A person with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet protects the liver from working too hard and helps it to function as well as possible.
Proteins normally help the body repair tissue. They also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells.
In people with severely damaged livers, proteins are not properly processed. Waste products may build up and affect the brain. Restricting the amount of protein in the diet can reduce the chance that toxic waste products will build up.
The body stores carbohydrates in the form of glycogen. Increasing carbohydrates in the diet helps preserve glycogen stores. People with liver disease may need to increase their intake of carbohydrates in proportion to protein.
Salt in the diet may worsen fluid buildup and swelling in the liver, because salt causes the body to retain water. Most people with severe liver disease must restrict the amount of sodium in their diet.
The liver is involved in the metabolism of all foods. Metabolism is the conversion of food into energy.
Changing the diet by increasing or decreasing proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and vitamins may further affect the function of the diseased liver, especially its protein and vitamin production.
Because liver disease can affect the absorption of food and the production of proteins and vitamins, your diet may influence your weight, appetite, and the amounts of vitamins in your body. Do not limit protein too much, because it can cause deficiencies of certain amino acids.
The dietary recommendations may vary, depending on how well your liver is working. It is very important to be under the care of a doctor, because malnutrition can lead to serious problems.
In general, recommendations for patients with severe liver disease may include:
Usually, there are no cautions against specific foods.
If you have questions about your diet or symptoms, contact your doctor.
DeLegge MH. Nutrition in gastrointestinal diseases. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2006: chap 16.
Updated by: A.D.A.M. Editorial Team: David Zieve, MD, MHA, and David R. Eltz. Previously reviewed by Alison Evert, MS, RD, CDE, Nutritionist, University of Washington Medical Center Diabetes Care Center, Seattle, Washington; and George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California (5/16/2011).
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