This test measures the level of abnormal proteins called Bence-Jones proteins in the urine.
A clean-catch urine sample is needed. The clean-catch method is used to prevent germs from the penis or vagina from getting into a urine sample. To collect your urine, the health care provider may give you a special clean-catch kit that contains a cleansing solution and sterile wipes. Follow instructions exactly so that the results are accurate.
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
Bence-Jones proteins are a part of regular antibodies called light chains. These proteins are not normally in urine. Sometimes, when your body makes too many antibodies, the level of light chains also rises. Bence-Jones proteins are small enough to be filtered out by the kidneys. Then they spill over into the urine.
Your doctor may order this test:
Urine immunofixation is a better test for detecting Bence-Jones proteins.
A normal result means no Bence-Jones proteins are found in your urine.
Bence-Jones proteins are rarely found in urine. If they are, it is usually associated with multiple myeloma.
An abnormal result may also be due to:
Immunoglobulin light chains - urine; Urine Bence-Jones protein
McPherson RA, Ben-Ezra J. Basic examination of urine. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 22nd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 28.
Updated by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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