Skip navigation

Black tea


What is it?

Black tea is a product made from the Camellia sinesis plant. The aged leaves and stems are used to make medicine. Green tea, which is made from fresh leaves of the same plant, has some different properties.

Black tea is used for improving mental alertness as well as learning, memory and information processing skills. It is also used for treating headache and low blood pressure; preventing heart disease, including “hardening of the arteries” (atherosclerosis) and heart attack; preventing Parkinson's disease; and reducing the risk of stomach and colon cancer, lung cancer, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. It is also used for type 2 diabetes, stomach disorders, vomiting, diarrhea, and as a diuretic to increase urine flow. Some people use black tea for preventing tooth decay and kidney stones. In combination with various other products, black tea is used for weight loss.

In foods, black tea is consumed as a hot or cold beverage.

How effective is it?

Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database rates effectiveness based on scientific evidence according to the following scale: Effective, Likely Effective, Possibly Effective, Possibly Ineffective, Likely Ineffective, Ineffective, and Insufficient Evidence to Rate.

The effectiveness ratings for BLACK TEA are as follows:

Likely effective for...

  • Mental alertness. Drinking black tea and other caffeinated beverages throughout the day helps to keep people alert, even after extended periods without sleep.

Possibly effective for...

  • Preventing dizziness upon standing up (orthostatic hypotension) in older people. Black tea works for this condition because it raises blood pressure.
  • Reducing the risk of heart attacks. There is some evidence that people who drink black tea have a lower risk of heart attack. If they do have a heart attack, they are less likely to die if they have been drinking black tea for at least a year.
  • Reducing the risk of kidney stones. Women who drink black tea seem to have an 8% lower risk of developing kidney stones.
  • Reducing the risk of Parkinson's disease. There is some evidence from large-scale studies that people who drink caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cola have a decreased risk of Parkinson's disease. For men, the effects seem to be dose-related. For example, men consuming a total of 421-2716 mg of caffeine daily seem to have the greatest reduction in risk. However, there seems to be a significant reduction in risk even with consumption of as little as 124-208 mg caffeine per day. In women, the effects do not seem to be dose- related. Moderate consumption of caffeine (about one to four cups black tea daily) seems to provide the most reduction in risk. Drinking black tea also appears to reduce the occurrence of Parkinson's disease among people who smoke.
  • Reducing the risk of ovarian cancer. Women who regularly drink tea, including black tea or green tea, appear to have a significantly lower risk of developing ovarian cancer compared to women who never or seldom drink tea.
  • Reducing the risk of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis), especially in women.

Possibly ineffective for...

  • Reducing the risk of stomach, colon, and rectal cancer.
  • Reducing the risk of breast cancer.

Insufficient evidence to rate effectiveness for...

  • Brittle bones (osteoporosis). So far there is some evidence that drinking black tea might be linked to stronger bones in women aged 65-76 years. Drinking black tea also seems to be associated with a lower risk of hip fracture in men and women who are older than 50.
  • Type 2 diabetes. Some research suggests that Japanese adults who drink a cup or more of black tea daily do not have a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes compared to those who drink less than a cup daily.
  • Lung cancer. There is evidence that men who get more chemicals called phytoestrogens in their diet have up to a 27% lower risk of developing lung cancer than men who do not get these chemicals. Green tea and black tea contain phytoestrogens.
  • Stomach disorders.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Vomiting.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Preventing tooth decay.
  • Headache.
  • Reducing the risk of other cancers.
  • Promoting weight loss.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of black tea for these uses.

How does it work?

Return to top
Black tea contains 2% to 4% caffeine, which affects thinking and alertness, increases urine output, and may reduce the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. It also contains antioxidants and other substances that might help protect the heart and blood vessels.

Are there safety concerns?

Return to top
Black tea is safe for most adults. Too much black tea, such as more than five cups per day, can cause side effects because of the caffeine. These side effects can range from mild to serious and include headache, nervousness, sleep problems, vomiting, diarrhea, irritability, irregular heartbeat, tremor, heartburn, dizziness, ringing in the ears, convulsions, and confusion.

People who drink black tea or other caffeinated beverages all the time, especially in large amounts, can develop psychological dependence.

Caffeine is PROBABLY SAFE in children in amounts commonly found in foods.

Special precautions & warnings:

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, black tea in small amounts is probably not harmful. Do not drink more than 2 cups a day of black tea. This amount of tea provides about 200 mg of caffeine. Consuming more than this amount during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage and other negative effects, including symptoms of caffeine withdrawal in newborns and lower birth weight.

If you are breast-feeding, drinking more than 2 cups a day of black tea might cause your baby to become more irritable and have more bowel movements.

Anemia: Drinking black tea may make anemia worse in people with iron deficiency.

Anxiety disorders: The caffeine in black tea might make these conditions worse.

Bleeding disorders: There is some reason to believe that the caffeine in black tea might slow blood clotting, though this hasn’t been shown in people. Use caffeine cautiously if you have a bleeding disorder.

Heart problems: Caffeine in black tea can cause irregular heartbeat in certain people. If you have a heart condition, use caffeine with caution.

Diabetes: The caffeine in black tea might affect blood sugar. Use black tea with caution if you have diabetes.

Diarrhea: Black tea contains caffeine. The caffeine in black tea, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhea.

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Black tea contains caffeine. The caffeine in black tea, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhea and might worsen symptoms of IBS.

Glaucoma: Drinking caffeinated black tea increases the pressure inside the eye. The increase occurs within 30 minutes and lasts for at least 90 minutes.

Hormone-sensitive condition such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Black tea might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don’t use black tea.

High blood pressure: The caffeine in black tea might increase blood pressure in people with high blood pressure. However, this doesn't seem to occur in people who drink black tea or other caffeinated products regularly.

Brittle bones (osteoporosis): Drinking caffeinated black tea can increase the amount of calcium that is flushed out in the urine. This might weaken bones. Don’t drink more than 300 mg of caffeine per day (approximately 2-3 cups of black tea). Taking extra calcium may help to make up for calcium losses. Older women who have a genetic condition that affects the way they use vitamin D, should use caffeine with caution.

Are there interactions with medications?

Return to top

Moderate

Be cautious with this combination.

Adenosine (Adenocard)
Black tea contains caffeine. The caffeine in black tea might block the affects of adenosine (Adenocard). Adenosine (Adenocard) is often used by doctors to do a test on the heart. This test is called a cardiac stress test. Stop drinking black tea or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.

Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics)
The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Some antibiotics might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking these antibiotics along with black tea can increase the risk of side effects including jitteriness, headache, increased heart rate, and other side effects.

Some antibiotics that decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), norfloxacin (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), trovafloxacin (Trovan), and grepafloxacin (Raxar).

Cimetidine (Tagamet)
Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Cimetidine (Tagamet) can decrease how quickly your body breaks down caffeine. Taking cimetidine (Tagamet) along with black tea might increase the chance of caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and others.

Clozapine (Clozaril)
The body breaks down clozapine (Clozaril) to get rid of it. The caffeine in black tea seems to decrease how quickly the body breaks down clozapine (Clozaril). Taking black tea along with clozapine (Clozaril) can increase the effects and side effects of clozapine (Clozaril).

Dipyridamole (Persantine)
Black tea contains caffeine. The caffeine in black tea might block the affects of dipyridamole (Persantine). Dipyridamole (Persantine) is often used by doctors to do a test on the heart. This test is called a cardiac stress test. Stop drinking black tea or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.

Disulfiram (Antabuse)
The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Disulfiram (Antabuse) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Taking black tea (which contains caffeine) along with disulfiram (Antabuse) might increase the effects and side effects of caffeine including jitteriness, hyperactivity, irritability, and others.

Ephedrine
Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system. Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine and ephedrine are both stimulant drugs. Taking black tea along with ephedrine might cause too much stimulation and sometimes serious side effects and heart problems. Do not take caffeine containing products and ephedrine at the same time.

Estrogens
The body breaks down the caffeine in black tea to get rid of it. Estrogens can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking estrogen pills and drinking black tea can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects. If you take estrogen pills, limit your caffeine intake.

Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.

Fluvoxamine (Luvox)
The body breaks down the caffeine in black tea to get rid of it. Fluvoxamine (Luvox) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking caffeine along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might cause too much caffeine in the body, and increase the effects and side effects of caffeine.

Lithium
Your body naturally gets rid of lithium. The caffeine in black tea can increase how quickly your body gets rid of lithium. If you take products that contain caffeine and you take lithium, stop taking caffeine products slowly. Stopping caffeine too quickly can increase the side effects of lithium.

Medications for asthma (Beta-adrenergic agonists)
Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine can stimulate the heart. Some medications for asthma can also stimulate the heart. Taking caffeine with some medications for asthma might cause too much stimulation and cause heart problems.

Some medications for asthma include albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin, Volmax), metaproterenol (Alupent), terbutaline (Bricanyl, Brethine), and isoproterenol (Isuprel).

Medications for depression (MAOIs)
The caffeine in black tea can stimulate the body. Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body. Drinking black tea and taking some medications for depression might cause too much stimulation of the body and serious side effects including fast heartbeat, high blood pressure, nervousness, and others.

Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.

Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)
Black tea might slow blood clotting. Taking black tea along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.

Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

Pentobarbital (Nembutal)
The stimulant effects of the caffeine in black tea can block the sleep-producing effects of pentobarbital.

Phenylpropanolamine
The caffeine in black tea can stimulate the body. Phenylpropanolamine can also stimulate the body. Taking caffeine and phenylpropanolamine together might cause too much stimulation and increase heartbeat, blood pressure, and cause nervousness.

Riluzole (Rilutek)
The body breaks down riluzole (Rilutek) to get rid of it. Drinking black tea can decrease how quickly the body breaks down riluzole (Rilutek) and increase the effects and side effects of riluzole.

Stimulant drugs
Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system. By speeding up the nervous system, stimulant medications can make you feel jittery and speed up your heartbeat. The caffeine in black tea can also speed up the nervous system. Drinking black tea along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure. Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with black tea.

Some stimulant drugs include diethylpropion (Tenuate), epinephrine, phentermine (Ionamin), pseudoephedrine (Sudafed), and many others.

Theophylline
Black tea contains caffeine. Caffeine works similarly to theophylline. Caffeine can also decrease how quickly the body gets rid of theophylline. This might cause increased effects and side effects of theophylline.

Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan)
The body breaks down the caffeine in black tea to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Drinking black tea and taking verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase the risk of side effects for caffeine including jitteriness, headache, and an increased heartbeat.

Warfarin (Coumadin)
Warfarin (Coumadin) is used to slow blood clotting. Large amounts of black tea might decrease how well warfarin (Coumadin) slows blood clotting. Decreasing how well warfarin (Coumadin) slows blood clotting might increase the risk of clotting. It is unclear why this interaction might occur. Be sure to have your blood checked regularly. The dose of your warfarin (Coumadin) might need to be changed.

Minor

Be watchful with this combination.

Alcohol
The body breaks down the caffeine in black tea to get rid of it. Alcohol can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking black tea along with alcohol might cause too much caffeine in the bloodstream and caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, and fast heartbeat.

Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs)
The body breaks down the caffeine in black tea to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking black tea along with birth control pills can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects.

Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.

Fluconazole (Diflucan)
Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Fluconazole (Diflucan) might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. This could cause caffeine to stay in the body too long and increase the risk of side effects such as nervousness, anxiety, and insomnia.

Medications for depression (Tricyclic antidepressants)
Black tea contains chemicals called tannins. Tannins can bind to many medications and decrease how much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 hours after taking medications for depression called tricyclic antidepressants.

Some medications for depression include amitriptyline (Elavil) or imipramine (Tofranil, Janimine).

Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs)
Black tea might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, black tea might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

Mexiletine (Mexitil)
Black tea contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Mexiletine (Mexitil) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking Mexiletine (Mexitil) along with black tea might increase the caffeine effects and side effects of black tea.

Phenothiazines
Black tea contains chemicals called tannins. Tannins can bind to many medications and decrease how much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 hours after taking phenothiazine medications.

Some phenothiazine medications include fluphenazine (Permitil, Prolixin), chlorpromazine (Thorazine), haloperidol (Haldol), prochlorperazine (Compazine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and trifluoperazine (Stelazine).

Terbinafine (Lamisil)
The body breaks down the caffeine in black tea to get rid of it. Terbinafine (Lamisil) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine and increase the risk of side effects including jitteriness, headache, increased heartbeat, and other effects.

Are there interactions with herbs and supplements?

Return to top
Bitter orange
Using bitter orange along with other products that contain caffeine, such as black tea, can increase blood pressure and heart rate in otherwise healthy adults with normal blood pressure. This could increase the risk of serious heart problems.

Caffeine-containing herbs and supplements
Black tea contains caffeine. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that contain caffeine might increase the risk of caffeine side effects. Natural products that contain caffeine include coffee, black tea, green tea, oolong tea, guarana, mate, and others.

Calcium
High caffeine intake from foods and beverages, including black tea, flushes calcium out of the body in the urine.

Creatine
There is some concern that combining caffeine, an ingredient in black tea, with ephedra and creatine might increase the risk of serious harmful effects. There is a report of stroke in an athlete who consumed 6 grams of creatine monohydrate, 400-600 mg of caffeine, 40-60 mg of ephedra, and a variety of other supplements daily for 6 weeks. Caffeine might also decrease whatever benefit creatine might have on athletic performance.

