An audiologist is trained to test a baby's hearing and provide follow-up care to those with hearing problems. Most newborns have their hearing tested before leaving the hospital. Your health care providers will determine which hearing test is best. Hearing tests may also be done after leaving the hospital.
A cardiologist is a doctor that has special training in the diagnosis and treatment of heart and blood vessel disease. The cardiologist may examine the baby, order tests, and read test results. Tests to diagnose heart conditions may include:
If the structure of the heart is not normal due to a birth defect, a cardiologist might work with a cardiovascular surgeon to perform surgery on the heart.
A cardiovascular (heart) surgeon is a doctor who has special training in doing surgery to correct or treat defects of the heart.
Sometimes, surgery can correct a heart problem. Other times, complete correction is not possible and surgery is done just to make the heart work as best as possible. The surgeon will work closely with the cardiologist to care for the baby before and after surgery.
A dermatologist is a doctor who has special training in diseases and conditions of the skin, hair, and nails. Such a doctor might be asked to look at a rash or skin lesion on a baby in the hospital. In some cases, the dermatologist might take a sample of the skin. The dermatologist might also work with the pathologist to read the biopsy results.
A developmental pediatrician is a doctor who has been specially trained to diagnose and care for infants who have trouble doing what other children their age can do. This type of doctor will order or perform developmental tests. The doctor can also help you find locate resources near your home that provide therapies to help infants and children in meeting development milestones. Developmental pediatricians work closely with nurse practitioners, occupational therapists, physical therapists, and sometimes neurologists.
A dietician has special training in nutritional support (feeding). This type of health care provider may also specialize in pediatric (children’s) nutritional care. Dieticians help determine if your baby is getting enough nutrients, and may recommend some choices of nutrition that can be given through the blood or a feeding tube.
An endocrinologist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of infants with hormone problems. Endocrinologists might be asked to see babies who have problems with the level of salt or sugar in the body, or who have problems with the development of certain glands and sexual organs.
A gastroenterologist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of infants with problems of the digestive system (stomach and intestines) and liver. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has digestive or liver problems. Tests such as x-rays, liver function tests, or abdominal ultrasounds might be done.
A geneticist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of infants with congenital (inherited) conditions, including chromosomal problems or syndromes. Tests, such as chromosome analysis, metabolic studies, and ultrasounds may be done.
A hematologist-oncologist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of blood disorders and types of cancer. This type of doctor might be asked to see a patient for bleeding problems due to low platelets or other clotting factors. Tests such as a complete blood count or clotting studies might be ordered.
INFECTIOUS DISEASE SPECIALIST
An infectious disease specialist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of infections. They might be asked to see a baby that develops unusual or serious infections. Infections in babies can include blood infections or infections of the brain and spinal cord.
MATERNAL-FETAL MEDICINE SPECIALIST
A maternal-fetal medicine doctor (perinatologist) is an obstetrician with special training in the care of high-risk pregnant women. High-risk means there is an increased chance of problems. This type of doctor can care for women who have premature labor, multiple gestations (twins or more), high blood pressure, or diabetes.
NEONATAL NURSE PRACTITIONER (NNP)
Neonatal nurse practitioners (NNP) are highly skilled professionals with great experience in the care of newborn infants. The NNP works along with a neonatologist to diagnose and treat health problems in babies in the NICU. The NNP also performs procedures to help diagnose and manage certain conditions.
A nephrologist is a doctor with special training in diagnosing and treating problems with the kidneys and urinary system. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has problems in the development of the kidneys or to help care for a baby whose kidneys do not work properly. If a baby needs kidney surgery, the nephrologist will work with a surgeon or urologist.
A neurologist is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the brain, nerves, and muscles. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has seizures or bleeding in the brain. If the infant needs surgery for a problem in the brain or spinal cord, the neurologist might work with a neurosurgeon.
A neurosurgeon is a doctor trained as a surgeon who operates on the brain and spinal cord. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has problems such as spina bifida, skull fracture, or hydrocephalus.
An obstetrician is a doctor with special training in taking care of pregnant women. This type of doctor might also assist women who are trying to get pregnant and follow women with medical conditions such as diabetes or decreased fetal growth.
An ophthalmologist is a doctor with special training in diagnosing and treating eye problems. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has birth defects of the eye.
An ophthalmologist will look at the inside of the baby's eye, which can diagnose retinopathy of prematurity. In some cases, this type of doctor might perform laser or other corrective surgery on the eyes.
An orthopedic surgeon is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions involving bones. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has birth defects of the arms or legs, hip dislocation (dysplasia), or fractures of the bones. To see the bones, orthopedic surgeons might order ultrasounds or x-rays. If needed, they can perform surgery or place casts.
An ostomy nurse is a nurse with special training in the care of skin wounds and openings in the belly area through which the end of the intestine or the collecting system of the kidney stick out. Such an opening is called an ostomy. Ostomies are the result of surgery needed to treat many intestinal problems, such as necrotizing enterocolitis. In some cases, ostomy nurses are consulted to help care for complicated wounds.
OTOLARYNGOLOGIST/EAR NOSE THROAT (ENT) SPECIALIST
An otolaryngologist is also called an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist. This is a doctor with special training in the diagnosis and treatment of problems with the ear, nose, throat, and airways. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby who has problems with breathing or a blockage of the nose.
OCCUPATIONAL/PHYSICAL THERAPISTS (OT/PT)
Occupational and physical therapists (OT/PT) are professionals with advanced training in working with infants with developmental needs. This work includes neurobehavioral assessments (postural tone, reflexes, movement patterns, and responses to handling). In addition, the OT/PT professionals will help determine a baby's nipple-feeding readiness and oral-motor skills. These types of health care providers might also be asked to provide family education and support.
A pathologist is a doctor with special training in laboratory testing and examination of body tissues. They supervise the laboratory where many medical tests are performed. They also examine tissues under the microscope that are obtained during a surgery or an autopsy.
A pediatrician is a doctor with special training in the care of infants and children. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby in the NICU, but is usually the primary care provider for a healthy newborn. A pediatrician also provides primary care for most babies after they leave the NICU.
A phlebotomist is a specially trained professional who takes your blood. This type of health care provider may take the blood from a vein or a baby's heel.
A pulmonologist is a doctor with special training in diagnosing and treating respiratory (breathing) conditions. Even though the neonatologist cares for many infants with respiratory problems, the pulmonologist might be asked to see babies who have unusual conditions of the lung.
A radiologist is a doctor with special training in obtaining and reading x-rays and other imaging tests such as barium enemas and ultrasounds.
RESPIRATORY THERAPIST (RT)
Respiratory therapists (RTs) are trained to deliver multiple treatments to the heart and lungs. RTs are actively involved with babies having breathing problems such as respiratory distress syndrome or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An RT might become an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) specialist with further training.
Social workers are professionals with special education and training to determine the psychosocial, emotional, and financial needs of families. They help families find and coordinate resources in the hospital and community that will help to meet their needs. Social workers also help with discharge planning.
A urologist is a doctor with special training in diagnosing and treating conditions involving the urinary system. This type of doctor might be asked to see a baby with conditions such as hydronephrosis or hypospadias. With some conditions, they will work closely with a nephrologist.
An x-ray technician is trained in taking x-rays. X-rays can be of the chest, stomach, or pelvis. Sometimes solutions are used to make body parts easier to see, as with barium enemas. X-rays of bones are also commonly performed on babies for a variety of reasons.
Updated by: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc., and Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine.
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