Jansen M, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate treatment for atrichia pubis. Horm Res 2001;56:134-9.. View abstract.
  130. Callies F, Fassnacht M, van Vlijmen JC, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency: effects on body composition, serum leptin, bone turnover, and exercise capacity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2001;86:1968-72.. View abstract.
  131. Rowland NE, Marshall M, Robertson K. Anorectic effect of dehydroepiandrosterone combined with dexfenfluramine or thionisoxetine. Eur J Pharmacol 2001;419:61-64. View abstract.
  132. Piketty C, Jayle D, Gonzalez-Canali G, et al. Low plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and incidence of lipodystrophy. HIV Med 2001;2:136-8. View abstract.
  133. Mazat L, Lafont S, Berr C, et al. Prospective measurements of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in a cohort of elderly subjects: relationship to gender, subjective health, smoking habits, and 10-year mortality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2001;98:8145-50. View abstract.
  134. Reiter WJ, Schatzl G, Mark I, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction in patients with different organic etiologies. Urol Res 2001;29:278-81. View abstract.
  135. Kim SS, Brody KH. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2001;97:96-7. View abstract.
  136. Meston CM, Heiman JR. Acute dehydroepiandrosterone effects on sexual arousal in premenopausal women. J Sex Marital Ther 2002;28:53-60. View abstract.
  137. Johannsson G, Burman P, Wiren L, et al. Low dose dehydroepiandrosterone affects behavior in hypopituitary androgen-deficient women: a placebo-controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:2046-52. View abstract.
  138. Pepping J. DHEA: dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:2048-50, 2053-4, 2056. View abstract.
  139. Persky VW, Turyk ME, Wang L, et al. Effect of soy protein on endogenous hormones in postmenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:145-53. View abstract.
  140. Araghiniknam M, Chung S, Nelson-White T, et al. Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Life Sci 1996;59:PL147-57.. View abstract.
  141. Hunt PJ, Gurnell EM, Huppert FA, et al. Improvement in mood and fatigue after dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in Addison's disease in a randomized, double blind trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:4650-6.. View abstract.
  142. Himmel PB, Seligman TM. A Pilot Study Employing Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. [Abstract]. J Clin Rheumatol 1999:5:56-9. View abstract.
  143. Kuratsune H, Yamaguti K, Sawada M, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. Int J Mol Med 1998;1:143-6. View abstract.
  144. Robinzon B, Cutolo M. Should dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy be provided with glucocorticoids? Rheumatology (Oxford) 1999;38:488-95. View abstract.
  145. Genazzani AD, Stomati M, Strucchi C, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation modulates spontaneous and growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion in early and late postmenopausal women. Fertil Steril 2001;76:241-8. View abstract.
  146. Dean CE. Prasterone (DHEA) and mania. Ann Pharmacother 2000;34:1419-22. View abstract.
  147. van Vollenhoven RF, Park JL, Genovese MC, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone in severe lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1999;8:181-7. View abstract.
  148. Baulieu EE, Thomas G, Legrain S, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate, and aging. Contribution of the DHEAge study to a sociobiomedical issue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2000;97:4279-84. View abstract.
  149. Stoll BA. Dietary supplements of dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to breast cancer risk. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:771-5. View abstract.
  150. Markowitz JS, Carson WH, Jackson CW. Possible dihydroepiandrosterone-induced mania. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:241-2. View abstract.
  151. Jarrar D, Wang P, Cioffi WG, et al. Mechanisms of the salutary effects of dehydroepiandrosterone after trauma-hemorrhage. Direct or indirect effects on cardiac and hepatocellular functions? Arch Surg 2000;135:416-23. View abstract.
  152. van Vollenhoven RF. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 2000;26:349-62. View abstract.
  153. Mease PJ, Ginzler EM, Gluck OS, et al. Improvement in bone mineral density in steroid-treated SLE patients during treatment with GL701 (prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone). 2000 American College of Rheumatology Meeting. Philadelphia, PA. October 29-November 2. abstract 835.