Ephedra (Ma huang)
Ephedra and black tea are both stimulants. They speed up the central nervous system. Using them together might speed it up too much, increasing the risk of high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke, seizures, and death. Don't take black tea with ephedra or other stimulants.

Herbs and supplements that might slow blood clotting
Black tea might slow blood clotting. Using it along with other herbs and supplements that might also slow blood clotting could increase the risk of bruising and bleeding in some people. Some of these herbs include angelica, clove, danshen, garlic, ginger, ginkgo, Panax ginseng, and others.

Iron
Black tea might interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron. This probably isn't a problem for most people, unless they are iron-deficient. If this is the case, drink tea between meals rather than with meals to lessen this interaction.

Lithium
Black tea contains caffeine. Using herbs and supplements that contain caffeine can speed up the removal of lithium from the body.

Magnesium
Drinking large amounts of black tea can increase the amount of magnesium that is flushed out in the urine.

Are there interactions with foods?

Return to top
Iron
Black tea might interfere with the body's ability to absorb iron. This probably isn't a problem for most people, unless they are iron-deficient. If this is the case, drink tea between meals rather than with meals to lessen this interaction.

Milk
Adding milk to black tea appears to reduce some of the heart health benefits of drinking tea. Milk might bind with the antioxidants in tea and keep them from being absorbed. However, not all research confirms this. More evidence is needed to determine just how important this interaction, if any, might be.

What dose is used?

Return to top
An 8-ounce serving of black tea provides from 40-120 mg of caffeine, the active ingredient.

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:
  • For headache or improving mental alertness: a typical dose is up to 250 mg of caffeine (several cups of black tea) per day.
  • For reducing the risk of heart attack and kidney stones: a dose of at least one cup per day.
  • For preventing "hardening of the arteries" (atherosclerosis), 125-500 mL (1-4 cups) of brewed black tea daily.
  • For preventing Parkinson's disease: men drinking 421-2716 mg of total caffeine (approximately 5-33 cups of black tea) daily have the lowest risk of developing Parkinson's disease, when compared to other men. However, men who drink as little as 124-208 mg of caffeine (approximately 1-3 cups of black tea) daily also have a significantly lower chance of developing Parkinson's disease. In women, moderate caffeine intake (1-4 cups of black tea) per day seems to be best.

Other names

Return to top
Black Leaf Tea, Camellia sinensis, Camellia thea, Camellia theifera, Chinese Tea, English Tea, Feuille de Thé Noir, Té Negro, Tea, Thé Anglais, Thé Noir, Thea bohea, Thea sinensis, Thea viridis, Theaflavin, Théaflavine.

Methodology

Return to top
To learn more about how this article was written, please see the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database methodology.methodology (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/methodology.html).

References

Return to top
To see all references for the Black tea page, please go to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/natural/997.html.

