Vertigo is a sensation of motion or spinning that is often described as dizziness.
Vertigo is not the same as light-headedness. People with vertigo feel as though they are actually spinning or moving, or that the world is spinning around them.
There are two types of vertigo, peripheral and central vertigo.
Peripheral vertigo is due to a problem in the part of the inner ear that controls balance. These areas are called the vestibular labyrinth or semicircular canals. The problem may also involve the vestibular nerve, which connects the inner ear to the brain stem.
Peripheral vertigo may be caused by:
Central vertigo is due to a problem in the brain, usually in the brain stem or the back part of the brain (cerebellum).
Central vertigo may be caused by:
The main symptom is a sensation that you or the room is moving or spinning. The spinning sensation may cause nausea and vomiting.
Other symptoms can include:
If you have vertigo due to problems in the brain (central vertigo), you may have other symptoms, including:
Examination by the doctor may show:
Tests that may be done include:
The cause of any brain disorder causing vertigo should be identified and treated when possible.
To help resolve your symptoms, the health care provider may perform the Epley maneuver on you. This involves placing your head in different positions to help reset the balance organ.
You may be prescribed medicines to treat symptoms of peripheral vertigo, such as nausea and vomiting.
Physical therapy may help improve balance problems.
To prevent worsening of symptoms during an episode of vertigo, try the following:
You may need help walking when symptoms occur. Avoid hazardous activities such as driving, operating heavy machinery, and climbing until 1 week after symptoms have disappeared.
Other treatment depends on the cause of the vertigo. Surgery may be suggested in some cases.
Vertigo can interfere with driving, work, and lifestyle. It can also cause falls, which can lead to many injuries, including hip fractures.
Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you have vertigo that does not go away or interferes with your daily activities. If you have never had vertigo before or if you have vertigo with other symptoms (such as double vision, slurred speech, or incoordination), call 911.
Peripheral vertigo; Central vertigo
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Kerber KA, Baloh RW. Neuro-otology: diagnosis and management of neuro-otoligical disorders. In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 37.
Updated by: Joseph V. Campellone, M.D., Department of Neurology, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Bethanne Black, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team.
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