Premenstrual syndrome, or PMS, is a group of symptoms that start one to two weeks before your period. Most women have at least some symptoms of PMS, and the symptoms go away after their periods start. For some women, the symptoms are severe enough to interfere with their lives. They have a type of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD.
Common PMS symptoms include
- Breast swelling and tenderness
- Bloating and weight gain
- Pain - headache or joint pain
- Food cravings
- Irritability, mood swings, crying spells, depression
No one knows what causes PMS, but hormonal changes trigger the symptoms. No single PMS treatment works for everyone. Over-the-counter pain relievers such as ibuprofen, aspirin or naproxen may help ease cramps, headaches, backaches and breast tenderness. Exercising, getting enough sleep, and avoiding salt, caffeine, and alcohol can also help.
Dept. of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD) (American Academy of Family Physicians) Available in Spanish
- Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): Different from PMS? (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Mittelschmerz (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Water Retention: Relieve This Premenstrual Symptom (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)
- Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy (National Cancer Institute)
- ClinicalTrials.gov: Premenstrual Syndrome (National Institutes of Health)
Journal ArticlesReferences and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)
- Article: Alterations of GABA and glutamate-glutamine levels in premenstrual dysphoric disorder:...
- Article: The effects of vitamin B1 on ameliorating the premenstrual syndrome...
- Article: Menstrual problems and associated factors among students of Bahir Dar...
- Premenstrual Syndrome -- see more articles