  1. Leigh, E. Antioxidant activity of tea unaffected by milk. Herbal Gram 2000;50:25-26.
  2. Hertog, M. G. L., Hollman, P. C. H., and van de Putte, B. Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines, and fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 1993;41:1242-1246.
  3. Stagg, G. V. and Millin, D. J. The nutritional and therapeutic value of tea-a review. J Sci Food Agric. 1975;26:1439-1459.
  4. McManamy, M. C. and Schube, P. G. Caffeine intoxication - report of a case the symptoms of which amounted to a psychosis. N.Engl.J Med. 1936;215:616-620.
  5. Kendler, K. S. and Prescott, C. A. Caffeine intake, tolerance, and withdrawal in women: a population-based twin study. Am.J.Psychiatry 1999;156:223-228. View abstract.
  6. Robelin, M. and Rogers, P. J. Mood and psychomotor performance effects of the first, but not of subsequent, cup-of-coffee equivalent doses of caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence. Behav.Pharmacol 1998;9:611-618. View abstract.
  7. Hibasami, H., Komiya, T., Achiwa, Y., Ohnishi, K., Kojima, T., Nakanishi, K., Sugimoto, Y., Hasegawa, M., Akatsuka, R., and Hara, Y. Black tea theaflavins induce programmed cell death in cultured human stomach cancer cells. Int J Mol.Med 1998;1:725-727. View abstract.
  8. Pizziol, A., Tikhonoff, V., Paleari, C. D., Russo, E., Mazza, A., Ginocchio, G., Onesto, C., Pavan, L., Casiglia, E., and Pessina, A. C. Effects of caffeine on glucose tolerance: a placebo-controlled study. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1998;52:846-849. View abstract.
  9. Lane, J. D. and Phillips-Bute, B. G. Caffeine deprivation affects vigilance performance and mood. Physiol Behav. 1998;65:171-175. View abstract.
  10. Garrett, B. E. and Griffiths, R. R. Physical dependence increases the relative reinforcing effects of caffeine versus placebo. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;139:195-202. View abstract.
  1. Zhu, X. M., Zhao, Z. D., and Huang, Z. L. [Experimental study on tea polyphenols in prevention of hyperlipidemia]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1996;16:549-551. View abstract.
  2. de Vries, J. H., Hollman, P. C., Meyboom, S., Buysman, M. N., Zock, P. L., van Staveren, W. A., and Katan, M. B. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of the antioxidant flavonols quercetin and kaempferol as biomarkers for dietary intake. Am.J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:60-65. View abstract.
  3. Daniels, J. W., Mole, P. A., Shaffrath, J. D., and Stebbins, C. L. Effects of caffeine on blood pressure, heart rate, and forearm blood flow during dynamic leg exercise. J.Appl.Physiol 1998;85:154-159. View abstract.
  4. Wald, A., Back, C., and Bayless, T. M. Effect of caffeine on the human small intestine. Gastroenterology 1976;71:738-742. View abstract.
  5. Van Het Hof, K. H., Kivits, G. A., Weststrate, J. A., and Tijburg, L. B. Bioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milk. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1998;52:356-359. View abstract.
  6. Sumbaev, V. V. and Rozanov, A. I. [Effect of caffeine on xanthine oxidase activity]. Ukr.Biokhim.Zh. 1997;69(5-6):196-200. View abstract.
  7. Princen, H. M., van, Duyvenvoorde W., Buytenhek, R., Blonk, C., Tijburg, L. B., Langius, J. A., Meinders, A. E., and Pijl, H. No effect of consumption of green and black tea on plasma lipid and antioxidant levels and on LDL oxidation in smokers. Arterioscler.Thromb.Vasc.Biol. 1998;18:833-841. View abstract.
  8. Rogers, P. J. and Dernoncourt, C. Regular caffeine consumption: a balance of adverse and beneficial effects for mood and psychomotor performance. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 1998;59:1039-1045. View abstract.
  9. Zhang, J. and Kashket, S. Inhibition of salivary amylase by black and green teas and their effects on the intraoral hydrolysis of starch. Caries Res. 1998;32:233-238. View abstract.
  10. McAnlis, G. T., McEneny, J., Pearce, J., and Young, I. S. Black tea consumption does not protect low density lipoprotein from oxidative modification. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 1998;52:202-206. View abstract.
  11. Loktionov, A., Bingham, S. A., Vorster, H., Jerling, J. C., Runswick, S. A., and Cummings, J. H. Apolipoprotein E genotype modulates the effect of black tea drinking on blood lipids and blood coagulation factors: a pilot study. Br.J Nutr. 1998;79:133-139. View abstract.
  12. Blanc, P. D., Kuschner, W. G., Katz, P. P., Smith, S., and Yelin, E. H. Use of herbal products, coffee or black tea, and over-the-counter medications as self-treatments among adults with asthma. J Allergy Clin.Immunol. 1997;100(6 Pt 1):789-791. View abstract.
  13. Phillips-Bute, B. G. and Lane, J. D. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms following brief caffeine deprivation. Physiol Behav. 12-31-1997;63:35-39. View abstract.
  14. Lu, Y. P., Lou, Y. R., Xie, J. G., Yen, P., Huang, M. T., and Conney, A. H. Inhibitory effect of black tea on the growth of established skin tumors in mice: effects on tumor size, apoptosis, mitosis and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation into DNA. Carcinogenesis 1997;18:2163-2169. View abstract.
  15. Morse, M. A., Kresty, L. A., Steele, V. E., Kelloff, G. J., Boone, C. W., Balentine, D. A., Harbowy, M. E., and Stoner, G. D. Effects of theaflavins on N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine-induced esophageal tumorigenesis. Nutr.Cancer 1997;29:7-12. View abstract.
  16. Van Het Hof, K. H., de Boer, H. S., Wiseman, S. A., Lien, N., Westrate, J. A., and Tijburg, L. B. Consumption of green or black tea does not increase resistance of low-density lipoprotein to oxidation in humans. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;66:1125-1132. View abstract.
  17. Tavani, A., Pregnolato, A., La, Vecchia C., Negri, E., Talamini, R., and Franceschi, S. Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum: a study of 3,530 cases and 7,057 controls. Int.J Cancer 10-9-1997;73:193-197. View abstract.
  18. Bingham, S. A., Vorster, H., Jerling, J. C., Magee, E., Mulligan, A., Runswick, S. A., and Cummings, J. H. Effect of black tea drinking on blood lipids, blood pressure and aspects of bowel habit. Br J Nutr 1997;78:41-55. View abstract.
  19. Reeves, R. R., Struve, F. A., and Patrick, G. Somatic dysfunction increase during caffeine withdrawal. J.Am.Osteopath.Assoc. 1997;97:454-456. View abstract.
  20. Hasaniya, N., Youn, K., Xu, M., Hernaez, J., and Dashwood, R. Inhibitory activity of green and black tea in a free radical-generating system using 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline as substrate. Jpn J Cancer Res. 1997;88:553-558. View abstract.
  21. Shum, S., Seale, C., Hathaway, D., Chucovich, V., and Beard, D. Acute caffeine ingestion fatalities: management issues. Vet.Hum.Toxicol. 1997;39:228-230. View abstract.
  22. Ishikawa, T., Suzukawa, M., Ito, T., Yoshida, H., Ayaori, M., Nishiwaki, M., Yonemura, A., Hara, Y., and Nakamura, H. Effect of tea flavonoid supplementation on the susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein to oxidative modification. Am.J Clin.Nutr. 1997;66:261-266. View abstract.
  23. Yam, T. S., Shah, S., and Hamilton-Miller, J. M. Microbiological activity of whole and fractionated crude extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis), and of tea components. FEMS Microbiol.Lett. 7-1-1997;152:169-174. View abstract.
  24. Aldoori, W. H., Giovannucci, E. L., Stampfer, M. J., Rimm, E. B., Wing, A. L., and Willett, W. C. A prospective study of alcohol, smoking, caffeine, and the risk of duodenal ulcer in men. Epidemiology 1997;8:420-424. View abstract.
  25. Weisburger, J. H. Tea and health: a historical perspective. Cancer Lett. 3-19-1997;114(1-2):315-317. View abstract.
  26. Brem, A. S., Martin, H., and Stern, L. Toxicity from tea ingestion in an infant: a computer simulation analysis. Clin Biochem. 1977;10:148-150. View abstract.
  27. Blot, W. J., Chow, W. H., and McLaughlin, J. K. Tea and cancer: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Eur.J.Cancer Prev. 1996;5:425-438. View abstract.
  28. Sung, B. H., Lovallo, W. R., Whitsett, T., and Wilson, M. F. Caffeine elevates blood pressure response to exercise in mild hypertensive men. Am.J.Hypertens. 1995;8(12 Pt 1):1184-1188. View abstract.
  29. Bu-Abbas, A., Nunez, X., Clifford, M. N., Walker, R., and Ioannides, C. A comparison of the antimutagenic potential of green, black and decaffeinated teas: contribution of flavanols to the antimutagenic effect. Mutagenesis 1996;11:597-603. View abstract.
  30. Weisburger, J. H., Hara, Y., Dolan, L., Luo, F. Q., Pittman, B., and Zang, E. Tea polyphenols as inhibitors of mutagenicity of major classes of carcinogens. Mutat.Res. 11-4-1996;371(1-2):57-63. View abstract.
  31. Bogovski, P. and Day, N. Accelerating action of tea on mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 1977;3(1-2):9-13. View abstract.
  32. Lovallo, W. R., al'Absi, M., Pincomb, G. A., Everson, S. A., Sung, B. H., Passey, R. B., and Wilson, M. F. Caffeine and behavioral stress effects on blood pressure in borderline hypertensive Caucasian men. Health Psychol. 1996;15:11-17. View abstract.
  33. Cao, J., Xu, Y., Chen, J., and Klaunig, J. E. Chemopreventive effects of green and black tea on pulmonary and hepatic carcinogenesis. Fundam.Appl.Toxicol. 1996;29:244-250. View abstract.
  34. Xu, M., Bailey, A. C., Hernaez, J. F., Taoka, C. R., Schut, H. A., and Dashwood, R. H. Protection by green tea, black tea, and indole-3-carbinol against 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline-induced DNA adducts and colonic aberrant crypts in the F344 rat. Carcinogenesis 1996;17:1429-1434. View abstract.
  35. Sakanaka, S., Aizawa, M., Kim, M., and Yamamoto, T. Inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols on growth and cellular adherence of an oral bacterium, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Biosci.Biotechnol.Biochem. 1996;60:745-749. View abstract.
  36. Rimm, E. B., Katan, M. B., Ascherio, A., Stampfer, M. J., and Willett, W. C. Relation between intake of flavonoids and risk for coronary heart disease in male health professionals. Ann.Intern.Med. 9-1-1996;125:384-389. View abstract.
  37. Vorster, H., Jerling, J., Oosthuizen, W., Cummings, J., Bingham, S., Magee, L., Mulligan, A., and Runswick, S. Tea drinking and haemostasis: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in free-living subjects. Haemostasis 1996;26:58-64. View abstract.
  38. Zheng, W., Doyle, T. J., Kushi, L. H., Sellers, T. A., Hong, C. P., and Folsom, A. R. Tea consumption and cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of postmenopausal women. Am.J Epidemiol. 7-15-1996;144:175-182. View abstract.
  39. Constable, A., Varga, N., Richoz, J., and Stadler, R. H. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas. Mutagenesis 1996;11:189-194. View abstract.
  40. Yen, G. C. and Chen, H. Y. Relationship between antimutagenic activity and major components of various teas. Mutagenesis 1996;11:37-41. View abstract.
  41. Apostolides, Z., Balentine, D. A., Harbowy, M. E., and Weisburger, J. H. Inhibition of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) mutagenicity by black and green tea extracts and polyphenols. Mutat.Res. 4-4-1996;359:159-163. View abstract.
  42. Serafini, M., Ghiselli, A., and Ferro-Luzzi, A. In vivo antioxidant effect of green and black tea in man. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 1996;50:28-32. View abstract.
  43. Pincomb, G. A., Lovallo, W. R., McKey, B. S., Sung, B. H., Passey, R. B., Everson, S. A., and Wilson, M. F. Acute blood pressure elevations with caffeine in men with borderline systemic hypertension. Am.J Cardiol. 2-1-1996;77:270-274. View abstract.
  44. Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M., Leventhal, B. L., Phillips, W., and Bender, B. G. Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. A meta-analysis of theophylline and caffeine. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med. 1996;150:284-288. View abstract.
  45. Sullivan, J. L. Caffeine poisioning in an infant. J Pediatr. 1977;90:1022-1023. View abstract.
  46. Goldbohm, R. A., Hertog, M. G., Brants, H. A., van Poppel, G., and Van den Brandt, P. A. Consumption of black tea and cancer risk: a prospective cohort study. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1-17-1996;88:93-100. View abstract.
  47. Mayo, K. M., Falkowski, W., and Jones, C. A. Caffeine: use and effects in long-stay psychiatric patients. Br.J.Psychiatry 1993;162:543-545. View abstract.
  48. Eggertsen, R., Andreasson, A., Hedner, T., Karlberg, B. E., and Hansson, L. Effect of coffee on ambulatory blood pressure in patients with treated hypertension. J.Intern.Med. 1993;233:351-355. View abstract.
  49. Zatonski, W. A., Boyle, P., Przewozniak, K., Maisonneuve, P., Drosik, K., and Walker, A. M. Cigarette smoking, alcohol, tea and coffee consumption and pancreas cancer risk: a case-control study from Opole, Poland. Int.J Cancer 2-20-1993;53:601-607. View abstract.
  50. Smits, P., Temme, L., and Thien, T. The cardiovascular interaction between caffeine and nicotine in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1993;54:194-204. View abstract.
  51. Brown, C. A., Bolton-Smith, C., Woodward, M., and Tunstall-Pedoe, H. Coffee and tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in men and women: results from the Scottish Heart Health Study. J.Epidemiol.Community Health 1993;47:171-175. View abstract.
  52. Massey, L. K., Roman-Smith, H., and Sutton, R. A. Effect of dietary oxalate and calcium on urinary oxalate and risk of formation of calcium oxalate kidney stones. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 1993;93:901-906. View abstract.
  53. Caballero, T., Garcia-Ara, C., Pascual, C., Diaz-Pena, J. M., and Ojeda, A. Urticaria induced by caffeine. J.Investig.Allergol.Clin Immunol. 1993;3:160-162. View abstract.
  54. Klatsky, A. L., Armstrong, M. A., and Friedman, G. D. Coffee, tea, and mortality. Ann.Epidemiol. 1993;3:375-381. View abstract.
  55. Nakayama, M., Suzuki, K., Toda, M., Okubo, S., Hara, Y., and Shimamura, T. Inhibition of the infectivity of influenza virus by tea polyphenols. Antiviral Res. 1993;21:289-299. View abstract.
  56. Tassaneeyakul, W., Birkett, D. J., McManus, M. E., Tassaneeyakul, W., Veronese, M. E., Andersson, T., Tukey, R. H., and Miners, J. O. Caffeine metabolism by human hepatic cytochromes P450: contributions of 1A2, 2E1 and 3A isoforms. Biochem.Pharmacol 5-18-1994;47:1767-1776. View abstract.
  57. Gao, Y. T., McLaughlin, J. K., Blot, W. J., Ji, B. T., Dai, Q., and Fraumeni, J. F., Jr. Reduced risk of esophageal cancer associated with green tea consumption. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 6-1-1994;86:855-858. View abstract.
