Ankylosing spondylitis is a long-term type of arthritis. It most commonly affects the bones and joints at the base of the spine where it connects with the pelvis.
These joints become swollen and inflamed. Over time, the affected spinal bones join together.
The cause of ankylosing spondylitis is unknown. Genes seem to play a role.
The disease most often begins between ages 20 and 40, but it may begin before age 10. It affects more males than females.
The disease starts with low back pain that comes and goes. Low back pain is present most of the time as the condition progresses.
Other parts of your body that may be stiff and painful include:
Fatigue is also a common symptom.
Less common symptoms include:
Tests may include:
Your doctor may prescribe nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to reduce swelling and pain.
You may also need stronger medicines to control pain and swelling, such as:
Surgery may be done if pain or joint damage is severe.
Exercises can help improve posture and breathing. Lying flat on your back at night can help you keep a normal posture.
The course of the disease is hard to predict. Symptoms may come and go at any time. Most people are able to function unless they have a lot of damage to the hips.
Rarely, people may have problems with:
Call your health care provider if:
Inman RD. The spondyloarthropathies. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 273.
Sidiropoulos PI, Hatemi G, Song IH, et al. Evidence-based recommendations for the management of ankylosing spondylitis: systematic literature search of the 3E Initiative in Rheumatology involving a broad panel of experts and practising rheumatologists. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2008. 47(3):355-61.
Yu D, Lories R, Inman RD. Pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis and reactive arthritis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 74.
Updated by: Gordon A. Starkebaum, MD, Professor of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc., Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, Stephanie Slon, and Nissi Wang.
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