Testicular failure occurs when the testicles cannot produce sperm or male hormones.
Testicular failure is uncommon. Causes include:
The following can increase the risk of testicular failure:
Men may also notice they do not need to shave as often.
A physical exam may show:
Testicular failure and low testosterone level may be hard to diagnose in older men because testosterone levels normally decrease slowly with age.
Male hormone supplements may treat some forms of testicular failure. Men who take testosterone replacement therapy need to be carefully monitored by a doctor. Testosterone may cause the following:
Avoiding the medicine or activity that is causing the problem may bring testicle function back to normal.
Many forms of testicular failure cannot be reversed. Hormone replacement therapy can help reverse symptoms, although it may not restore fertility.
Testicular failure that begins before puberty will stop normal body growth. It can prevent adult male characteristics (such as deep voice and beard) from developing.
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have symptoms of testicular failure.
Avoid higher-risk activities if possible.
Primary hypogonadism - male
Matsumoto AM, Bremner WJ. Testicular disorders. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 19.
Swerdloff RS, Wang C. The testis and male sexual function. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 242.
Updated by: Brent Wisse, MD, Associate Professor of Medicine, Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology & Nutrition, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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