  58. Yoshino, K., Hara, Y., Sano, M., and Tomita, I. Antioxidative effects of black tea theaflavins and thearubigin on lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenates induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide. Biol.Pharm Bull. 1994;17:146-149. View abstract.
  59. Sohn, O. S., Surace, A., Fiala, E. S., Richie, J. P., Jr., Colosimo, S., Zang, E., and Weisburger, J. H. Effects of green and black tea on hepatic xenobiotic metabolizing systems in the male F344 rat. Xenobiotica 1994;24:119-127. View abstract.
  60. Sung, B. H., Whitsett, T. L., Lovallo, W. R., al'Absi, M., Pincomb, G. A., and Wilson, M. F. Prolonged increase in blood pressure by a single oral dose of caffeine in mildly hypertensive men. Am.J Hypertens. 1994;7:755-758. View abstract.
  61. McKay, D. W., Seviour, J. P., Comerford, A., Vasdev, S., and Massey, L. K. Herbal tea: an alternative to regular tea for those who form calcium oxalate stones. J Am.Diet.Assoc. 1995;95:360-361. View abstract.
  62. Tola, M. R., Granieri, E., Malagu, S., Caniatti, L., Casetta, I., Govoni, V., Paolino, E., Cinzia, Monetti, V, Canducci, E., and Panatta, G. B. Dietary habits and multiple sclerosis. A retrospective study in Ferrara, Italy. Acta Neurol.(Napoli) 1994;16:189-197. View abstract.
  63. He, Y. H. and Kies, C. Green and black tea consumption by humans: impact on polyphenol concentrations in feces, blood and urine. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1994;46:221-229. View abstract.
  64. Baron, J. A., Gerhardsson, de, V, and Ekbom, A. Coffee, tea, tobacco, and cancer of the large bowel. Cancer Epidemiol.Biomarkers Prev. 1994;3:565-570. View abstract.
  65. Xie, B., Shi, H., Chen, Q., and Ho, C. T. Antioxidant properties of fractions and polyphenol constituents from green, oolong and black teas. Proc.Natl.Sci Counc.Repub.China B 1993;17:77-84. View abstract.
  66. Freestone, S., Yeo, W. W., and Ramsay, L. E. Effect of coffee and cigarette smoking on the blood pressure of patients with accelerated (malignant) hypertension. J.Hum.Hypertens. 1995;9:89-91. View abstract.
  67. Yu, H., Oho, T., and Xu, L. X. Effects of several tea components on acid resistance of human tooth enamel. J Dent. 1995;23:101-105. View abstract.
  68. Brown, S. L., Salive, M. E., Pahor, M., Foley, D. J., Corti, M. C., Langlois, J. A., Wallace, R. B., and Harris, T. B. Occult caffeine as a source of sleep problems in an older population. J.Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1995;43:860-864. View abstract.
  69. Sano, M., Takahashi, Y., Yoshino, K., Shimoi, K., Nakamura, Y., Tomita, I., Oguni, I., and Konomoto, H. Effect of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) on lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidney: a comparison of green and black tea feeding. Biol.Pharm Bull. 1995;18:1006-1008. View abstract.
  70. Maity, S., Vedasiromoni, J. R., and Ganguly, D. K. Anti-ulcer effect of the hot water extract of black tea (Camellia sinensis). J Ethnopharmacol. 1995;46:167-174. View abstract.
  71. Shiraki, M., Hara, Y., Osawa, T., Kumon, H., Nakayama, T., and Kawakishi, S. Antioxidative and antimutagenic effects of theaflavins from black tea. Mutat.Res. 1994;323(1-2):29-34. View abstract.
  72. Elkins, R. N., Rapoport, J. L., Zahn, T. P., Buchsbaum, M. S., Weingartner, H., Kopin, I. J., Langer, D., and Johnson, C. Acute effects of caffeine in normal prepubertal boys. Am.J.Psychiatry 1981;138:178-183. View abstract.
  73. White, B. C., Lincoln, C. A., Pearce, N. W., Reeb, R., and Vaida, C. Anxiety and muscle tension as consequences of caffeine withdrawal. Science 9-26-1980;209:1547-1548. View abstract.
  74. Greden, J. F., Victor, B. S., Fontaine, P., and Lubetsky, M. Caffeine-withdrawal headache: a clinical profile. Psychosomatics 1980;21:411-418. View abstract.
  75. Banner, W., Jr. and Czajka, P. A. Acute caffeine overdose in the neonate. Am.J Dis Child 1980;134:495-498. View abstract.
  76. Newton, R., Broughton, L. J., Lind, M. J., Morrison, P. J., Rogers, H. J., and Bradbrook, I. D. Plasma and salivary pharmacokinetics of caffeine in man. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 1981;21:45-52. View abstract.
  77. Lawson, D. H., Jick, H., and Rothman, K. J. Coffee and tea consumption and breast disease. Surgery 1981;90:801-803. View abstract.
  78. Parsons, W. D. and Neims, A. H. Prolonged half-life of caffeine in healthy tem newborn infants. J Pediatr. 1981;98:640-641. View abstract.
  79. Stich, H. F., Chan, P. K., and Rosin, M. P. Inhibitory effects of phenolics, teas and saliva on the formation of mutagenic nitrosation products of salted fish. Int.J Cancer 12-15-1982;30:719-724. View abstract.
  80. Blanchard, J. Protein binding of caffeine in young and elderly males. J Pharm.Sci 1982;71:1415-1418. View abstract.
  81. Freestone, S. and Ramsay, L. E. Effect of coffee and cigarette smoking on the blood pressure of untreated and diuretic-treated hypertensive patients. Am.J.Med. 1982;73:348-353. View abstract.
  82. Parsons, W. D. and Pelletier, J. G. Delayed elimination of caffeine by women in the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Can.Med.Assoc.J 9-1-1982;127:377-380. View abstract.
  83. Marshall, J., Graham, S., and Swanson, M. Caffeine consumption and benign breast disease: a case-control comparison. Am.J.Public Health 1982;72:610-612. View abstract.
  84. Conrad, K. A., Blanchard, J., and Trang, J. M. Cardiovascular effects of caffeine in elderly men. J Am.Geriatr.Soc. 1982;30:267-272. View abstract.
  85. Ernster, V. L., Mason, L., Goodson, W. H., III, Sickles, E. A., Sacks, S. T., Selvin, S., Dupuy, M. E., Hawkinson, J., and Hunt, T. K. Effects of caffeine-free diet on benign breast disease: a randomized trial. Surgery 1982;91:263-267. View abstract.
  86. Blanchard, J. and Sawers, S. J. Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly men. J Pharmacokinet.Biopharm. 1983;11:109-126. View abstract.
  87. Levy, M. and Zylber-Katz, E. Caffeine metabolism and coffee-attributed sleep disturbances. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;33:770-775. View abstract.
  88. Dobmeyer, D. J., Stine, R. A., Leier, C. V., Greenberg, R., and Schaal, S. F. The arrhythmogenic effects of caffeine in human beings. N.Engl.J.Med. 4-7-1983;308:814-816. View abstract.
  89. Hojgaard, L., Arffmann, S., Jorgensen, M., and Krag, E. Tea consumption: a cause of constipation?. Br.Med.J.(Clin Res.Ed) 3-14-1981;282:864. View abstract.
  90. Stich, H. F., Rosin, M. P., and Bryson, L. Inhibition of mutagenicity of a model nitrosation reaction by naturally occurring phenolics, coffee and tea. Mutat.Res. 1982;95(2-3):119-128. View abstract.
  91. Beach, C. A., Bianchine, J. R., and Gerber, N. The excretion of caffeine in the semen of men: pharmacokinetics and comparison of the concentrations in blood and semen. J Clin Pharmacol 1984;24(2-3):120-126. View abstract.
  92. Kinlen, L. J. and McPherson, K. Pancreas cancer and coffee and tea consumption: a case-control study. Br.J.Cancer 1984;49:93-96. View abstract.
  93. Grant, D. M., Tang, B. K., and Kalow, W. Variability in caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;33:591-602. View abstract.
  94. Stillner, V., Popkin, M. K., and Pierce, C. M. Caffeine-induced delirium during prolonged competitive stress. Am.J.Psychiatry 1978;135:855-856. View abstract.
  95. Lang, T., Degoulet, P., Aime, F., Fouriaud, C., Jacquinet-Salord, M. C., Laprugne, J., Main, J., Oeconomos, J., Phalente, J., and Prades, A. Relation between coffee drinking and blood pressure: analysis of 6,321 subjects in the Paris region. Am.J Cardiol. 12-1-1983;52:1238-1242. View abstract.
  96. Boyle, C. A., Berkowitz, G. S., LiVolsi, V. A., Ort, S., Merino, M. J., White, C., and Kelsey, J. L. Caffeine consumption and fibrocystic breast disease: a case-control epidemiologic study. J.Natl.Cancer Inst. 1984;72:1015-1019. View abstract.
  97. Rosen, S., Elvin-Lewis, M., Beck, F. M., and Beck, E. X. Anticariogenic effects of tea in rats. J Dent.Res. 1984;63:658-660. View abstract.
  98. Speirs, R. L. Correlations between the concentrations of fluoride and some other constituents in tea infusions and their possible dental caries-preventive effect. Arch.Oral Biol. 1983;28:471-475. View abstract.
  99. Parsons, W. D. and Neims, A. H. Effect of smoking on caffeine clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1978;24:40-45. View abstract.
  100. Edelstein, B. A., Keaton-Brasted, C., and Burg, M. M. Effects of caffeine withdrawal on nocturnal enuresis, insomnia, and behavior restraints. J.Consult Clin Psychol. 1984;52:857-862. View abstract.
  101. Gilliland, K. and Bullock, W. Caffeine: a potential drug of abuse. Adv.Alcohol Subst.Abuse 1983;3(1-2):53-73. View abstract.
  102. Prineas, R. J., Jacobs, D. R., Jr., Crow, R. S., and Blackburn, H. Coffee, tea and VPB. J Chronic.Dis 1980;33:67-72. View abstract.
  103. Kaiser, H. E. Cancer-promoting effects of phenols in tea. Cancer 1967;20:614-616. View abstract.
  104. Keuchel, I., Kohnen, R., and Lienert, G. A. The effects of alcohol and caffeine on concentration test performance. Arzneimittelforschung. 1979;29:973-975. View abstract.
  105. De Freitas, B. and Schwartz, G. Effects of caffeine in chronic psychiatric patients. Am.J.Psychiatry 1979;136:1337-1338. View abstract.
  106. Kulkarni, P. B. and Dorand, R. D. Caffeine toxicity in a neonate. Pediatrics 1979;64:254-255. View abstract.
  107. John, T. J. and Mukundan, P. Virus inhibition by tea, caffeine and tannic acid. Indian J Med.Res. 1979;69:542-545. View abstract.
  108. Aldridge, A., Aranda, J. V., and Neims, A. H. Caffeine metabolism in the newborn. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1979;25:447-453. View abstract.
  109. Friedman, L., Weinberger, M. A., Farber, T. M., Moreland, F. M., Peters, E. L., Gilmore, C. E., and Khan, M. A. Testicular atrophy and impaired spermatogenesis in rats fed high levels of the methylxanthines caffeine, theobromine, or theophylline. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol. 1979;2:687-706. View abstract.
  110. Rosenberg, L., Miller, D. R., Helmrich, S. P., Kaufman, D. W., Schottenfeld, D., Stolley, P. D., and Shapiro, S. Breast cancer and the consumption of coffee. Am.J.Epidemiol. 1985;122:391-399. View abstract.
  111. Pincomb, G. A., Lovallo, W. R., Passey, R. B., Whitsett, T. L., Silverstein, S. M., and Wilson, M. F. Effects of caffeine on vascular resistance, cardiac output and myocardial contractility in young men. Am.J Cardiol. 7-1-1985;56:119-122. View abstract.
  112. Lubin, F., Ron, E., Wax, Y., Black, M., Funaro, M., and Shitrit, A. A case-control study of caffeine and methylxanthines in benign breast disease. JAMA 4-26-1985;253:2388-2392. View abstract.
  113. Sutherland, D. J., McPherson, D. D., Renton, K. W., Spencer, C. A., and Montague, T. J. The effect of caffeine on cardiac rate, rhythm, and ventricular repolarization. Analysis of 18 normal subjects and 18 patients with primary ventricular dysrhythmia. Chest 1985;87:319-324. View abstract.
  114. Gong, H., Jr., Simmons, M. S., Tashkin, D. P., Hui, K. K., and Lee, E. Y. Bronchodilator effects of caffeine in coffee. A dose-response study of asthmatic subjects. Chest 1986;89:335-342. View abstract.
  115. Nagao, M., Takahashi, Y., Yamanaka, H., and Sugimura, T. Mutagens in coffee and tea. Mutat.Res. 1979;68:101-106. View abstract.
  116. Shirlow, M. J. and Mathers, C. D. A study of caffeine consumption and symptoms; indigestion, palpitations, tremor, headache and insomnia. Int.J.Epidemiol. 1985;14:239-248. View abstract.
  117. Heilbrun, L. K., Nomura, A., and Stemmermann, G. N. Black tea consumption and cancer risk: a prospective study. Br.J.Cancer 1986;54:677-683. View abstract.
  118. Arnold, M. E., Petros, T. V., Beckwith, B. E., Coons, G., and Gorman, N. The effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and sex on memory for word lists. Physiol Behav. 1987;41:25-30. View abstract.
  119. Hinkle, P. E., Coffey, C. E., Weiner, R. D., Cress, M., and Christison, C. Use of caffeine to lengthen seizures in ECT. Am.J.Psychiatry 1987;144:1143-1148. View abstract.
  120. Lane, J. D. and Williams, R. B., Jr. Cardiovascular effects of caffeine and stress in regular coffee drinkers. Psychophysiology 1987;24:157-164. View abstract.
  121. Bukowskyj, M. and Nakatsu, K. The bronchodilator effect of caffeine in adult asthmatics. Am.Rev.Respir.Dis 1987;135:173-175. View abstract.
  122. Levinson, W. and Dunn, P. M. Nonassociation of caffeine and fibrocystic breast disease. Arch.Intern.Med. 1986;146:1773-1775. View abstract.
  123. Robertson, D., Frolich, J. C., Carr, R. K., Watson, J. T., Hollifield, J. W., Shand, D. G., and Oates, J. A. Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. N.Engl.J Med. 1-26-1978;298:181-186. View abstract.
  124. Pola, J., Subiza, J., Armentia, A., Zapata, C., Hinojosa, M., Losada, E., and Valdivieso, R. Urticaria caused by caffeine. Ann.Allergy 1988;60:207-208. View abstract.
  125. Kinlen, L. J., Willows, A. N., Goldblatt, P., and Yudkin, J. Tea consumption and cancer. Br.J.Cancer 1988;58:397-401. View abstract.
  126. Ariza, R. R., Dorado, G., Barbancho, M., and Pueyo, C. Study of the causes of direct-acting mutagenicity in coffee and tea using the Ara test in Salmonella typhimurium. Mutat.Res. 1988;201:89-96. View abstract.
  127. Neims, A. H. Individuality in the response to dietary constituents: some lessons from drugs. Nutr.Rev. 1986;44 Suppl:237-241. View abstract.
  128. Stensvold, I., Tverdal, A., and Foss, O. P. The effect of coffee on blood lipids and blood pressure. Results from a Norwegian cross-sectional study, men and women, 40-42 years. J Clin Epidemiol. 1989;42:877-884. View abstract.
  129. Koczapski, A., Paredes, J., Kogan, C., Ledwidge, B., and Higenbottam, J. Effects of caffeine on behavior of schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophr.Bull. 1989;15:339-344. View abstract.
  130. Bruce, M. S. and Lader, M. Caffeine abstention in the management of anxiety disorders. Psychol.Med. 1989;19:211-214. View abstract.
  131. Van Dusseldorp, M., Smits, P., Thien, T., and Katan, M. B. Effect of decaffeinated versus regular coffee on blood pressure. A 12-week, double-blind trial. Hypertension 1989;14:563-569. View abstract.
  132. Shorofsky, M. A. and Lamm, R. N. Caffeine-withdrawal headache and fasting. N.Y.State J.Med. 1977;77:217-218. View abstract.
  133. Wrenn, K. D. and Oschner, I. Rhabdomyolysis induced by a caffeine overdose. Ann.Emerg.Med. 1989;18:94-97. View abstract.
  134. Higginbotham, E. J., Kilimanjaro, H. A., Wilensky, J. T., Batenhorst, R. L., and Hermann, D. The effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients. Ophthalmology 1989;96:624-626. View abstract.
  135. Davis, R. H. Does caffeine ingestion affect intraocular pressure?. Ophthalmology 1989;96:1680-1681. View abstract.
  136. Myers, M. G., Harris, L., Leenen, F. H., and Grant, D. M. Caffeine as a possible cause of ventricular arrhythmias during the healing phase of acute myocardial infarction. Am.J Cardiol. 5-1-1987;59:1024-1028. View abstract.
