Anemia is a condition in which the body does not have enough healthy red blood cells. Red blood cells provide oxygen to the body's tissues.
Normally, red blood cells last for about 120 days before the body gets rid of them. In hemolytic anemia, red blood cells in the blood are destroyed earlier than normal.
Immune hemolytic anemia occurs when antibodies form against the body's own red blood cells and destroy them, because the immune system mistakenly recognizes these blood cells as foreign.
Possible causes include:
When antibodies form against red blood cells for no reason, it is called idiopathic autoimmune hemolytic anemia.
The antibodies may also be caused by:
Risk factors are related to the causes.
You may not have symptoms if the anemia is mild. If the problem develops slowly, symptoms that may occur first include:
If the anemia gets worse, symptoms may include:
The first treatment tried is usually a steroid medication, such as prednisone. If steroid medications do not improve the condition, treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or removal of the spleen (splenectomy) may be considered.
You may receive treatment to suppress your immune system if you do not respond to steroids and splenectomy. Medications such as azathioprine (Imuran), cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan), and rituximab (Rituxan) have been used.
Blood transfusions are given with caution, because the blood may not be compatible and it may cause more red blood cell destruction.
The disease may start quickly and be very serious, or it may remain mild and not need specific treatment.
In most people, steroids or splenectomy can control anemia. In others, treatment can usually partially control the anemia.
Severe anemia rarely leads to death. Severe infection may occur as a complication of treatment with steroids, other medications that suppress the immune system, or splenectomy, because these treatments impair the body's ability to fight infection.
Call your health care provider if you have unexplained fatigue or chest pain, or signs of infection.
Screening for antibodies in donated blood and in the recipient may prevent hemolytic anemia related to blood transfusions.
Anemia - immune hemolytic; Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA)
Schwartz RS. Autoimmune and intravascular hemolytic anemias. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 163.
Powers A, Silberstein LE. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia. In: Hoffman R, Benz Ej, Shattil SS, et al, eds. Hematology: Basic Principles and Practice. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2008:chap 47.
Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.
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