Rhabdomyolysis is the breakdown of muscle tissue that leads to the release of muscle fiber contents into the blood. These substances are harmful to the kidney and often cause kidney damage.
When muscle is damaged, a protein called myoglobin is released into the bloodstream. It is then filtered out of the body by the kidneys. Myoglobin breaks down into substances that can damage kidney cells.
Rhabdomyolysis may be caused by injury or other any condition that damages skeletal muscle.
Problems that may lead to this disease include:
Other symptoms that may occur with this disease:
A physical exam will show tender or damaged skeletal muscles.
The following tests may be done:
This disease may also affect the results of the following tests:
You will need to get fluids containing bicarbonate to help prevent kidney damage. You may need to get fluids through a vein (IV). Some people may need kidney dialysis.
Your doctor may prescribe medicines including diuretics and bicarbonate (if there is enough urine output).
The outcome depends on the amount of kidney damage. Acute kidney failure occurs in many patients. Getting treated soon after rhabdomyolysis begins will reduce the risk of permanent kidney damage.
People with milder cases may return to their normal activities within a few weeks to a month. However, some people continue to have problems with fatigue and muscle pain.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of rhabdomyolysis.
Drink plenty of fluids after strenuous exercise. This will help to dilute your urine and flush any myoglobin that is released from your muscles out of your kidneys. Also drink a lot of fluids after any condition that may have damaged skeletal muscle.
O'Connor FG, Deuster PA. Rhabdomyolysis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 115.
Shafuddin AA, Weisbord SD, Palevsky PM, et al. Acute kidney injury. In: Taal MW, Chertow GM, Marsden PA et al. eds. Brenner and Rector's The Kidney. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 30.
Updated by: Scott Miller, MD, Urologist in private practice in Atlanta, Georgia. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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