  137. Adams, B. A. and Brubaker, R. F. Caffeine has no clinically significant effect on aqueous humor flow in the normal human eye. Ophthalmology 1990;97:1030-1031. View abstract.
  138. Lucas, P. B., Pickar, D., Kelsoe, J., Rapaport, M., Pato, C., and Hommer, D. Effects of the acute administration of caffeine in patients with schizophrenia. Biol.Psychiatry 7-1-1990;28:35-40. View abstract.
  139. Brinkley, L. J., Gregory, J., and Pak, C. Y. A further study of oxalate bioavailability in foods. J Urol. 1990;144:94-96. View abstract.
  140. Gramenzi, A., Gentile, A., Fasoli, M., Negri, E., Parazzini, F., and La, Vecchia C. Association between certain foods and risk of acute myocardial infarction in women. BMJ 3-24-1990;300:771-773. View abstract.
  141. Bullough, B., Hindi-Alexander, M., and Fetouh, S. Methylxanthines and fibrocystic breast disease: a study of correlations. Nurse Pract. 1990;15:36-4. View abstract.
  142. Chelsky, L. B., Cutler, J. E., Griffith, K., Kron, J., McClelland, J. H., and McAnulty, J. H. Caffeine and ventricular arrhythmias. An electrophysiological approach. JAMA 11-7-1990;264:2236-2240. View abstract.
  143. Hattori, M., Kusumoto, I. T., Namba, T., Ishigami, T., and Hara, Y. Effect of tea polyphenols on glucan synthesis by glucosyltransferase from Streptococcus mutans. Chem.Pharm Bull.(Tokyo) 1990;38:717-720. View abstract.
  144. Rosmarin, P. C., Applegate, W. B., and Somes, G. W. Coffee consumption and blood pressure: a randomized, crossover clinical trial. J.Gen.Intern.Med. 1990;5:211-213. View abstract.
  145. Arnaud, M. J. Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of natural methylxanthines in animal and man. Handb.Exp.Pharmacol 2011;:33-91. View abstract.
  146. Hughes, J. R., Higgins, S. T., Bickel, W. K., Hunt, W. K., Fenwick, J. W., Gulliver, S. B., and Mireault, G. C. Caffeine self-administration, withdrawal, and adverse effects among coffee drinkers. Arch.Gen.Psychiatry 1991;48:611-617. View abstract.
  147. Okubo, S., Toda, M., Hara, Y., and Shimamura, T. [Antifungal and fungicidal activities of tea extract and catechin against Trichophyton]. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi 1991;46:509-514. View abstract.
  148. Duffy, P. and Phillips, Y. Y. Caffeine consumption decreases the response to bronchoprovocation challenge with dry gas hyperventilation. Chest 1991;99:1374-1377. View abstract.
  149. Bak, A. A. and Grobbee, D. E. Caffeine, blood pressure, and serum lipids. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 1991;53:971-975. View abstract.
  150. Tondo, L. and Rudas, N. The course of a seasonal bipolar disorder influenced by caffeine. J.Affect.Disord. 1991;22:249-251. View abstract.
  151. Quirce, G. S., Freire, P., Fernandez, R. M., Davila, I., and Losada, E. Urticaria from caffeine. J.Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;88:680-681. View abstract.
  152. Imanishi, H., Sasaki, Y. F., Ohta, T., Watanabe, M., Kato, T., and Shirasu, Y. Tea tannin components modify the induction of sister-chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations in mutagen-treated cultured mammalian cells and mice. Mutat.Res. 1991;259:79-87. View abstract.
  153. Kapadia, G. J., Paul, B. D., Chung, E. B., Ghosh, B., and Pradhan, S. N. Carcinogenicity of Camellia sinensis (tea) and some tannin-containing folk medicinal herbs administered subcutaneously in rats. J Natl.Cancer Inst. 1976;57:207-209. View abstract.
  154. Karacan, I., Thornby, J. I., Anch, M., Booth, G. H., Williams, R. L., and Salis, P. J. Dose-related sleep disturbances induced by coffee and caffeine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1976;20:682-689. View abstract.
  155. Turkoglu, M. and Cigirgil, N. Evaluation of black tea gel and its protection potential against UV. Int J Cosmet.Sci 2007;29:437-442. View abstract.
  156. Patel, R., Krishnan, R., Ramchandani, A., and Maru, G. Polymeric black tea polyphenols inhibit mouse skin chemical carcinogenesis by decreasing cell proliferation. Cell Prolif. 2008;41:532-553. View abstract.
  157. Stockfleth, E., Beti, H., Orasan, R., Grigorian, F., Mescheder, A., Tawfik, H., and Thielert, C. Topical Polyphenon E in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts: a randomized controlled trial. Br.J Dermatol. 2008;158:1329-1338. View abstract.
  158. Glore, S. and Ricker, A. Trigeminal neuralgia: case study of pain cessation with a low-caffeine diet. J.Am.Diet.Assoc. 1991;91:1120-1121. View abstract.
  159. Letchoumy, P. V., Mohan, K. V., Prathiba, D., Hara, Y., and Nagini, S. Comparative evaluation of antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and apoptosis inducing potential of black tea polyphenols in the hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis model. J Carcinog. 2007;6:19. View abstract.
  160. Haskell, C. F., Kennedy, D. O., Milne, A. L., Wesnes, K. A., and Scholey, A. B. The effects of L-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood. Biol.Psychol. 2008;77:113-122. View abstract.
  161. Gross, G., Meyer, K. G., Pres, H., Thielert, C., Tawfik, H., and Mescheder, A. A randomized, double-blind, four-arm parallel-group, placebo-controlled Phase II/III study to investigate the clinical efficacy of two galenic formulations of Polyphenon E in the treatment of external genital warts. J Eur.Acad.Dermatol.Venereol. 2007;21:1404-1412. View abstract.
  162. Bryans, J. A., Judd, P. A., and Ellis, P. R. The effect of consuming instant black tea on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in healthy humans. J Am Coll.Nutr 2007;26:471-477. View abstract.
  163. Mukamal, K. J., MacDermott, K., Vinson, J. A., Oyama, N., Manning, W. J., and Mittleman, M. A. A 6-month randomized pilot study of black tea and cardiovascular risk factors. Am Heart J 2007;154:724-726. View abstract.
  164. Rogers, P. J., Smith, J. E., Heatherley, S. V., and Pleydell-Pearce, C. W. Time for tea: mood, blood pressure and cognitive performance effects of caffeine and theanine administered alone and together. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2008;195:569-577. View abstract.
  165. Mackenzie, T., Leary, L., and Brooks, W. B. The effect of an extract of green and black tea on glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: double-blind randomized study. Metabolism 2007;56:1340-1344. View abstract.
  166. Yu, G., Maskray, V., Jackson, S. H., Swift, C. G., and Tiplady, B. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of caffeine and theophylline in elderly subjects. Br.J Clin Pharmacol 1991;32:341-345. View abstract.
  167. MacDonald, T. M., Sharpe, K., Fowler, G., Lyons, D., Freestone, S., Lovell, H. G., Webster, J., and Petrie, J. C. Caffeine restriction: effect on mild hypertension. BMJ 11-16-1991;303:1235-1238. View abstract.
  168. Banerjee, S., Manna, S., Mukherjee, S., Pal, D., Panda, C. K., and Das, S. Black tea polyphenols restrict benzopyrene-induced mouse lung cancer progression through inhibition of Cox-2 and induction of caspase-3 expression. Asian Pac.J Cancer Prev. 2006;7:661-666. View abstract.
  169. Thomasset, S. C., Berry, D. P., Garcea, G., Marczylo, T., Steward, W. P., and Gescher, A. J. Dietary polyphenolic phytochemicals--promising cancer chemopreventive agents in humans? A review of their clinical properties. Int.J Cancer 2-1-2007;120:451-458. View abstract.
  170. Kohler, M., Pavy, A., and van den Heuvel, C. The effects of chewing versus caffeine on alertness, cognitive performance and cardiac autonomic activity during sleep deprivation. J Sleep Res. 2006;15:358-368. View abstract.
  171. Opala, T., Rzymski, P., Pischel, I., Wilczak, M., and Wozniak, J. Efficacy of 12 weeks supplementation of a botanical extract-based weight loss formula on body weight, body composition and blood chemistry in healthy, overweight subjects--a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Eur J Med Res 8-30-2006;11:343-350. View abstract.
  172. Dagan, Y. and Doljansky, J. T. Cognitive performance during sustained wakefulness: A low dose of caffeine is equally effective as modafinil in alleviating the nocturnal decline. Chronobiol.Int. 2006;23:973-983. View abstract.
  173. Steptoe, A., Gibson, E. L., Vuononvirta, R., Williams, E. D., Hamer, M., Rycroft, J. A., Erusalimsky, J. D., and Wardle, J. The effects of tea on psychophysiological stress responsivity and post-stress recovery: a randomised double-blind trial. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2007;190:81-89. View abstract.
  174. Steptoe, A., Gibson, E. L., Vuononvirta, R., Hamer, M., Wardle, J., Rycroft, J. A., Martin, J. F., and Erusalimsky, J. D. The effects of chronic tea intake on platelet activation and inflammation: a double-blind placebo controlled trial. Atherosclerosis 2007;193:277-282. View abstract.
  175. Van Dorsten, F. A., Daykin, C. A., Mulder, T. P., and Van Duynhoven, J. P. Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption. J Agric Food Chem 9-6-2006;54:6929-6938. View abstract.
  176. Nussberger, J., Mooser, V., Maridor, G., Juillerat, L., Waeber, B., and Brunner, H. R. Caffeine-induced diuresis and atrial natriuretic peptides. J Cardiovasc.Pharmacol 1990;15:685-691. View abstract.
  177. Myers, M. G. and Harris, L. High dose caffeine and ventricular arrhythmias. Can.J Cardiol. 1990;6:95-98. View abstract.
  178. Price, K. R. and Fligner, D. J. Treatment of caffeine toxicity with esmolol. Ann.Emerg.Med. 1990;19:44-46. View abstract.
  179. Gardner, E. J., Ruxton, C. H., and Leeds, A. R. Black tea--helpful or harmful? A review of the evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr 2007;61:3-18. View abstract.
  180. Henning, S. M., Aronson, W., Niu, Y., Conde, F., Lee, N. H., Seeram, N. P., Lee, R. P., Lu, J., Harris, D. M., Moro, A., Hong, J., Pak-Shan, L., Barnard, R. J., Ziaee, H. G., Csathy, G., Go, V. L., Wang, H., and Heber, D. Tea polyphenols and theaflavins are present in prostate tissue of humans and mice after green and black tea consumption. J Nutr 2006;136:1839-1843. View abstract.
  181. Vlachopoulos, C., Alexopoulos, N., Dima, I., Aznaouridis, K., Andreadou, I., and Stefanadis, C. Acute effect of black and green tea on aortic stiffness and wave reflections. J Am Coll.Nutr 2006;25:216-223. View abstract.
  182. Mukoyama, A., Ushijima, H., Nishimura, S., Koike, H., Toda, M., Hara, Y., and Shimamura, T. Inhibition of rotavirus and enterovirus infections by tea extracts. Jpn.J Med.Sci Biol. 1991;44:181-186. View abstract.
  183. Sun, C. L., Yuan, J. M., Koh, W. P., and Yu, M. C. Green tea, black tea and colorectal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Carcinogenesis 2006;27:1301-1309. View abstract.
  184. Yamada, H., Tateishi, M., Harada, K., Ohashi, T., Shimizu, T., Atsumi, T., Komagata, Y., Iijima, H., Komiyama, K., Watanabe, H., Hara, Y., and Ohashi, K. A randomized clinical study of tea catechin inhalation effects on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in disabled elderly patients. J Am.Med.Dir.Assoc. 2006;7:79-83. View abstract.
  185. Roberts, A. T., Jonge-Levitan, L., Parker, C. C., and Greenway, F. The effect of an herbal supplement containing black tea and caffeine on metabolic parameters in humans. Altern Med Rev 2005;10:321-325. View abstract.
  186. Van Dusseldorp, M., Smits, P., Lenders, J. W., Temme, L., Thien, T., and Katan, M. B. Effects of coffee on cardiovascular responses to stress: a 14-week controlled trial. Psychosom.Med. 1992;54:344-353. View abstract.
  187. Suzuki, J., Ogawa, M., Izawa, A., Sagesaka, Y. M., and Isobe, M. Dietary consumption of green tea catechins attenuate hyperlipidaemia-induced atherosclerosis and systemic organ damage in mice. Acta Cardiol. 2005;60:271-276. View abstract.
  188. Halder, A., Raychowdhury, R., Ghosh, A., and De, M. Black tea (Camellia sinensis) as a chemopreventive agent in oral precancerous lesions. J.Environ.Pathol.Toxicol.Oncol. 2005;24:141-144. View abstract.
  189. Lele, S. Although leukoplakia responds to some treatments relapses and adverse effects are common. Evid.Based.Dent. 2005;6:15-16. View abstract.
  190. Mulder, T. P., Rietveld, A. G., and Van Amelsvoort, J. M. Consumption of both black tea and green tea results in an increase in the excretion of hippuric acid into urine. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2005;81(1 Suppl):256S-260S. View abstract.
  191. Ullmann, U., Haller, J., Decourt, J. D., Girault, J., Spitzer, V., and Weber, P. Plasma-kinetic characteristics of purified and isolated green tea catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) after 10 days repeated dosing in healthy volunteers. Int J Vitam.Nutr.Res. 2004;74:269-278. View abstract.
  192. Li, R., Huang, Y. G., Fang, D., and Le, W. D. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced microglial activation and protects against inflammation-mediated dopaminergic neuronal injury. J Neurosci.Res. 12-1-2004;78:723-731. View abstract.
  193. Silverman, K., Evans, S. M., Strain, E. C., and Griffiths, R. R. Withdrawal syndrome after the double-blind cessation of caffeine consumption. N.Engl.J.Med. 10-15-1992;327:1109-1114. View abstract.
  194. Taylor, E. S., Smith, A. D., Cowan, J. O., Herbison, G. P., and Taylor, D. R. Effect of caffeine ingestion on exhaled nitric oxide measurements in patients with asthma. Am.J Respir.Crit Care Med. 5-1-2004;169:1019-1021. View abstract.
  195. ROTH, J. L. Clinical evaluation of the caffeine gastric analysis in duodenal ulcer patients. Gastroenterology 1951;19:199-215. View abstract.
  196. Toda, M., Okubo, S., Ikigai, H., Suzuki, T., Suzuki, Y., Hara, Y., and Shimamura, T. The protective activity of tea catechins against experimental infection by Vibrio cholerae O1. Microbiol.Immunol. 1992;36:999-1001. View abstract.
  197. Ahmed, S., Wang, N., Lalonde, M., Goldberg, V. M., and Haqqi, T. M. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) differentially inhibits interleukin-1 beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -13 in human chondrocytes. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 2004;308:767-773. View abstract.
  198. Davies, M. J., Judd, J. T., Baer, D. J., Clevidence, B. A., Paul, D. R., Edwards, A. J., Wiseman, S. A., Muesing, R. A., and Chen, S. C. Black tea consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol in mildly hypercholesterolemic adults. J.Nutr. 2003;133:3298S-3302S. View abstract.
  199. Stensvold, I., Tverdal, A., Solvoll, K., and Foss, O. P. Tea consumption. relationship to cholesterol, blood pressure, and coronary and total mortality. Prev.Med. 1992;21:546-553. View abstract.
  200. Green, M. S. and Harari, G. Association of serum lipoproteins and health-related habits with coffee and tea consumption in free-living subjects examined in the Israeli CORDIS Study. Prev.Med. 1992;21:532-545. View abstract.
