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Dong quai


What is it?

Dong quai is a plant. People use the root to make medicine.

Dong quai is used for menstrual cramps, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), and menopausal symptoms. It is also used orally as a ”blood purifier”; to manage hypertension, infertility, joint pain, ulcers, “tired blood” (anemia), and constipation; and in the prevention and treatment of allergic attacks. Dong quai is also used orally for the treatment of loss of skin color (depigmentation) and psoriasis.

Some men apply dong quai to the skin of the penis as part of a multi-ingredient preparation for treating premature ejaculation.

In Southeast Asia, other Angelica species are sometimes substituted for dong quai (Angelica sinensis). Most often these include Angelica acutiloba, which is predominantly found in Japan; and Angelica gigas, which is mainly found in Korea. Although these three species are similar, the chemicals they contain are different. Don’t think of these species as interchangeable.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for DONG QUAI are as follows:

Possibly effective for...

  • Premature ejaculation, when applied directly to the skin of the penis in combination with other herbs. The other herbs are Panax ginseng root, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, clove flower, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream).

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Menopausal symptoms.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Painful menstrual periods (dysmenorrhea).
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
  • High blood pressure.
  • Joint aches and pains.
  • Ulcers.
  • Anemia.
  • Constipation.
  • Skin discoloration and psoriasis.
  • Allergies.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of dong quai for these uses.

How does it work?

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Dong quai root has been shown to affect estrogen and other hormones in animals. It is not known if these same effects happen in humans.

Are there safety concerns?

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Dong quai is POSSIBLY SAFE for adults when taken by mouth and when occasionally applied to the skin as an ingredient in a cream. More evidence is needed to determine its safety after prolonged or repeated use.

Dong quai can cause skin to become extra-sensitive to the sun. This might put you at greater risk for skin cancer. Wear sun block outside, especially if you are light-skinned.

Taking dong quai in large amounts for a long period of time is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Dong quai contains chemicals that are considered to be cancer-causing (carcinogens).

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking dong quai by mouth during pregnancy is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for the baby. Dong quai seems to affect the muscles of the uterus. There is also one report linking an herbal combination that contained dong quai with birth defects in a baby whose mother took the combination during the first three months of pregnancy. Don’t use dong quai if you are pregnant.

There isn’t enough information about the safety of using dong quai during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and don’t use it.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Dong quai might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use dong quai.

Protein S deficiency: People with protein S deficiency have an increased risk of forming blood clots. There is some concern that dong quai might increase the risk of clot formation in these people because it has some of the effects of estrogen. Don’t use dong quai if you have protein S deficiency.

Surgery: Dong quai can slow blood clotting. It might increase the risk of bleeding during and after surgery. Stop taking dong quai at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery.

Are there interactions with medications?

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Major

Do not take this combination.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Dong quai might slow blood clotting. Taking dong quai along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Dong quai can also slow blood clotting. Taking dong quai along with warfarin (Coumadin) can increase the chances of bruising and bleeding. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

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Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Dong quai might slow blood clotting. Using dong quai along with other herbs that slow blood clotting might increase the risk of bleeding and bruising in some people. These herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, panax ginseng, poplar, red clover, willow, and others.

Are there interactions with foods?

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There are no known interactions with foods.

What dose is used?

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The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
  • For early orgasm in men (premature ejaculation): a multi-ingredient cream preparation containing Panax ginseng root, dong quai, Cistanches deserticola, Zanthoxyl species, Torlidis seed, clove flower, Asiasari root, cinnamon bark, and toad venom (SS Cream) was applied to the glans penis 1 hour before sex and washed off immediately before sex.

Other names

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Angelica China, Angelica sinensis, Angelica polymorpha var. sinensis, Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Angélique Chinoise, Angélique de Chine, Chinese Angelica, Dang Gui, Danggui, Danguia, Don Quai, Kinesisk Kvan, Ligustilides, Radix Angelicae Gigantis, Radix Angelicae Sinensis, Tang Kuei, Tan Kue Bai Zhi, Tanggwi, Toki.

Methodology

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To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

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To see all references for the Dong quai page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/936.html.

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  2. Chuang CH, Doyle P, Wang JD, et al. Herbal medicines used during the first trimester and major congenital malformations: an analysis of data from a pregnancy cohort study. Drug Saf 2006;29:537-48.
  3. Wang H, Li W, Li J, et al. The aqueous extract of a popular herbal nutrient supplement, Angelica sinensis, protects mice against lethal endotoxemia and sepsis. J Nutr 2006;136:360-5.
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  1. Choy YM, Leung KN, Cho CS, et al. Immunopharmacological studies of low molecular weight polysaccharide from Angelica sinensis. Am J Chin Med 1994;22:137-45.
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  3. Yim TK, Wu WK, Pak WF, et al. Myocardial protection against ischaemia-reperfusion injury by a Polygonum multiflorum extract supplemented 'Dang-Gui decoction for enriching blood', a compound formulation, ex vivo. Phytother Res 2000;14:195-9.
  4. Shi M, Chang L, He G. [Stimulating action of Carthamus tinctorius L., Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels and Leonurus sibiricus L. on the uterus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1995;20:173-5, 192.
  5. Amato P, Christophe S, Mellon PL. Estrogenic activity of herbs commonly used as remedies for menopausal symptoms. Menopause 2002;9:145-50.
  6. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases. Available at: http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/.
  7. Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
  8. Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2000;57:1221-7.
  9. Page RL II, Lawrence JD. Potentiation of warfarin by dong quai. Pharmacotherapy 1999;19:870-6.
  10. Choi HK, Jung GW, Moon KH, et al. Clinical study of SS-Cream in patients with lifelong premature ejaculation. Urology 2000;55:257-61.
  11. Hirata JD, Swiersz LM, Zell B, et al. Does dong quai have estrogenic effects in postmenopausal women? A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril 1997;68:981-6.
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Last reviewed - 10/26/2012




Page last updated: 01 July 2014