  154. Mease PJ, Merrill JT, Lahita RG, et al. GL701 (prasterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) improves systemic lupus erythematosus. 2000 American College of Rheumatology Meeting. Philadelphia, PA. October 29-November 2. Abstract 1230.
  155. Mazza E, Maccario M, Ramunni J, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in women. Relationships with age, body mass index and insulin levels. (abstract) J Endocrinol Invest 1999;22:681-7. View abstract.
  156. Tilvis RS, Kahonen M, Harkonen M. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, diseases and mortality in a general aged population. (abstract) Aging (Milano) 1999;11:30-4. View abstract.
  157. Callies F, Arlt W, Siekmann L, et al. Influence of oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on urinary steroid metabolites in males and females. Steroids 2000;65:98-102. View abstract.
  158. Barnhart KT, Freeman E, Grisso JA, et al. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation to symptomatic perimenopausal women on serum endocrine profiles, lipid parameters, and health-related quality of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3896-902. View abstract.
  159. Arlt W, Haas J, Callies F, et al. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:2170-6. View abstract.
  160. Moffat SD, Zonderman AB, Harman M, et al. The relationship between longitudinal declines in dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations and cognitive performance in older men. Arch Int Med 2000;160:2193-8. View abstract.
  161. Barry NN, McGuire JL, van Vollenhoven RF. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship between dosage, serum levels, and clinical response. J Rheumatol 1998;25:2352-6. View abstract.
  162. Moriyama Y, Yasue H, Yoshimura M, et al. The plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate are decreased in patients with chronic heart failure in proportion to the severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1834-40. View abstract.
  163. Kline MD, Jaggers ED. Mania onset while using dehydroepiandrosterone (letter). Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:971. View abstract.
  164. Hayashi T, Teiji Esaki T, Emiko Muto E, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone retards atherosclerosis formation through its conversion to estrogen: the possible role of nitric oxide. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:782-92. View abstract.
  165. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in men with erectile dysfunction. Urology 2000;55:755-8. View abstract.
  166. National Collegiate Athletic Association. List of banned drug classes for 2004-2005. Available at: www.ncaa.org.
  167. Flynn MA, Weaver-Osterholtz D, Sharpe-Timms KL, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in aging humans. [Abstract] J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:1527-33. View abstract.
  168. Kudielka BM, Hellhammer J, Hellhammer D, et al. Sex differences in endocrine and psychological responses to psychosocial stress in healthy elderly subjects and the impact of a 2 week dehydroepiandrosterone treatment. [Abstract] J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1756-61. View abstract.
  169. Arlt W, Justl H, Callies F, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone for adrenal androgen replacement: pharmacokinetics and peripheral conversion to androgens and estrogens in young healthy females after dexamethasone suppression. [Abstract] J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1928-34. View abstract.
  170. Casson PR, Andersen RN, Herrod HG, et al. Oral dehyroepiandosterone in physiologic doses modulates immune function in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995;1536-9. View abstract.
  171. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)1998;49:421-32. View abstract.
  172. Bates GW Jr, Egerman RS, Umstot ES, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone attenuates study-induced declines in insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:291-3. View abstract.
  173. Casson PR, Faquin LC, Stentz FB. Replacement of dehydroepiandrosterone enhances T-lymphocyte insulin binding in postmenopausal women. (abstract) Fertil Steril 1995;63:1027-31. View abstract.
  174. Kroboth PD, Salek FS, Pittenger AL, et al. DHEA and DHEA-S: A review. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:327-48. View abstract.
  175. Labrie F, Diamond P, Cusan L, et al. Effect of 12 month dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone, vagina, and endometrium in postmenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3498-505. View abstract.
  176. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Manfredi F, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) treatment of depression. [Abstract] Biol Psychiatry 1997;41:311-8. View abstract.
  177. Wolf OT, Neumann O, Hellhammer DH, et al. Effects of a two-week physiological dehydroepiandrosterone substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in healthy elderly women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2363-7. View abstract.
  178. Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of midlife dysthymia. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:1533-41. View abstract.