  201. Chow, H. H., Cai, Y., Hakim, I. A., Crowell, J. A., Shahi, F., Brooks, C. A., Dorr, R. T., Hara, Y., and Alberts, D. S. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res. 8-15-2003;9:3312-3319. View abstract.
  202. Maity, S., Ukil, A., Karmakar, S., Datta, N., Chaudhuri, T., Vedasiromoni, J. R., Ganguly, D. K., and Das, P. K. Thearubigin, the major polyphenol of black tea, ameliorates mucosal injury in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Eur.J Pharmacol 5-30-2003;470(1-2):103-112. View abstract.
  203. Levites, Y., Amit, T., Mandel, S., and Youdim, M. B. Neuroprotection and neurorescue against Abeta toxicity and PKC-dependent release of nonamyloidogenic soluble precursor protein by green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate. FASEB J 2003;17:952-954. View abstract.
  204. Savage, G. P., Charrier, M. J., and Vanhanen, L. Bioavailability of soluble oxalate from tea and the effect of consuming milk with the tea. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2003;57:415-419. View abstract.
  205. Yamada, H., Ohashi, K., Atsumi, T., Okabe, H., Shimizu, T., Nishio, S., Li, X. D., Kosuge, K., Watanabe, H., and Hara, Y. Effects of tea catechin inhalation on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in elderly patients in a hospital ward. J.Hosp.Infect. 2003;53:229-231. View abstract.
  206. Chen, X. and He, B. [Oxygen free radical scavening activity and anti-lipid peroxidation of tea polyphenol]. Zhong.Yao Cai. 1998;21:141-144. View abstract.
  207. Singh, R., Ahmed, S., Malemud, C. J., Goldberg, V. M., and Haqqi, T. M. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate selectively inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced activation of mitogen activated protein kinase subgroup c-Jun N-terminal kinase in human osteoarthritis chondrocytes. J Orthop.Res. 2003;21:102-109. View abstract.
  208. Hakim, I. A., Alsaif, M. A., Alduwaihy, M., Al-Rubeaan, K., Al-Nuaim, A. R., and Al-Attas, O. S. Tea consumption and the prevalence of coronary heart disease in Saudi adults: results from a Saudi national study. Prev.Med 2003;36:64-70. View abstract.
  209. Gupta, S., Chaudhuri, T., Seth, P., Ganguly, D. K., and Giri, A. K. Antimutagenic effects of black tea (World Blend) and its two active polyphenols theaflavins and thearubigins in Salmonella assays. Phytother.Res. 2002;16:655-661. View abstract.
  210. Choi, J. Y., Park, C. S., Kim, D. J., Cho, M. H., Jin, B. K., Pie, J. E., and Chung, W. G. Prevention of nitric oxide-mediated 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-induced Parkinson's disease in mice by tea phenolic epigallocatechin 3-gallate. Neurotoxicology 2002;23:367-374. View abstract.
  211. Lodi, G., Sardella, A., Bez, C., Demarosi, F., and Carrassi, A. Systematic review of randomized trials for the treatment of oral leukoplakia. J Dent.Educ. 2002;66:896-902. View abstract.
  212. Singh, R., Ahmed, S., Islam, N., Goldberg, V. M., and Haqqi, T. M. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits interleukin-1beta-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase and production of nitric oxide in human chondrocytes: suppression of nuclear factor kappaB activation by degradation of the inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:2079-2086. View abstract.
  213. Nie, G., Cao, Y., and Zhao, B. Protective effects of green tea polyphenols and their major component, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells. Redox.Rep. 2002;7:171-177. View abstract.
  214. Cerhan, J. R., Putnam, S. D., Bianchi, G. D., Parker, A. S., Lynch, C. F., and Cantor, K. P. Tea consumption and risk of cancer of the colon and rectum. Nutr.Cancer 2001;41(1-2):33-40. View abstract.
  215. Satoh, E., Ishii, T., Shimizu, Y., Sawamura, S., and Nishimura, M. The mechanism underlying the protective effect of the thearubigin fraction of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extract against the neuromuscular blocking action of botulinum neurotoxins. Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2002;90:199-202. View abstract.
  216. Luceri, C., Caderni, G., Sanna, A., and Dolara, P. Red wine and black tea polyphenols modulate the expression of cycloxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and glutathione-related enzymes in azoxymethane-induced f344 rat colon tumors. J Nutr. 2002;132:1376-1379. View abstract.
  217. Bryant, C. M., Dowell, C. J., and Fairbrother, G. Caffeine reduction education to improve urinary symptoms. Br.J.Nurs. 4-25-2002;11:560-565. View abstract.
  218. Favreau, J. T., Ryu, M. L., Braunstein, G., Orshansky, G., Park, S. S., Coody, G. L., Love, L. A., and Fong, T. L. Severe hepatotoxicity associated with the dietary supplement LipoKinetix. Ann.Intern.Med. 4-16-2002;136:590-595. View abstract.
  219. Dhawan, A., Anderson, D., de Pascual-Teresa, S., Santos-Buelga, C., Clifford, M. N., and Ioannides, C. Evaluation of the antigenotoxic potential of monomeric and dimeric flavanols, and black tea polyphenols against heterocyclic amine-induced DNA damage in human lymphocytes using the Comet assay. Mutat.Res. 3-25-2002;515(1-2):39-56. View abstract.
  220. Hodgson, J. M., Puddey, I. B., Burke, V., Beilin, L. J., Mori, T. A., and Chan, S. Y. Acute effects of ingestion of black tea on postprandial platelet aggregation in human subjects. Br.J Nutr. 2002;87:141-145. View abstract.
  221. Ciraj, A. M., Sulaim, J., Mamatha, B., Gopalkrishna, B. K., and Shivananda, P. G. Antibacterial activity of black tea (Camelia sinensis) extract against Salmonella serotypes causing enteric fever. Indian J Med.Sci 2001;55:376-381. View abstract.
  222. Adcocks, C., Collin, P., and Buttle, D. J. Catechins from green tea (Camellia sinensis) inhibit bovine and human cartilage proteoglycan and type II collagen degradation in vitro. J Nutr. 2002;132:341-346. View abstract.
  223. Hodgson, J. M., Puddey, I. B., Burke, V., Watts, G. F., and Beilin, L. J. Regular ingestion of black tea improves brachial artery vasodilator function. Clin.Sci (Lond) 2002;102:195-201. View abstract.
  224. Shukla, Y. and Taneja, P. Anticarcinogenic effect of black tea on pulmonary tumors in Swiss albino mice. Cancer Lett. 2-25-2002;176:137-141. View abstract.
  225. Klein, R. D. and Fischer, S. M. Black tea polyphenols inhibit IGF-I-induced signaling through Akt in normal prostate epithelial cells and Du145 prostate carcinoma cells. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:217-221. View abstract.
  226. Feng, Q., Torii, Y., Uchida, K., Nakamura, Y., Hara, Y., and Osawa, T. Black tea polyphenols, theaflavins, prevent cellular DNA damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing cytochrome P450 1A1 in cell cultures. J Agric.Food Chem. 1-2-2002;50:213-220. View abstract.
  227. Gupta, S., Chaudhuri, T., Ganguly, D. K., and Giri, A. K. Anticlastogenic effects of black tea (World blend) and its two active polyphenols theaflavins and thearubigins in vivo in Swiss albino mice. Life Sci 10-26-2001;69:2735-2744. View abstract.
  228. Hong, J., Smith, T. J., Ho, C. T., August, D. A., and Yang, C. S. Effects of purified green and black tea polyphenols on cyclooxygenase- and lipoxygenase-dependent metabolism of arachidonic acid in human colon mucosa and colon tumor tissues. Biochem.Pharmacol. 11-1-2001;62:1175-1183. View abstract.
  229. Brunton, P. A. and Hussain, A. The erosive effect of herbal tea on dental enamel. J Dent. 2001;29:517-520. View abstract.
  230. Lodi, G., Sardella, A., Bez, C., Demarosi, F., and Carrassi, A. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2001;:CD001829. View abstract.
  231. Shukla, Y. and Taneja, P. Antimutagenic effect of black tea extract using 'rodent dominant lethal mutation assay'. Toxicology 11-30-2001;168:269-274. View abstract.
  232. Disler, P. B., Lynch, S. R., Charlton, R. W., Torrance, J. D., Bothwell, T. H., Walker, R. B., and Mayet, F. The effect of tea on iron absorption. Gut 1975;16:193-200. View abstract.
  233. Hodgson, J. M., Puddey, I. B., Mori, T. A., Burke, V., Baker, R. I., and Beilin, L. J. Effects of regular ingestion of black tea on haemostasis and cell adhesion molecules in humans. Eur.J Clin.Nutr. 2001;55:881-886. View abstract.
  234. Touyz, L. Z. and Amsel, R. Anticariogenic effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis) in caries prone-rats. Quintessence.Int 2001;32:647-650. View abstract.
  235. Thiagarajan, G., Chandani, S., Sundari, C. S., Rao, S. H., Kulkarni, A. V., and Balasubramanian, D. Antioxidant properties of green and black tea, and their potential ability to retard the progression of eye lens cataract. Exp.Eye Res. 2001;73:393-401. View abstract.
  236. Arts, I. C., Hollman, P. C., Feskens, E. J., Bueno de Mesquita, H. B., and Kromhout, D. Catechin intake might explain the inverse relation between tea consumption and ischemic heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Am.J.Clin Nutr. 2001;74:227-232. View abstract.
  237. Dufresne, C. J. and Farnworth, E. R. A review of latest research findings on the health promotion properties of tea. J Nutr.Biochem. 2001;12:404-421. View abstract.
  238. Lu, Y. P., Lou, Y. R., Lin, Y., Shih, W. J., Huang, M. T., Yang, C. S., and Conney, A. H. Inhibitory effects of orally administered green tea, black tea, and caffeine on skin carcinogenesis in mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light (high-risk mice): relationship to decreased tissue fat. Cancer Res. 7-1-2001;61:5002-5009. View abstract.
  239. Satoh, E., Ishii, T., Shimizu, Y., Sawamura, S., and Nishimura, M. Black tea extract, thearubigin fraction, counteracts the effect of tetanus toxin in mice. Exp.Biol.Med (Maywood.) 2001;226:577-580. View abstract.
  240. Maity, S., Vedasiromoni, J. R., Chaudhuri, L., and Ganguly, D. K. Role of reduced glutathione and nitric oxide in the black tea extract-mediated protection against ulcerogen-induced changes in motility and gastric emptying in rats. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2001;85:358-364. View abstract.
  241. Warden, B. A., Smith, L. S., Beecher, G. R., Balentine, D. A., and Clevidence, B. A. Catechins are bioavailable in men and women drinking black tea throughout the day. J Nutr. 2001;131:1731-1737. View abstract.
  242. Sarkar, A. and Bhaduri, A. Black tea is a powerful chemopreventor of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: comparison with its individual catechin constituents and green tea. Biochem.Biophys.Res.Commun. 6-1-2001;284:173-178. View abstract.
  243. Simpson, A., Shaw, L., and Smith, A. J. Tooth surface pH during drinking of black tea. Br.Dent.J 4-14-2001;190:374-376. View abstract.
  244. Griffiths, R. R. and Chausmer, A. L. Caffeine as a model drug of dependence: recent developments in understanding caffeine withdrawal, the caffeine dependence syndrome, and caffeine negative reinforcement. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi 2000;20:223-231. View abstract.
  245. Javed, S. and Shukla, Y. Effects of black tea extract on transplantable and solid tumors in Swiss albino mice. Biomed.Environ.Sci 2000;13:213-218. View abstract.
  246. Satoh, E., Ishii, T., Shimizu, Y., Sawamura, S., and Nishimura, M. Black tea extract, thearubigin fraction, counteract the effects of botulinum neurotoxins in mice. Br.J Pharmacol. 2001;132:797-798. View abstract.
  247. Simpson, A., Shaw, L., and Smith, A. J. The bio-availability of fluoride from black tea. J Dent. 2001;29:15-21. View abstract.
  248. Conlisk, A. J. and Galuska, D. A. Is caffeine associated with bone mineral density in young adult women?. Prev.Med. 2000;31:562-568. View abstract.
  249. Langley-Evans, S. C. Antioxidant potential of green and black tea determined using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2000;51:181-188. View abstract.
  250. Lakenbrink, C., Lapczynski, S., Maiwald, B., and Engelhardt, U. H. Flavonoids and other polyphenols in consumer brews of tea and other caffeinated beverages. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48:2848-2852. View abstract.
  251. Hodgson, J. M., Morton, L. W., Puddey, I. B., Beilin, L. J., and Croft, K. D. Gallic acid metabolites are markers of black tea intake in humans. J Agric.Food Chem. 2000;48:2276-2280. View abstract.
  252. Akinyinka, O. O., Sowunmi, A., Honeywell, R., and Renwick, A. G. The effects of acute falciparum malaria on the disposition of caffeine and the comparison of saliva and plasma-derived pharmacokinetic parameters in adult Nigerians. Eur.J Clin Pharmacol 2000;56:159-165. View abstract.
  253. Arya, L. A., Myers, D. L., and Jackson, N. D. Dietary caffeine intake and the risk for detrusor instability: a case-control study. Obstet.Gynecol. 2000;96:85-89. View abstract.
  254. Tewari, S., Gupta, V., and Bhattacharya, S. Comparative study of antioxidant potential of tea with and without additives. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2000;44:215-219. View abstract.
  255. McKenna, D. J., Hughes, K., and Jones, K. Green tea monograph. Altern.Ther Health Med. 2000;6:61-2, 74. View abstract.
  256. Clifford, M. N., Copeland, E. L., Bloxsidge, J. P., and Mitchell, L. A. Hippuric acid as a major excretion product associated with black tea consumption. Xenobiotica 2000;30:317-326. View abstract.
  257. Chaudhuri, L., Basu, S., Seth, P., Chaudhuri, T., Besra, S. E., Vedasiromoni, J. R., and Ganguly, D. K. Prokinetic effect of black tea on gastrointestinal motility. Life Sci 1-21-2000;66:847-854. View abstract.
  258. Li, N., Sun, Z., Liu, Z., and Han, C. [Study on the preventive effect of tea on DNA damage of the buccal mucosa cells in oral leukoplakias induce by cigarette smoking]. Wei Sheng Yan.Jiu. 1998;27:173-174. View abstract.
  259. Pan, M. H., Lin-Shiau, S. Y., Ho, C. T., Lin, J. H., and Lin, J. K. Suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced nuclear factor-kappaB activity by theaflavin-3,3'-digallate from black tea and other polyphenols through down-regulation of IkappaB kinase activity in macrophages. Biochem.Pharmacol. 2-15-2000;59:357-367. View abstract.
  260. Woodward, M. and Tunstall-Pedoe, H. Coffee and tea consumption in the Scottish Heart Health Study follow up: conflicting relations with coronary risk factors, coronary disease, and all cause mortality. J.Epidemiol.Community Health 1999;53:481-487. View abstract.
  261. Nakagawa, K., Ninomiya, M., Okubo, T., Aoi, N., Juneja, L. R., Kim, M., Yamanaka, K., and Miyazawa, T. Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans. J.Agric.Food Chem. 1999;47:3967-3973. View abstract.
  262. Zhao, J., Jin, X., Yaping, E., Zheng, Z. S., Zhang, Y. J., Athar, M., DeLeo, V. A., Mukhtar, H., Bickers, D. R., and Wang, Z. Y. Photoprotective effect of black tea extracts against UVB-induced phototoxicity in skin. Photochem.Photobiol. 1999;70:637-644. View abstract.
