Dilated cardiomyopathy is a condition in which the heart becomes weakened and enlarged. As a result, the heart cannot pump enough blood to the rest of the body.
There are several different types of cardiomyopathy. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the most common form.
Heart disease (which is caused by a narrowing of the arteries) and poorly controlled high blood pressure are the most common causes of dilated cardiomyopathy. These problems lead to a weakened and enlarged heart muscle.
There are many other causes of dilated cardiomyopathy, including:
This condition can affect anyone at any age. However, it is most common in adult men.
Symptoms of heart failure are most common. Usually, they develop slowly over time. However, sometimes symptoms start very suddenly and are severe.
Common symptoms are:
During the exam the health care provider may find:.
A number of laboratory tests may be done to determine the cause:
Heart enlargement or other problems with the structure and function of the heart (such as weak squeezing) may show up on these tests:
Heart biopsy, in which a small piece of heart muscle is removed, may be needed depending on the cause. However, this is uncommon.
Knowing your body and the symptoms that your heart failure is getting worse will help you stay healthier and out of the hospital. At home, watch for changes in your symptoms, heart rate, pulse, blood pressure, and weight.
Limiting how much you drink and how much salt (sodium) you eat can help prevent or reduce these symptoms.
Most people who have heart failure need to take medicines. Some medicines treat your symptoms. Others may help prevent your heart failure from becoming worse or may prevent other heart problems.
Procedures and surgeries you may need are:
For advanced cardiomyopathy:
Chronic heart failure becomes worse over time. Many people who have heart failure will die from the condition. Thinking about the type of care you may want at the end of life and discussing these issues with loved ones and your health care provider is important.
Heart failure is most often a chronic illness, which may get worse over time. Some people develop severe heart failure, in which medicines, other treatments, and surgery no longer help. Many people are at risk for deadly heart rhythms, and may need medicines or a defibrillator.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of cardiomyopathy.
If chest pain, palpitations, or faintness develop seek emergency medical treatment immediately.
Cardiomyopathy - dilated
Hare JM. The dilated, restrictive, and infiltrative cardiomyopathies. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 68.
Updated by: Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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