Cardiomyopathy is a weakening of the heart muscle or another problem with the heart muscle. It often occurs when the heart cannot pump as well as it should, or with other heart function problems.
Most patients with cardiomyopathy have heart failure.
Different types of cardiomyopathy exist, and they have many different causes:
When possible, the cause of cardiomyopathy is treated. Medicines and lifestyle changes are often needed to treat the symptoms of heart failure, angina, and abnormal heart rhythms.
Different procedures or surgeries may also be used:
Recently, implantable artificial heart pumps have been developed. However, very few patients are able to have this advanced treatment.
The outlook depends on many different things, including:
Heart failure is usually a long-term (chronic) illness. It may get worse over time. Some people develop severe heart failure that medicines, surgery, and other treatments can no longer help.
Patients with certain types of cardiomyopathy are at risk for dangerous heart rhythm problems.
Hare JM. The dilated, restrictive, and infiltrative cardiomyopathies. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald's Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 68.
Wexler RK, Elton T, Pleister A, Feldman D. Cardiomyopathy: An overview. Am Fam Physician. 2009;79:778-784.
Updated by: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc. Michael A. Chen, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, Washington.
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