Temporal arteritis is inflammation and damage to the blood vessels that supply blood to the head.
If the inflammation affects the arteries in your neck, upper body and arms, it is called giant cell arteritis.
Temporal, giant cell, and cranial arteritis occur when one or more arteries become inflamed, swollen, and tender.
Temporal arteritis commonly occurs in the the arteries around the temples (temporal arteries). These vessels branch off from the carotid artery in the neck. However, the condition can occur in medium-to-large arteries in other places in the body.
The cause of the condition is unknown. It is believed to be due in part to a faulty immune response. The disorder has been linked to severe infections and the use of high doses of antibiotics.
The problem may develop with or following another inflammatory disorder known as polymyalgia rheumatica. Giant cell arteritis almost always occurs in people over age 50. It is rare in people of African descent. The condition may run in families.
Some common symptoms of this problem are:
Other symptoms can feel like a bad flu, such as:
Problems with eyesight may occur, and at times may begin suddenly. These problems include:
Other symptoms that may occur with this disease, including:
The doctor will examine your head.
Blood tests may include:
Blood tests alone cannot provide a diagnosis. You will need to have a biopsy (tissue sample) from the involved artery. The biopsy is done on an outpatient basis.
You may also have other tests, including:
Receiving treatment right away is key to preventing severe problems such as blindness or even stroke.
Most of the time, you will receive corticosteroids medicines you take by mouth. These medicines are often started even before a biopsy is done. Your doctor may also tell you to take aspirin.
Most people begin to feel better within a few days after starting treatment. However, you will need to take medicine for 1 - 2 years. The dose of corticosteroids will be cut back very slowly.
Long-term treatment with corticosteroid medicines can make bones thinner and increase your chance of a fracture. You will need to take the following steps to protect your bone strength.
You may also need to take other medications that suppress the immune system.
Most people make a full recovery, but treatment may be needed for 1 to 2 years or longer. The condition may return at a later date.
Damage to other blood vessels in the body such as aneurysms (ballooning of the blood vessels) may occur. This damage can lead to a stroke in the future.
Call your health care provider if you have a throbbing headache that does not go away, and other symptoms of temporal arteritis.
There is no known prevention.
Arteritis - temporal; Cranial arteritis; Giant cell arteritis
Hellmann DB. Giant cell arteritis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and Takayasu's arteritis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Welley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 88.
Updated by: Matthew M. Cooper, MD, FACS, Medical Director, Cardiovascular Surgery, HealthEast Care System, St. Paul, MN. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
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