  263. Katiyar, S. K., Challa, A., McCormick, T. S., Cooper, K. D., and Mukhtar, H. Prevention of UVB-induced immunosuppression in mice by the green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate may be associated with alterations in IL-10 and IL-12 production. Carcinogenesis 1999;20:2117-2124. View abstract.
  264. Gomes, A., Das, M., Vedasiromoni, J. R., and Ganguly, D. K. Proconvulsive effect of tea (Camellia sinensis) in mice. Phytother.Res. 1999;13:376-379. View abstract.
  265. Lou, Y. R., Lu, Y. P., Xie, J. G., Huang, M. T., and Conney, A. H. Effects of oral administration of tea, decaffeinated tea, and caffeine on the formation and growth of tumors in high-risk SKH-1 mice previously treated with ultraviolet B light. Nutr.Cancer 1999;33:146-153. View abstract.
  266. Chow, W. H., Swanson, C. A., Lissowska, J., Groves, F. D., Sobin, L. H., Nasierowska-Guttmejer, A., Radziszewski, J., Regula, J., Hsing, A. W., Jagannatha, S., Zatonski, W., and Blot, W. J. Risk of stomach cancer in relation to consumption of cigarettes, alcohol, tea and coffee in Warsaw, Poland. Int.J.Cancer 6-11-1999;81:871-876. View abstract.
  267. Van Het Hof, K. H., Wiseman, S. A., Yang, C. S., and Tijburg, L. B. Plasma and lipoprotein levels of tea catechins following repeated tea consumption. Proc.Soc.Exp.Biol.Med 1999;220:203-209. View abstract.
  268. Jee, S. H., He, J., Whelton, P. K., Suh, I., and Klag, M. J. The effect of chronic coffee drinking on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Hypertension 1999;33:647-652. View abstract.
  269. Chow, W. H., Blot, W. J., and McLaughlin, J. K. Tea drinking and cancer risk: epidemiologic evidence. Proc.Soc.Exp Biol.Med. 1999;220:197. View abstract.
  270. Lodi, G., Sardella, A., Bez, C., Demarosi, F., and Carrassi, A. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2006;:CD001829. View abstract.
  271. Lodi, G., Sardella, A., Bez, C., Demarosi, F., and Carrassi, A. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2004;:CD001829. View abstract.
  272. Parker DL, Hoffmann TK, Tucker MA, et al. Interaction between warfarin and black tea. Ann Pharmacother 2009;43:150-1. View abstract.
  273. Savitz DA, Chan RL, Herring AH, et al. Caffeine and miscarriage risk. Epidemiology 2008;19:55-62. View abstract.
  274. Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:279.e1-8. View abstract.
  275. Fukuda I, Sakane I, Yabushita Y, et al. Black tea theaflavins suppress dioxin-induced transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005;69:883-90. View abstract.
  276. Kundu T, Dey S, Roy M, et al. Induction of apoptosis in human leukemia cells by black tea and its polyphenol theaflavin. Cancer Lett 2005;230:111-21. View abstract.
  277. Way TD, Lee HH, Kao MC, Lin JK. Black tea polyphenol theaflavins inhibit aromatase activity and attenuate tamoxifen resistance in HER2/neu-transfected human breast cancer cells through tyrosine kinase suppression. Eur J Cancer 2004;40:2165-74. View abstract.
  278. Mizuno H, Cho YY, Zhu F, et al. Theaflavin-3, 3'-digallate induces epidermal growth factor receptor downregulation. Mol Carcinog 2006;45:204-12. View abstract.
  279. Chen CN, Lin CP, Huang KK, et al. Inhibition of SARS-CoV 3C-like Protease Activity by Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2005;2:209-15. View abstract.
  280. Liu S, Lu H, Zhao Q, et al. Theaflavin derivatives in black tea and catechin derivatives in green tea inhibit HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41. Biochim Biophys Acta 2005;1723:270-81. View abstract.
  281. Tu YY, Tang AB, Watanabe N. The theaflavin monomers inhibit the cancer cells growth in vitro. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 2004;36:508-12. View abstract.
  282. Yanagida A, Shoji A, Shibusawa Y, et al. Analytical separation of tea catechins and food-related polyphenols by high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A 2006;1112:195-201. View abstract.
  283. Taubert D, Roesen R, Schomig E. Effect of cocoa and tea intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:626-34. View abstract.
  284. Lorenz M, Jochmann N, von Krosigk A, et al. Addition of milk prevents vascular protective effects of tea. Eur Heart J 2007;28:219-23. View abstract.
  285. Correa A, Stolley A, Liu Y. Prenatal tea consumption and risks of anencephaly and spina bifida. Ann Epidemiol 2000;10:476-7. View abstract.
  286. Kanis J, Johnell O, Gullberg B, et al. Risk factors for hip fracture in men from southern Europe: the MEDOS study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. Osteoporos Int 1999;9:45-54. View abstract.
  287. Iso H, Date C, Wakai K, et al; JACC Study Group. The relationship between green tea and total caffeine intake and risk for self-reported type 2 diabetes among Japanese adults. Ann Intern Med 2006;144:554-62. View abstract.
  288. Khokhar S, Magnusdottir SG. Total phenol, catechin, and caffeine contents of teas commonly consumed in the United kingdom. J Agric Food Chem 2002;50:565-70. View abstract.
  289. Robinson LE, Savani S, Battram DS, et al. Caffeine ingestion before an oral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2004;134:2528-33. View abstract.
  290. Lake CR, Rosenberg DB, Gallant S, et al. Phenylpropanolamine increases plasma caffeine levels. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990;47:675-85. View abstract.
  291. Forrest WH Jr, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. The interaction of caffeine with pentobarbital as a nighttime hypnotic. Anesthesiology 1972;36:37-41. View abstract.
  292. Raaska K, Raitasuo V, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of caffeine-containing versus decaffeinated coffee on serum clozapine concentrations in hospitalised patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004;94:13-8. View abstract.
  293. Watson JM, Sherwin RS, Deary IJ, et al. Dissociation of augmented physiological, hormonal and cognitive responses to hypoglycaemia with sustained caffeine use. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:447-54. View abstract.
  294. Winkelmayer WC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Curhan GC. Habitual caffeine intake and the risk of hypertension in women. JAMA 2005;294:2330-5. View abstract.
  295. Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:1-29. View abstract.
  296. Anderson BJ, Gunn TR, Holford NH, Johnson R. Caffeine overdose in a premature infant: clinical course and pharmacokinetics. Anaesth Intensive Care 1999;27:307-11. View abstract.
  297. Leson CL, McGuigan MA, Bryson SM. Caffeine overdose in an adolescent male. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1988;26:407-15. View abstract.
  298. Benowitz NL, Osterloh J, Goldschlager N, et al. Massive catecholamine release from caffeine poisoning. JAMA 1982;248:1097-8. View abstract.
  299. Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. Cognitive and physiological effects of an "energy drink:" an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:320-30. View abstract.
  300. Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P 3rd. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med 2005;118:998-1003.. View abstract.
  301. Larsson SC, Wolk A. Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based cohort. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:2683-6. View abstract.
  302. Schabath MB, Hernandez LM, Wu X, et al. Dietary phytoestrogens and lung cancer risk. JAMA 2005;294:1493-1504. View abstract.
  303. Gupta S, Saha B, Giri AK. Comparative antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of green tea and black tea: a review. Mutat Res 2002;512:37-65. View abstract.
  304. Ahmed S, Rahman A, Hasnain A, et al. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits the IL-1 beta-induced activity and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and nitric oxide synthase-2 in human chondrocytes. Free Radic Biol Med 2002;33:1097-105. View abstract.
  305. Petrie HJ, Chown SE, Belfie LM, et al. Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:22-8. View abstract.
  306. Lane JD, Barkauskas CE, Surwit RS, Feinglos MN. Caffeine impairs glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2047-8. View abstract.
  307. Vinson JA, Teufel K, Wu N. Green and black teas inhibit atherosclerosis by lipid, antioxidant, and fibrinolytic mechanisms. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52:3661-5. View abstract.
  308. Bischoff HA, Stahelin HB, Dick W, et al. Effects of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on falls: a randomized controlled trial. J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:343-51.. View abstract.
  309. Sato J, Nakata H, Owada E, et al. Influence of usual intake of dietary caffeine on single-dose kinetics of theophylline in healthy human subjects. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1993;44:295-8. View abstract.
  310. Cannon ME, Cooke CT, McCarthy JS. Caffeine-induced cardiac arrhythmia: an unrecognised danger of healthfood products. Med J Aust 2001;174:520-1. View abstract.
  311. Durrant KL. Known and hidden sources of caffeine in drug, food, and natural products. J Am Pharm Assoc 2002;42:625-37. View abstract.
  312. Beach CA, Mays DC, Guiler RC, et al. Inhibition of elimination of caffeine by disulfiram in normal subjects and recovering alcoholics. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1986;39:265-70. View abstract.
  313. Dews PB, O'Brien CP, Bergman J. Caffeine: behavioral effects of withdrawal and related issues. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1257-61. View abstract.
  314. Holmgren P, Norden-Pettersson L, Ahlner J. Caffeine fatalities--four case reports. Forensic Sci Int 2004;139:71-3. View abstract.
  315. Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. West J Med 1992;157:544-53. View abstract.
  316. Howell LL, Coffin VL, Spealman RD. Behavioral and physiological effects of xanthines in nonhuman primates. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1997;129:1-14. View abstract.
  317. Rakic V, Beilin LJ, Burke V. Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 1996;23:559-63. View abstract.
  318. Heseltine D, Dakkak M, woodhouse K, et al. The effect of caffeine on postprandial hypotension in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1991;39:160-4. View abstract.
  319. Castellanos FX, Rapoport JL. Effects of caffeine on development and behavior in infancy and childhood: a review of the published literature. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1235-42. View abstract.
  320. Institute of Medicine. Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309082587/html/index.html.
  321. Zheng XM, Williams RC. Serum caffeine levels after 24-hour abstention: clinical implications on dipyridamole Tl myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med Technol 2002;30:123-7. View abstract.
  322. Aqel RA, Zoghbi GJ, Trimm JR, et al. Effect of caffeine administered intravenously on intracoronary-administered adenosine-induced coronary hemodynamics in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:343-6. View abstract.
  323. Underwood DA. Which medications should be held before a pharmacologic or exercise stress test? Cleve Clin J Med 2002;69:449-50. View abstract.
  324. Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1243-55. View abstract.
  325. Stanek EJ, Melko GP, Charland SL. Xanthine interference with dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging. Pharmacother 1995;29:425-7. View abstract.
  326. Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000;39:127-53. View abstract.
  327. Wahllander A, Paumgartner G. Effect of ketoconazole and terbinafine on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;37:279-83. View abstract.
  328. Sanderink GJ, Bournique B, Stevens J, et al. Involvement of human CYP1A isoenzymes in the metabolism and drug interactions of riluzole in vitro. Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;282:1465-72. View abstract.
  329. Brown NJ, Ryder D, Branch RA. A pharmacodynamic interaction between caffeine and phenylpropanolamine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1991;50:363-71. View abstract.
  330. Abernethy DR, Todd EL. Impairment of caffeine clearance by chronic use of low-dose oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1985;28:425-8. View abstract.
  331. May DC, Jarboe CH, VanBakel AB, Williams WM. Effects of cimetidine on caffeine disposition in smokers and nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982;31:656-61. View abstract.
  332. Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, et al. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam 2003;20:1-30. View abstract.
  333. Massey LK, Whiting SJ. Caffeine, urinary calcium, calcium metabolism and bone. J Nutr 1993;123:1611-4. View abstract.
  334. Infante S, Baeza ML, Calvo M, et al. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine. Allergy 2003;58:681-2. View abstract.
  335. Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:1448-53.. View abstract.
  336. Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL, Perloff ES, et al. Interaction of flurbiprofen with cranberry juice, grape juice, tea, and fluconazole: in vitro and clinical studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006;79:125-33. View abstract.
  337. Nix D, Zelenitsky S, Symonds W, et al. The effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992;51:183.
  338. Johnell O, Gullberg B, Kanis JA. Risk factors for hip fracture in European women: the MEDOS Study. Mediterranean Osteoporosis Study. J Bone Miner Res 1995;10:1802-15.. View abstract.
  339. Kockler DR, McCarthy MW, Lawson CL. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:647-51.. View abstract.
  340. Grandjean AC, Reimers KJ, Bannick KE, Haven MC. The effect of caffeinated, non-caffeinated, caloric and non-caloric beverages on hydration. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:591-600.. View abstract.
  341. Kamimori GH, Penetar DM, Headley DB, et al. Effect of three caffeine doses on plasma catecholamines and alertness during prolonged wakefulness. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000;56:537-44.. View abstract.
  342. Dreher HM. The effect of caffeine reduction on sleep quality and well-being in persons with HIV. J Psychosom Res 2003;54:191-8.. View abstract.
  343. Massey LK. Is caffeine a risk factor for bone loss in the elderly? Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:569-70. View abstract.
  344. Warburton DM, Bersellini E, Sweeney E. An evaluation of a caffeinated taurine drink on mood, memory and information processing in healthy volunteers without caffeine abstinence. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2001;158:322-8.. View abstract.
  345. Nehlig A, Debry G. Consequences on the newborn of chronic maternal consumption of coffee during gestation and lactation: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:6-21.. View abstract.
  346. McGowan JD, Altman RE, Kanto WP Jr. Neonatal withdrawal symptoms after chronic maternal ingestion of caffeine. South Med J 1988;81:1092-4.. View abstract.