  179. Christeff N, Gherbi N, Mammes O, et al. Serum cortisol and DHEA concentrations during HIV infection. Psychoneuroendocrinology 1997;22:S11-8. View abstract.
  180. Henderson E, Yang JY, Schwartz A. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and synthetic DHEA analogs are modest inhibitors of HIV-1 IIIB replication. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 1992;8:625-31. View abstract.
  181. Dyner TS, Lang W, Geaga J, et al. An open-label, dose-escalation trial of oral dehydroepiandrosterone tolerance and pharmacokinetics in patients with HIV disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993;6:459-65. View abstract.
  182. Rabkin JG, Ferrando SJ, Wagner GJ, Rabkin R. DHEA treatment for HIV+ patients: effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000;25:53-68. View abstract.
  183. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Keebler A, et al. Double-blind treatment of major depression with dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:646-9. View abstract.
  184. Oelkers W. Dehydroepiandosterone for adrenal insufficiency (editorial). N Engl J Med 1999;341:1073-4. View abstract.
  185. Arlt W, Callies F, van Vlijmen JC, et al. Dehydroepiandosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1013-20. View abstract.
  186. Goodman GA, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed.
  187. van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1994;37:1305-10. View abstract.
  188. Yen SS, Morales AJ, Khorram O. Replacement of DHEA in aging men and women. Potential remedial effects. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1995;774:128-42. View abstract.
  189. Ebeling P, Koivisto VA. Physiological importance of dehydroepiandrosterone. Lancet 1994;343:1479-81. View abstract.
  190. Van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGurie JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Arth Rheum 1995;38:1826-31. View abstract.
  191. Van Vollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, et al. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehydroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285-9. View abstract.
  192. Skolnick AA. Scientific verdict still out on DHEA. JAMA 1996;276:1365-7. View abstract.
  193. Kuritzky L. DHEA: Science or wishful thinking? Hosp Pract 1998;33:85-6. View abstract.
  194. Frye RF, Kroboth PD, Folan MM, et al. Effect of DHEA on CYP3A-mediated metabolism of triazolam. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67:109 (abstract PI-82).
  195. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1788-92. View abstract.
  196. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Dehydroepiandosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: A prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Urol 1999;53:590-5. View abstract.
  197. Li Y, Liu H. Prevention of tumour production in rats fed aminopyrine plus nitrite by sea buckthorn juice. IARC Sci Publ 1991;105:568-70. View abstract.
  198. Cook IJ, Irvine EJ, Campbell D, et al. Effect of dietary fiber on rectosigmoid motility in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: A controlled, crossover study. Gastroenterology 1990;98:66-72. View abstract.
  199. Mann J, Truswell AS, eds. Essentials of Human Nutrition. Oxford: Oxford Univ Press 1998.
  200. Neal H. Dictionary of Chemical Names and Synonyms. Chelsea: Lewis Publishers, 1992.
  201. Despotis GJ, Alsoufiev AL, Spitznagel E, et al. DG Response of kaolin ACT to heparin: evaluation with an automated assay and higher heparin doses. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:795-9. View abstract.
  202. Henry JG, Sobki S, Afafat N. Interference by biotin therapy on measurement of TSH and FT4 by enzyme immunoassay on Boehringer Mannheim ES 700 analyzer. Ann Clin Biochem 1996;33:162-3. View abstract.
  203. Drug Facts and Comparisons. Olin BR, ed. St. Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons. (updated monthly).
  204. Chiesara E, Borghini R, Marabini. Dietary fibre and drug interactions. Eur J Clin Nutr 1995;49:S123-8.
  205. Scarpignato C, Rampal P. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea: A clinical pharmacological approach. Chemotherapy 1995;41:48-81. View abstract.
  206. Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, McFarland LV. Biotherapeutic Agents, A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA 1996;275:870-5. View abstract.
  207. Saffle JR, Wiebke G, Jennings K, et al. Randomized trial of immune-enhancing enteral nutrition in burn patients. J Trauma 1997;42:793-800, discussion 800-2. View abstract.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 09/29/2014




Page last updated: 10 December 2014