  347. Bara AI, Barley EA. Caffeine for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;4:CD001112.. View abstract.
  348. Bracken MB, Triche EW, Belanger K, et al. Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:456-66.. View abstract.
  349. Temme EH, Van Hoydonck PG. Tea consumption and iron status. Eur J Clin Nutr 2002;56:379-86.. View abstract.
  350. Checkoway H, Powers K, Smith-Weller T, et al. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake. Am J Epidemiol 2002;155:732-8.. View abstract.
  351. Michels KB, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and breast cancer incidence in a cohort of Swedish women. Ann Epidemiol 2002;12:21-6. View abstract.
  352. Su LJ, Arab L. Tea consumption and the reduced risk of colon cancer -- results from a national prospective cohort study. Public Health Nutr 2002;5:419-25.. View abstract.
  353. Terry P, Wolk A. Tea consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in Sweden. Nutr Cancer 2001;39:176-9.. View abstract.
  354. Leung LK, Su Y, Chen R, et al. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants. J Nutr 2001;131:2248-51.. View abstract.
  355. de Maat MP, Pijl H, Kluft C, Princen HM. Consumption of black and green tea had no effect on inflammation, haemostasis and endothelial markers in smoking healthy individuals. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:757-63.. View abstract.
  356. Hodgson JM, Croft KD, Mori TA, et al. Regular ingestion of tea does not inhibit in vivo lipid peroxidation in humans. J Nutr 2002;132:55-8.. View abstract.
  357. Zhang M, Binns CW, Lee AH. Tea consumption and ovarian cancer risk: a case-control study in China. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2002;11:713-8.. View abstract.
  358. Choi YT, Jung CH, Lee SR, et al. The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin gallate attenuates beta-amyloid-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons. Life Sci 2001;70:603-14.. View abstract.
  359. Tajima K, Tominaga S. Dietary habits and gastro-intestinal cancers: a comparative case-control study of stomach and large intestinal cancers in Nagoya, Japan. Jpn J Cancer Res 1985;76:705-16.. View abstract.
  360. Inoue M, Tajima K, Hirose K, et al. Tea and coffee consumption and the risk of digestive tract cancers: data from a comparative case-referent study in Japan. Cancer Causes Control 1998;9:209-16.. View abstract.
  361. Horner NK, Lampe JW. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:1368-80. View abstract.
  362. Duffy SJ, Vita JA, Holbrook M, et al. Effect of acute and chronic tea consumption on platelet aggregation in patients with coronary artery disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2001;21:1084-9. View abstract.
  363. Zijp IM, Korver O, Tijburg LB. Effect of tea and other dietary factors on iron absorption. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2000;40:371-98. View abstract.
  364. Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:1399-403. View abstract.
  365. Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D. Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:992-5.. View abstract.
  366. Esimone CO, Adikwu MU, Nwafor SV, Okolo CO. Potential use of tea extract as a complementary mouthwash: comparative evaluation of two commercial samples. J Altern Complement Med 2001;7:523-7. View abstract.
  367. Shahrzad S, Aoyagi K, Winter A, et al. Pharmacokinetics of gallic acid and its relative bioavailability from tea in healthy humans. J Nutr 2001;131:1207-10. View abstract.
  368. Geleijnse JM, Witteman JC, Launer LJ, et al. Tea and coronary heart disease: protection through estrogen-like activity? Arch Intern Med 2000;160:3328-9. View abstract.
  369. Peters U, Poole C, Arab L. Does tea affect cardiovascular disease? A meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol 2001;154:495-503. View abstract.
  370. Mukamal KJ, Maclure M, Muller JE, et al. Tea consumption and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation 2002;105:2476-81. View abstract.
  371. Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, van der Kuip DA, et al. Inverse association of tea and flavonoid intakes with incident myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:880-6. View abstract.
  372. Wu CH, Yang YC, Yao WJ, et al. Epidemiological evidence of increased bone mineral density in habitual tea drinkers. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1001-6. View abstract.
  373. Cronin JR. Green tea extract stokes thermogenesis: will it replace ephedra? Altern Comp Ther 2000;6:296-300.
  374. Ferrini RL, Barrett-Connor E. Caffeine intake and endogenous sex steroid levels in postmenopausal women. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996:144:642-4. View abstract.
  375. Hartman TJ, Tangrea JA, Pietinen P, et al. Tea and coffee consumption and risk of colon and rectal cancer in middle-aged Finnish men. Nutr Cancer 1998;31:41-8. View abstract.
  376. Olthof MR, Hollman PC, Zock PL, Katan MB. Consumption of high doses of chlorogenic acid, present in coffee, or of black tea increases plasma total homocysteine concentrations in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:532-8. View abstract.
  377. Ardlie NG, Glew G, Schultz BG, Schwartz CJ. Inhibition and reversal of platelet aggregation by methyl xanthines. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1967;18:670-3. View abstract.
  378. Ali M, Afzal M. A potent inhibitor of thrombin stimulated platelet thromboxane formation from unprocessed tea. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1987;27:9-13. View abstract.
  379. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, et al. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet 1993;342:1007-1011. View abstract.
  380. Keli SO, Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Kromhout D. Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke: the Zutphen study. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:637-42. View abstract.
  381. Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1833-8. View abstract.
  382. Hegarty VM, May HM, Khaw K. Tea drinking and bone mineral density in older women. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1003-7. View abstract.
  383. Sinclair CJ, Geiger JD. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000;40:71-9. View abstract.
  384. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Croft KD, et al. Acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1103-7. View abstract.
  385. Leenen R, Roodenburg AJ, Tijburg LB, et al. A single dose of tea with or without milk increases plasma antioxidant activity in humans. Eur J Clin Nutr 2000;54:87-92. View abstract.
  386. American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk (RE9403). Available at: http://aappolicy.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/pediatrics;108/3/776.pdf.
  387. Lloyd T, Johnson-Rollings N, Eggli DF, et al. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes: a longitudinal investigation. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:256-61. View abstract.
  388. Watson JM, Jenkins EJ, Hamilton P, et al. Influence of caffeine on the frequency and perception of hypoglycemia in free-living patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:455-9. View abstract.
  389. Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of parkinson disease. JAMA 2000;283:2674-9. View abstract.
  390. Hagg S, Spigset O, Mjorndal T, Dahlqvist R. Effect of caffeine on clozapine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000;49:59-63. View abstract.
  391. Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: http://ecfr.gpoaccess.gov/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=ecfr&sid= 786bafc6f6343634fbf79fcdca7061e1&rgn=div5&view= text&node=21:3.0.1.1.13&idno=21
  392. Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:216-34. View abstract.
  393. Briggs GB, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
  394. Hindmarch I, Quinlan PT, Moore KL, Parkin C. The effects of black tea and other beverages on aspects of cognition and psychomotor performance. Psychopharmacol 1998;139:230-8. View abstract.
  395. Sesso HD, Gaziano JM, Buring JE, et al. Coffee and tea intake and the risk of myocardial infarction. Am J Epidemiol 1999;149:162-7. View abstract.
  396. Durlach PJ. The effects of a low dose of caffeine on cognitive performance. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1998;140:116-9. View abstract.
  397. Kaegi E. Unconventional therapies for cancer: 2. Green tea. The Task Force on Alternative Therapies of the Canadian Breast Cancer Research Initiative. CMAJ 1998;158:1033-5. View abstract.
  398. Curhan GC, Willett WC, Speizer FE, Stamfer MJ. Beverage use and risk of kidney stones in women. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:534-40. View abstract.
  399. Li N, Sun Z, Han C, Chen J. The chemopreventive effects of tea on human oral precancerous mucosa lesions. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:218-24. View abstract.
  400. Weisburger JH. Tea and health: the underlying mechanisms. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1999;220:271-5. View abstract.
  401. Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:316-24. View abstract.
  402. Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Hofman A, et al. Tea flavonoids may protect against atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2170-4. View abstract.
  403. FDA. Proposed rule: dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Available at: www.verity.fda.gov (Accessed 25 January 2000).
  404. Akhtar S, Wood G, Rubin JS, et al. Effect of caffeine on the vocal folds: a pilot study. J Laryngol Otol 1999;113:341-5. View abstract.
  405. Dews PB, Curtis GL, Hanford KJ, O'Brien CP. The frequency of caffeine withdrawal in a population-based survey and in a controlled, blinded pilot experiment. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:1221-32. View abstract.
  406. Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:831-9. View abstract.
  407. Migliardi JR, Armellino JJ, Friedman M, et al. Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant in tension headache. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1994;56:576-86. View abstract.
  408. Pollock BG, Wylie M, Stack JA, et al. Inhibition of caffeine metabolism by estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:936-40. View abstract.
  409. Wemple RD, Lamb DR, McKeever KH. Caffeine vs caffeine-free sports drinks: effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:40-6. View abstract.
  410. Stookey JD. The diuretic effects of alcohol and caffeine and total water intake misclassification. Eur J Epidemiol 1999;15:181-8. View abstract.
  411. Fernandes O, Sabharwal M, Smiley T, et al. Moderate to heavy caffeine consumption during pregnancy and relationship to spontaneous abortion and abnormal fetal growth: a meta-analysis. Reprod Toxicol 1998;12:435-44. View abstract.
  412. Eskenazi B. Caffeine—filtering the facts. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1688-9. View abstract.
  413. Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, DerSimonian R, et al. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1639-44. View abstract.
  414. The National Toxicology Program (NTP). Caffeine. Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). Available at: http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/common/caffeine.html.
  415. Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:694-700. View abstract.
  416. Chiu KM. Efficacy of calcium supplements on bone mass in postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;54:M275-80. View abstract.
  417. Vandeberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452-7. View abstract.
  418. Wallach J. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests. A synopsis of Laboratory Medicine. Fifth ed; Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1992.
  419. Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. J Hypertens 1999;17:457-63. View abstract.
  420. Wakabayashi K, Kono S, Shinchi K, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: A study of self-defense officials in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 1998;14:669-73. View abstract.
  421. Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, et al. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol 2001;44:425-32. View abstract.
  422. Vahedi K, Domingo V, Amarenco P, Bousser MG. Ischemic stroke in a sportsman who consumed MaHuang extract and creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. View abstract.
  423. Joeres R, Klinker H, Heusler H, et al. Influence of mexiletine on caffeine elimination. Pharmacol Ther 1987;33:163-9. View abstract.
  424. Ascherio A, Zhang SM, Hernan MA, et al. Prospective study of caffeine intake and risk of Parkinson's disease in men and women. Proceedings 125th Ann Mtg Am Neurological Assn. Boston, MA: 2000;Oct 15-18:42 (abstract 53).
  425. Merhav H, Amitai Y, Palti H, Godfrey S. Tea drinking and microcytic anemia in infants. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;41:1210-3. View abstract.
  426. Kulhanek F, Linde OK, Meisenberg G. Precipitation of antipsychotic drugs in interaction with coffee or tea. Lancet 1979;2:1130. View abstract.
  427. Lasswell WL Jr, Weber SS, Wilkins JM. In vitro interaction of neuroleptics and tricylic antidepressants with coffee, tea, and gallotannic acid. J Pharm Sci 1984;73:1056-8. View abstract.
  428. Jefferson JW. Lithium tremor and caffeine intake: two cases of drinking less and shaking more. J Clin Psychiatry 1988;49:72-3. View abstract.
  429. Mester R, Toren P, Mizrachi I, et al. Caffeine withdrawal increases lithium blood levels. Biol Psychiatry 1995;37:348-50. View abstract.
  430. Healy DP, Polk RE, Kanawati L, et al. Interaction between oral ciprofloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:474-8. View abstract.
  431. Carbo M, Segura J, De la Torre R, et al. Effect of quinolones on caffeine disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989;45:234-40. View abstract.
  432. Harder S, Fuhr U, Staib AH, Wolff T. Ciprofloxacin-caffeine: a drug interaction established using in vivo and in vitro investigations. Am J Med 1989;87:89S-91S. View abstract.
  433. Foster S, Duke JA. Eastern/Central Medicinal Plants. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1990.
  434. Hertog MGL, Sweetnam PM, Fehily AM, et al. Antioxidant flavonols and ischemic heart disease in a Welsh population of men: the Caerphilly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 1997;65:1489-94. View abstract.
  435. McKevoy GK, ed. AHFS Drug Information. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, 1998.
Show more references
Show fewer references
Last reviewed - 03/20/2012




Page last updated: 27 October 2014